Skip to main content

Full text of "Saint Wilfrid at Hexham"

See other formats


A . t . 3 







(JANUARY, 1915, TO DECEMBER, 1916) 


\ \ 




S.3, O- 




Inscribed bronze vessels of Roman date found in Upper 

Weardale . . . . 9 

Roman altars discovered at Chesterholm . . .. .. 12 

Seaham church, niches in south wall of chancel . . . . 34 

Durham treasury, ancient notarial marks in . . . . 56 

Caervoran, an inscribed Roman measure of bronze from . . 98 
Newcastle, St. Nicholas's church and Blackgate, from 

Castle top 105 

,, St. Nicholas's church font . . . . . . 116 

,, Blackgate and south postern .. .. .. 118 

,, All Saints' church, font and inscribed boss . . 120 

,, interior of panelled room, 38 Sandhill . . 122 

Armour, medieval, . . . . . . . . 136, 137, 142, i43v 

Witton Gilbert, prehistoric stone implement found at . . 152 , 

Portrait of the late John Gibson . . . . . . . . 162 

Brass of Cardinal Prince Frederick in Cracow Cathedral 

church, Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 v 

Bronze hand ; and fragments of Roman hand at Chesters . . i68v 

Brass of bishop Hallum of Salisbury . . . . . . 173 

,, of bishop John.Avantage at Amiens ; and of bishop 

Bruno de Warendorp, at Liibeck . . . . . . 1 74 / 

Neolithic Stone Implements from Upper Weardale . . 1 78 * 

Knitting Sheaths . . . . . . . . 202, 203 

Effigies in Elf ord church, Staffordshire . . . . . . 204 v 

,, in churches of Brought on, Oxon., and Denning- 

ton, Suffolk . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 , 

in churches of Acton and Macclesfield . . . . 206 

in churches of High Peover and Malpas, Cheshire 207 v 

' Andra Barton stone ; ' and the Charlton spur . . . . 218 *' 

Knossos, Crete, store- jars in palace at 234 

,, ,, the ' double axe ' at ; and the throne . . 235 ... 

Hissarlik (site of Troy), approach to, and Acropolis of 

Pergamum . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 

,, walls of sixth city of Troy at . . . . . . 237 



Acton, monument of James, earl of Derwentwater, at, 123. 

Bewick, Thomas, a view of Newcastle by, 12. 

Bishop Middleham hall, a view of, 13. 

Derwentwater, James, earl of, monument of, at Acton, 123. 

Durham, inscription on window pane at, 32. 

Eldon, lord, facsimile of signature of, 200. 

Hartley district, plan shewing waggon-ways and pits in, 74. 

Inscriptions : on Roman saucepans 10 ; on window pane, 32. 

Musical instruments, ancient, 59-62. 

Newcastle : view of, in 1794, 12 ; old house in Hanover square, 

12 ; St. Nicholas's church, early carved stones in, 106-108 ; 

plan of pier of, 107 ; view of, from north, 109 ; tower of, 

elevations and section, 112-115. 
Ovingham, ' riding the fair ' at, 240. 
Roman saucepans, inscribed, from Upper Wear dale, 10. 
Rookhope, Weardale, an old shoe-buckle from, 194. 
Salt permit, a, 81. 

Seaham church, niches in south wall of chancel of, 35. 
Shoe-buckle, an old, from Upper Weardale, 194. 
Stone implements : from Upper Weardale, 195 ; site of find of, at 

Witton Gilbert, 152. 
Tyne, the river god, 150. 
Weardale, Upper, inscribed Roman bronze saucepans from, 10 ; 

stone implements from, 195 ; an old shoe-buckle from, 194. 
Witton Gilbert, site of find of stone implements, 152. 


The following contributors are thanked : 

Aird, R. A., for drawing, p. 35. 

Blair, C. H., for photographs of notarial marks, facing p. 56. 

Bolland, A. P., for rubbing of ' Andra Barton stone/ facing p. 218. 

Brewis, Parker, F.S.A., for photographs facing pp. 98, 105, 118, 
162, 202, 203, 218. 

Clephan, R. C., F.S.A., for photographs facing pp. 136, 137, 
142, 143. 

Crossley, F., for photographs of effigies facing pp. 204-207. 

Duff, J. Wight, for photographs facing pp. 234-237. 

Edleston, R. H., F.S.A., for rubbings of brasses facing pp. 164, 
172, 174. 

Egglestone, W. Morley, for drawings, pp. 10, 194, 195, and photo- 
graphs facing pp. 9, 178. 

Oswald, Joseph, F.R.I. B. A., for drawing, p. 123. 

Reid, A. & Co., for loan of block, p. 150. 

Sutherland, A. M., for loan of block facing p. 122. 

Warham, Miss, for photograph of Seaham church, p. 34. 

Watts, Rev. Arthur, for plan on p. 152, and photograph facing 
p. 152. 

Willans, Mrs., for drawings, pp. 12, 13, 59-62. 

Wood, W. H., F.R.I. B. A., for drawings, pp. 106-109, 112-115. 

Wooler, Edward, for photograph facing p. 168. 


Page i, line 27, for-' Jeseph ' read ' Joseph.' 
Page 9, line 23, for ' Svenige ' read ' Sverige.' 
Page 24, at foot insert ' see p. 123.' 
Page 28, line 10, delete full stop after ' ET.' 

Page 32, line i, for ' are abstracts of deeds ' read ' is an abstract 
of a deed.' 


Page 45, line 6 from bottom, for ' is ' read ' are.' 
Page 97, line 19, for ' Pleaure ' read ' Pleasure.' 
Page in, line 30 and page 120, line 38 ; Robert Rhodes was M.P. 

for Newcastle in 1427-1445. He died not in 1445, but 

in 1474. 

Page 116 note, for ' v ' read ' vi. f 
Page 153, line 12 from bottom, for ' 3 ' read ' f ' between ' and ' 

and ' in.' 

Page 161, line 10 from bottom, for ' Storey ' read ' Story.' 
Page 168, line 22 for ' neice ' read ' niece ' ; line 33, for ' ground ' 

read ' grounds.' 

Page 169, line 31, for ' inquisition ' read ' inquisitions.' 
Page 170, line i, for ' Salcliff ' read ' SaltclifiV 
Page 172, line 19, for 'retried' read 'retired'; line 27, for 

' Noreham ' read ' Nor ham.' 
Page 173, line 17 from bottom, for ' i and 3 ' read ' 2 and plate 

opposite p. 174 for i and 3.' 

Page 176, line 9, from bottom, insert ' cf. p. 192.' 
Page 1 80, line 31, for ' Robert ' read ' Roger.' 
Page 191, line 13 from bottom, for ' Septentrionile ' read ' Septen- 

Page 206, line n from bottom, insert after ' Thomas and John,' 

' fitz Alan ' ; line 8, for ' 1883 ' read ' 1483 ' ; line 7, 

insert at end ' (13 Rich, n) '. 
Page 207, line 6, for ' Eastbourne ' read ' Easebourne ' ; line 36, 

read ' Camoys.' 

Page 220, line 6 from bottom, for ' Foyston ' read ' Fryston.' 
Page 222, line 8, for ' Cawthorp ' read ' Cowthorpe ' ; line 32, 

for ' May ' read ' Mary.' 

Page 223, line 4 from botbom, for ' Edward ' read ' Edmund de.' 
Page 224, line 9, for ' Harvey ' read ' Henry ' ; line 14, for 

' Castreton ' read ' Casterton ' ; line 15, for ' Horkley ' 

read ' Horkesley.' 
Page 244, line 33. The MS. book was presented on 3 Aug., 1870, 

by Mr. William Dodd. 
Page 251, line 25, for ' 1913 ' read ' 1813.' 

Page 257, line 13 from bottom, for ' Homesteads ' read ' House- 
steads. ' 

Proc. 3 ser. iv, p. 66, lines 7 to 1 1 from bottom. A member 
has drawn the editor's attention to the circumstance that the 
quotation from the Transactions of the Durh. and North. Arch. 
Socy. v, cxxxii, relates to Melsonby, not to Stanwick St. John's. 

Proc. 3 ser. vi, p. vi, line n from bottom, for 'North.' read 
' Newc.' and for ' 574 ' read ' 594.' 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 1. 

The one hundred and second anniversary meeting of the Society 
was held in the old library at the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 
27th January, 1915, at one o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. R. Oliver 
Heslop, F.S.A., one of the vice-presidents, being in the chair. 

Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read a letter from the president 
apologizing for his absence from the meeting owing to an attack of 

The chairman then declared the following persons duly elected to 
the respective offices in terms of statute v, which sets forth that ' if 
the number nominated for any office be the same as the number to 
be elected, the person or persons nominated shall be deemed elected, 
and shall be so declared by the chairman,' viz. : 

President : His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., F.S.A. 
12 Vice-Presidents : The Rev. Cuthbert E. Adamson, M.A., Robert 
Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., Frederick Walter Dendy, D.C.L., the 
Rev. Henry Gee, D.C.L., F.S.A. , the Rev. William Greenwell, 
D.C.L., F.S.A., &c., Francis J. Haverfield, LL.D., F.S.A., Richard 
Oliver Heslop, M.A., F.S.A., John Crawford Hodgson, M.A., 
F.S.A., William Henry Knowles, F.S.A., the Very Rev. Henry 
Edwin Savage, D.D., Thomas Taylor, F.S.A., and Richard Welford, 

Secretaries : Robert Blair, F.S.A., and Jeseph Oswald. 
Treasurer : Robert Sinclair Nisbet. 
Editor: Robert Blair. 
Librarian : Charles Hunter Blair. 

2 Curators : W. Parker Brewis and William Hardcastle. 
2 Auditors : Herbert Maxwell Wood, B.A., and James Arnott Sisson. 
12 Council : William Parker Brewis, F.S.A., Sydney Story Carr, 
Walter Shewell Corder, J. Wight Duff, D.Litt., &c., William 
Waymouth Gibson, William Hardcastle, Jonathan Edward 
Hodgkin, F.S.A., Arthur M. Oliver, John Oxberry, G. R. B. 
Spain, Nicholas Temperley, and William Weaver Tomlinson. 


. Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following report of the 
council : 

The dark cloud of war that has hung over the nation for the past 
six months naturally throws its shadow upon our society. But we must 
not forget that at the time of its establishment, one hundred and two 
years ago, its founders had lived for years under comparable conditions. 
Two years and more were then to elapse before the nation emerged 
victoriously from the Napoleonic wars which had threatened it so long. 
Notwithstanding this, our predecessors in those troublous times calmly 
combined to pursue their favourite studies. With their example 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vii.] 1 

before us we must not permit, and have not so far permitted, national 
excitement to extinguish our interest in the pursuits which our society 
has so long encouraged. In this connexion it is a matter of poignant 
regret and reprobation that the governing powers of Germany, a people 
professing advanced education and much addicted to studies like our 
own, have permitted the wanton injury of the beautiful old town of 
Louvain, the cathedral of Rheims, architectural monuments in Ypres 
and other historic places in Belgium and France. ' The spirit of 
Antiquity enshrined in sumptuous buildings ' cries out in opposition 
to such crimes against civilization. The following apposite remarks 
of Sir John Vanburgh may be quoted : 

' There is perhaps no one thing which the most Polite part of man- 
kind have more universally agreed in, than the vallue they have ever 
set upon the Remains of distant Times. Nor among the severall 
kinds of those Antiquitys are there any so much regarded as those of 
Buildings : some for their magnificence or curious workmanship and 
others, as they move more lively and pleasing Reflections (than 
History without their aid can do) on the Persons who have inhabited 
them : on the remarkable things which have been transacted in 
them, or the extraordinary occasions of erecting them.' 
Thus did the architect of Blenheim palace, two hundred years ago, 
appeal in vain for the preservation of the old manor house of Woodstock. 
This Society endorsed the appeal of the London Society of Anti- 
quaries to the government of the United States, asking it to protest 
to the German government against the barbarous treatment of ancient 
and beautiful buildings during the course of warfare. 

It seems fitting that two societies, composed of persons now 
enemies of our king, should disappear from the list of those with 
whom we are associated by means of the exchange of publications. 

Our indoor meetings have been held as usual during the year, although 
it was considered desirable by the authorities of the city to close the 
castle to the general public for a few weeks at the outbreak of hostili- 

During the year five country meetings took place, namely : at Wil- 
limoteswick castle and Beltingham church ; at Newminster abbey ; 
and Finchale priory (these being held on Saturday afternoons) ; also 
whole-day meetings at Stockton, Norton and Billingham ; and at 
Askerton castle, Bewcastle, and Lanercost priory. At the last named 
meeting our member Mr. W. G. Collingwood's address upon the Bew- 
castle cross was specially interesting in view of the revived controversy 
as to its date, so ably carried on by professor A. S. Cook of Yale 
University, and others. It was intended to visit Embleton and Dun- 
stanburgh, but owing to the unprecedented conditions prevailing at 
the date fixed in August, and the consequent disorganisation of traffic 
arrangements, it was decided to cancel the meeting ; as also the usual 
half -day visit to Corstopitum, where it was reported by Mr. R. H. Forster 
that the curtailed season's excavations had yielded no ' spectacular ' 

Full reports of the indoor and outdoor meetings have appeared in 
our Proceedings, of which the sixth volume of the third series has just 
been completed, and members are advised to have it bound up forthwith 
and placed in their libraries as a valuable book of reference. The vol- 
ume comprises pages vi ---310, and 32 plates of illustrations, besides many 
others in the text. 

The eleventh volume of the current series of Archaologia Aeliana 
appeared during the year embodying pages xxxvi -f 338. Its contents 

include papers read before the society by the Rev. J. F. Hodgson, Miss 
M. H. Dodds, Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, and Mr. C. T. Trechmann, in 
addition to the continuation of the ' Catalogue of Durham Seals ' 
and the ' Report on excavations at Corstopitum, 1913.' The volume 
is illustrated by eight plates and a large number of inset illustrations. 

An oft repeated proposal to reprint the only volume of the first series 
of our Proceedings is now being carried into effect. The list of subscrip- 
tions covering the cost of reprinting is not quite complete, so that mem- 
bers desirious of possessing copies of this rare and interesting volume 
are invited to participate, if they have not already undertaken to do so. 
There are now only some fifteen copies of the reprint for disposal. 
This volume deals with the years 1855-6-7. Afterwards, until January, 
1866, the Archaeologia Aeliana contains minutes of the meetings. It is 
hoped at no distant date a successful attempt will be made to collect 
and publish in book form the scattered records existing of the society's 
doings during the years 1866 to 1882. After the latter year the con- 
tinuous series of Proceedings begin. To go farther back still to 
the years 1813-1854 does not appear to be a task incapable of accom- 
plishment. The publication of such records would amplify in a very 
interesting way the centenary volume issued by the society in Janu- 
ary 1914. 

A new guide book to the Blackgate and its museum was issued by the 
society during the year. Our member, Mr. W. Parker Brewis, is the 
author, and to him the council desire to express their thanks for it. A 
committee has been appointed to consider the best means of improving 
the conditions under which the collections at the Castle and Blackgate 
are displayed. Unfortunately the disturbed state of affairs con- 
sequent upon the war makes it an unfavourable time for appealing to 
members or the public for the special funds without which so little can 
be accomplished. Among donations to the museum during the past 
year the council specially thank our president for a case containing 
electrotypes of 208 Roman gold coins found at Corstopitum. 

During the year there have been added to the treasures deposited in 
our library a number of documents belonging to the Saddlers Company 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, who, in entrusting them to our care, have 
followed the precedent set by the Barber Surgeons Company and the 
Goldsmiths Company in former years. 

Volume x of the Northumberland County History was published in 
1914, dealing with the parish of Corbridge. This is the third volume 
issued under the skilful editorship of our member, Mr. H. H. E. Craster. 

The North Eastern Railway, its Rise and Development, by Mr. W. W. 
Tomlinson, one of our members, has just been published after some 
delay on account of the war, and a copy presented to the society by 
Mr. Tomlinson. This sumptuous volume is a monument to the 
painstaking research and literary ability of the author. 

Mr. John Gibson, the warder of the castle, owing to advancing years, 
has been provided with an assistant. The council take this opportun- 
ity of recording their appreciation of Mr. Gibson's exemplary services 
to the society, extending over the long term of forty-two years. These 
have never been restricted within perfunctory limits. He has been 
ever watchful on behalf of the society, not merely within the castle 
walls, but whenever anything of interest arose during excavations or 
demolitions in the locality. 

Members lost to us by death during the year include : Sir John 
Swinburne, elected 1866, whose membership of 48 years' continuous 
duration is exceeded only by one other ; Rev. George Reed, elected 


1888 ; William Francis, elected 1892 ; John David Robinson, elected 
1900 ; Anthony George Rudd, elected 1901 ; James Sclater, elected 
1907 ; Everard J. Lamb, elected 1910, who was killed in action in 
France; and Thomas Bell, elected 1913. W. N. Strangeways, elected 
in 1880, icsigned and died in 1914. 

Twenty new members have been elected during the year 1914, 
leaving us with a slightly larger number of members than at any 
previous time. 

The reports of the treasurer, librarian, and curators have been re- 
ceived by the council, and are presented herewith. 

The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, said how 
cordially he agreed with the policy of protesting against the vandalism 
of which the Germans had been guilty. Even since the protest had 
been made that conduct had not ceased, and it had even reached our 
own shores. Adverting to the gifts to the society, the chairman 
specially mentioned the beautiful case of facsimile coins which they 
had received from their noble president. 

Mr. R. Coltman Clephan seconded the motion, and incidentally men- 
tioned that only last July he was in Germany and Sweden presiding 
over a meeting of one of the German archaeological societies, and met a 
lot of colleagues with whom he had been on terms of friendship for many 
years. They seemed a body of gentlemen very similar to themselves, 
and he attributed the recent conduct of the Germans to the fact that 
they had been corrupted and vitiated by the terrible propaganda of the 
emperor, the professors and writers on the general staff of the empire. 

The motion was unanimously agreed to. 

The report and balance sheet of the treasurer and the reports of 
the curators and librarian were also received and read. 

The following is a summary of the treasurer's report, etc. : The 
membership of the society is 380 ; 20 ordinary members were elected 
during 1914, and 16 lost by deaths and resignations. The balance 
sheet included a balance at the beginning of 1914 of 351. 7s. 5d. ; a 
total income for the year of 563/. 19s. Qd. and expenditure of 503/. 
10s. 4:d., leaving a balance in favour of the society of 601. 8s. Sd. The 
capital invested, with dividends, is now 174/. 7s. Id. The receipts 
were : from subscriptions 386/. 8s. Od. ; from the Castle 94/. 14s. 3d. ; 
and the Blackgate 32/. 4s. 4d. ; from books sold 15/. 5s. Od. The ex- 
penditure includes: for printing Archaeologia Aeliana, 126/. 10s. 3d.; 
and Proceedings, 41/. 12s. Qd. ; for new books and subscriptions to 
societies, 5SI. 16s. 3d. ; for the Castle, 89/. 10s. Wd. ; for Blackgate, 
39/. 2s. 2d. ; for museum, 31. 16s. Od. ; and for sundries, 751. 16s. 9d. 

The following books have been received since the November meeting : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. L. Johnston : (1) Year Book of the Viking Society, v, 

1912-13 ; (2) Old Lore Miscellany, vu, iv ; and (3) Caithness and 

Sutherland Record, i, viii. 
From Robt. Blair: (1) The Antiquary, N.S. xi, i; (2) Numismata, 

three volumes, | bd., 8vo. ; (3) Lectures on the Coinage of the Greeks 

and Romans, by Edw. Cardwell, bds, 8vo., Oxford, 1832 ; and 

(4) Traite 6lementaire de Numismatique Ancienne, Grecque et 

Romaine, 2 vols., I cf., 8vo. (1825). 
From Mr. W. W. Tomlinson, the author '.The North Eastern 

Railway ; its Rise and Development. 
From Mr. R. H. Edleston, F.S.A. : The. Registers of Bath Abbey 

(Harl. Soc. publ. ; Register section). 

From Mrs. Strangeways : (1) The Armorial Bearings of the In- 
corporated Companies of Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; (2) The Pedigree 
of the family of Adamson of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by Geo. Bouchier 
Richardson (in sheet form) ; (3) Nicholson's Reprints and 
Overprints of Antiquarian Papers, 4to, full calf; (4) Archaeo- 
logia Aeliana, 1 ser. n, pts. i and ii (1832) ; in, pts. i-iii (1844) ; 
and iv, pts. i-iv (1855), and various loose sheets ; (5) Ibid., 
2 ser. pts. 1, 43, 45, 47-54, 56-62 ; (6) Ibid., 3 ser. i-m, 
vi, vn, ix, x. ; (7) odd parts of the Yorkshire Archaeological 
Journal (pts. 27-39) ; and of the Natural History Transactions of 
Northumberland, etc. ; Reports of Meetings of the Architectural 
Societies of Lincoln, etc. (1868-74) ; of the Berwickshire Natural- 
ists Club Proceedings (1842, 1850, 1854, 1856, 1857, 1862-1886 
(1885 missing) ; and of the Northern Counties Magazine, Oct. 
1900 Sept. 1901. 

Special thanks were voted to Mr. Tomlinson and Mrs. Strangeways 
for their donations. 
Exchanges : 

From the Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm : 
Die altere Eisenzeit Gotlands, part i. 

From the London and Middlesex Archaeological Soc. : Proc., N.S. in, i. 

From the Royal Numismatic Soc. : The Numismatic Chronicle, no. 56. 

From the British Archaeological Association : Journal, N.S., xx, iv. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Journal, xv, i. 

From the Royal Society of Stockholm : Fornvdnnen for 1913. 
Purchases : 

The Pedigree Register, in, 31 ; The Museums Register, iv, 5-6 ; 
Official Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies 
of Great Britain and Ireland for 1914 ; The Scottish Historical 
Review, xn, ii ; The Museums Journal, iv, 7 ; and Notes and 
Queries for December, 1914, and January, 1915. 

By Mr. W. Morley Egglestone of Stanhope : 

(1) A round white metal medal, If ins. in diameter, relating to 
the parliamentary election of 1832, after the Reform Act, for 
the southern division of Northumberland. The inscriptions 
arc, on the obverse: FOR , BEAUMONT | AND I ORD | JOINT VOTES 
2091 in a wreath of oak leaves, and round the edge, SOUTHERN 
DIVISION OF NORTHUMBERLAND ; on the reverse, in centre, THE | 

HEART AND BE THOU NOT DISMAY*D. With it Mr. Egglestone 

sent a copy of the following circular letter to the voters : 

" Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 14th March, 1833. 

SIR, The Central Committee for Messrs. Beaumont and Ord at the late Election 
for the Southern Division of the county of Northumberland have caused a Medal 
to be struck in commemoration of the spirited and independent conduct of the 2091 
Electors who so nobly came forward and voted for the two liberal candidates, without 
having been personally canvassed by them, and they most respectfully request your 
acceptance, as one of those Electors, of the medal which is now transmitted to you. 

James Losh, Chairman of the Committee." 

The polling days of the South Northumberland election were 
December 20 and 21, 1832, and the candidates and results were 
as follows : 

Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, Esq. ... 2537 

Mathew Bell, Esq. ... ... ... 2441 

William Ord, Esq. ... ... ... 2351 


(2) An impression of a finely struck copper medal in his possession 
recording the perambulation of Blanchland manor in 1839. It 
is 1^ ins. in diameter. On the obverse : a bishop's mitre with 
sword and crook crossed behind, with the letter A on one side 
and D on the other. Below a crown and MDCCCXXXIX. On 
BY | LORD CREWE'S | TRUSTEES, across field. 

By Mr. T. J. Bell, of Cleadon : Three Roman denarii found on 
the beach (Herd sand) at South Shields in November, 1914. 
They are : 

(1) ANTONINUS Pius : Obverse, head laureated to right, ANTONINVS 
AVG PIVS PP TR P xn ; reverse, female figure to left, holding a 
caduceus and a cornucopia, cos mi (Coh. 251). 

(2) FAUSTINA i : Obverse, bust to right, DIVA AVGVSTA FAVSTINA ; 
reverse, temple of six columns, a quadriga on top of pediment, 
at each angle a victory, PIETAS AVG. (Coh. 253.) 

(3) FAUSTINA n : Obverse, bust to right, FAVSTINA AVG PII 
AVG FIL ; reverse, concord seated to left, holding a flower, a 
cornucopia behind her seat, CONCORDIA (Coh. 54). 

Mr. Egglestone and Mr. Bell were thanked for their exhibits. 
The meeting concluded with a vote of thanks to the chairman. 


The following letters, etc., are from the Radcliffe papers belonging 
to the Rev. T. Stephens (continued from vol. vi, p. 279). The letters 
were written by Thomas Errington, who seems to have been one of 
Lady Derwentwater's agents : 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Kepwicke Nouember the 21th: 1720. 

Mr. Busby and I am now here, it is a great Storme of Snow, as I came here, I see that 
Mr. Lorance, that brought me a letter from your Ladyshipe Some time Since concerneing 
Aldston moore, there was a gentleman with him one Mr. Geo: Errington who Hues by 
Grays Inn att London, and I supose this Mr. Errington is desired by the Gentlemen att 
London that Imploye mr. Lorance to Inspect and to make Innuirey into matters in 
Aldston moore, they both went there last Thursday, I told mr. Lorance some time 
agoe what your Ladyshipe writt me Concerneing the Lead mill att woodhall. I find 
notwithstanding your Ladyshipe was soe kind as to lett them haue that mill Rent free, 
they now Expect your Ladyshipe will giue them wood to Repaire her, which will be worth 
fifty pounds, at least, this mr. Errington is the Gentleman that Jockyed Coll: Radclyffe 
out of plessy Colliary for a Lease of 99 years at 18/. $ arm', which Alderman Ridley has 
now and worth 2000/i: $ ann', but this to your Ladyshipe Selfe, but mr. Piggott Knowes 
this mr. Errington very well, mr. Alderman Ridley has bought the dues of Lead oare in 
aldston moore for Some yeares past, and if these gentlemen at London should buy 
them this next yeare, and Alderman Ridley should not haue an offer of them and giueing 
as much price as any body Else, it may make him take Check and backward in the affaire 
Concerning the purchaseing of the Reversion of Coll: Radclyffes Estate, I leaue this to your 
Ladyships prudent Consideration, there is one Richd walks a Tennant at Lowbyer in 
Aldston moore, and a Bayliffe vnder your Ladyshipe in the manner of Aldston moore, he has 
Leueyed Executions in that manner as was formerly done in other Bayliffes time, and 
there is two sutes or actions brought against him, which will cost him at Least fifteen pounds, 
the man is in such a Consternation that he Cannot tell what to doe, and dare not Leuey 
any Executions that are fairely Recouered at the Courts, I cannot Compute this to any- 
thing Else, but the Easyness and negligence of mr. Simpson the Steward of the sd Court, 
that Court being a Court of Record and all sumes aboue 40 shillings ought to haue been 
tryed as in Courts of Record, which I beleaue has not been soe, but has been done now as 

formerly, but it is noe blott, till a blott is hitt, notwithstanding the great winda wee haue 
had, there is very litle wood blowne downe in any part of your Ladyshipes Estate, I haue 
not more to add but to assure your Ladyshipe, I am, yor most obdient Seruant, 

Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' For | M r s. Croney att m r s Cabrise att | the Golden 
ffarm ouer against | Grays Inngate In Holl bourne | London.'] 

Capheaton, March the 1st: 172$. 
May it please your Ladyshipe. 

I haue Receiued your Ladyships letter of the 14 of last month, I was from this place when 
it came here, otherwise would haue writt Sooner I am Glad your Ladyshipe has Receiued the 
Leases, but I am Sorry to tell your Ladyshipe that I am Confident Seuerall that did Con- 
tract and take farmes will neuer Signe or Execute theire Leases, that woefull thing of South 
Sea, made Lands aduance soe high that there is Thousands of Tennants will be Ruined 
and broken by it, for Come is very Cheap, and Catle Cheap, and noe Trade, or money 
Stirring that euerybody knowes not what to doe, the money that your Ladyshipe writes 
aboute said to be in Fenwick and Waters hands was but 340/: which is Returnd to mr. 
Radburne some time since, and last friday I paid them Sixteen Hundred and forty pounds 
to be Returnd to Mr. Radburne and they haue assured me they will send him Bills for 
Eight Hundred pounds of it this weeke, there is nether Annuity money or wood money 
in the 1640/.: I beleaue Capt: Cotesworth is Sore Enough pinchd but if your Ladyshipe 
would haue me to accquaint him of the 30/: you mentione I shall doe it, he is very willing 
and Ready to Serue your Ladyshipe vpon all occassions, I thanke God I am prety well 
Recouered of my late Indisposition I humbly thanke your Ladyshipe for Inquireing after 
my health, in the account I gaue your Ladyshipe of the Aduance of Rents amongst the Rest 
there was meldon and meldon parke lett to Robert Twisle and Wm. Welden for 440/: fi 
ann' for 14 yeares, but the first 3 yeares they were to pay but 400/: ayeare by Reason the 
grounds was much Run out by the late times, and it was Referrd to your Ladyshipe whether 
you woud take the 40J: ayeare for the first 3 yeares or not, I have Charged the 440Z: $ 
ann. which they thinke is very hard vpon them, and if the 40J: ayeare is not abated for the 
first 3 years I am of an opinion they will leaue the farme, there is one Patrick Dauison a 
marchant in Hexham wants about 15/: from my Late Lord for Candles, he and some few 
more is for Petitioning my Lord Chancellor to haue their small debts paid, I told him I 
would write to your Ladyshipe aboute this matter, and desired he would have patience till 
I had your Ladyships answere, Admarill Delaval who is this Countrey Gent, and a member 
of Parliament for some Borrow, told me he would be very Ready to Serue your Ladyshipe 
in purchaseing both whenby Estate and the late Colls Estate, and desired to be Informed 
by Sr: John webb how and in what maner to proceed in that affaire, he has an Extrodinary 
good Intrest at Court, and vast Rich, and a good Intrest with the Comissionrs of the for- 
feited Estates, there has lately been one mr. Allan sent downe from London by the said 
Comissionrs to Inspect and veiwe the said late Coll: Radclyffes Estate and to make a Report 
aboue thereof, mr. T: was with him and one or two more when the said Estate was veiwed, 
and which veiwe is very moderate, I haue preuailed with mr. T: to gett a Coppy of the said 
Report, and which I haue this post sent to mr. Radburne, I am senseable theire may be 
gott at least fiue or Six Thousand pounds nay if not Ten, by Buying those Estates, I can- 
not as yett tell, whether I shall be Excused or not in Appeareing at London, mr. Radburne 
writt me mr. Pigott was in hopes to gett me Excused, your Ladyshipes last letter home, 
was directed to mr. Radburne and he sent it open Inclosed to me in his, but that was onely 
your Ladyships mistake, mr. Busby has had a somonse from the Comissionrs to appeare 
at London, for Cutting some wood at whenby when he was last there, to Repaire some 
houses, but I thinke that will blow ouer, howeuer there was one Johnathan Maughen went 
over to whenby and discharged all the Tennants from paying any more Rents to mr. 
Busby, whether this was by the Comissionrs order or not I cannot tell, Since I euer knew 
Aldston moore I neuer knew for fifty yeares past the Dues of Lead oare soe litle value, for 
the whole yeares dues of oare from December 1720 till December 1721 came but to 247 J: 
15s: OOd: which God knowes is but a mallancolly story, all this famally are well and giues 

theire humble seruice to your Ladyshipe and famally, I haue paid the Lady Mary Rad- 
clyffe at Durham one yeares Intrest due 21 of October last 1721 soe that there is but halfe 
a yeare due to her Ladyshipe the 21 of Aprill next 1722. I heare that mr. Geo: Errington 
at London and his partners in Aldston moore pays but halfe payes in steed of whole ones, 
I am, yor Ladyshipes obedient serut, Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Right Hono ble the Countesse | of Dar- 

Li. s. 

April 5: 1716 ... ... ... ... 26 

April 16: 1716 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 150 

July 26: 1720 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 26 

August 30: 1720 ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

October 27: 1722 ... ... ... ... 175 

January 2: 1723 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

June 19: 1723 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 


By Stewards ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 75 

3 quarters payd by me viz : Michaelmast Xmast 1723: & Lady day 1724 ... 75 

Lent 500 florins w'h is now made up ... ... ... ... ... 50 

The Watch & Etuit 23 

Total 675 10 



Due to Mr. Radcliffe for 8 years & a Quarter begun at Lady day 1716: 

to Lady day 1724 inclusive ... ... ... ... ... 825: 

Ballance due to Mr. Radcliffe ... ... 149K.10s. 

Receaud of Sr John Webb the Sum of one hundred forty nine pounds and ten shillings in 
full of all Arrears to our Lady day in March 1724 inclusive, on acct of my late Brother Lord 
Darwentwaters desire to his Son to pay me one hundred pounds a year as appears by a 
note under late Lady Darwentwaters hand, but if it appears hereafter yt I haue receaud 
more then mentiond in ye above written acct I promise to pay it back, to all wh I subscribe 
my name this 27th of March: 1724: Charles Radclyffe. 


The following extract is from the Calendar of Royal Letters, in : 

No. 3717. John de Swineburn to the king, praying restitution of an 
annual rent and right of estover granted him by Alexander [in], king 
of Scotland in the manor of Werk in Tyndale, which manor is now 
in the hands of Anthony, bishop of Durham, who has kept him out 
of them for ten years. No date [about 1293, 21 Edw, i]. 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 2 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, on Wednesday, 24th February, 1915, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, the Rev. Henry Gee, D.D., F.S.A., a vice- 
president, being in the chair. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

1. Walter de Lancey Aitchison, Lemmington Hall, Alnwick. 

2. A. M. Trout (Miss), 3 Manila Street, Sunderland. 

The following books, etc., have been received since the January 
meeting : 
Presents : 

From R. Blair: (1) The Session Book of Bunkle and Preston, 1665- 

1690; and (2) The Antiquary for Feb. 1915 (vol. xi, no. 2). 
Exchanges : 

From the Society of Antiquaries of London: (1) Archaeologia, 65; 
and (2) Proceedings, 2 ser. xxvi. 

From the Royal Academy of History and Antiquities of Stock- 
holm : Antikarisk Tidskrift for Svenige, xx, i. 

From the Royal Irish Academy : Proceedings, xxxii, sec. c, nos. 

Purchases : 

The Schools of Medieval England, by A. F. Leach (' The Antiquary's 

Books ') ; and Notes and Queries for the month. 

By Mr. W. M. Egglestone : Two bronze inscribed skillets and a 
ladle, of Roman date, found in a peat bog in Upper Weardale. 

The following note by Mr. Egglestone on the find was read by Mr. 
Blair, one of the secretaries. 

" I send a photograph * and some drawings to illustrate three bronze 
objects which were found in a Weardale peat-bog by a miner, Mr. Alex. 
Baty, in August, 1913. A trench was being cut to drain off some water 
from the bog, which, being impregnated with iron, was of a red colour 
like the ' haliwells ' so common in this lead and iron mining district. 
The bog contained several fragments of tree branches, and the bronze 
objects were found at a depth of two feet, and were, when found, 
all nested together, that is, the smaller skillet was nested within the 
larger, and the ladle being the smallest, was nested within the smaller 
skillet. The two lower objects in the photograph are skillets of 
Roman date. Reference is made, in the bronze age, to vessels with 
handles. An object found at Aylesford in a pre-historic grave is called 
a skillet of the frying pan type. Some authorities define a skillet 
as a vessel with a handle and three feet. Others do not mention 
feet, but define it as a vessel with a handle. 

* See opposite plate shewing the objects. See also next page. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 2 

The following quotation very well indicates the skillet under con- 
sideration : ' She dipped a tin skillet in the pot,' 1 and Othello says, 
' Let housewives make a skillet of my helm.' 2 In one of the British 
Museum guide books 3 mention is made of a Roman skillet with a 
name on the handle. 

The two skillets under notice each bears a name cast upon the handle 
in raised letters. The letters on the larger vessel are p .CIPI POLi, 4 
and those on the smaller vessel POIYBI. On the bottom of the smaller 
vessel and near the edge the letters LICINIANI have been punched 
later, and probably form the name of the owner. The larger skillet 
in the photograph may be described as a vessel with a bowl and 
handle, which have been cast in one piece. Its weight is 15 J 
oz., is made of bronze as may be seen where the edges or 
other parts have been subject to wear. On testing these parts 

1 Crockett's Raiders. 2 Othello, i, 3. 

S A Guide to the Antiquities of the Iron Age, British Museum (case C. central saloon) 
p. 153. 

4 Professor Haverfield in the Arch. Journal (XLIX, 228-231) says that Cipius Polybius 
and others seem to have been a firm of bronze workers at or near Herculaneum. 


with aqua fortis, a green effervescing opaque bubble or drop was 
formed. The whole of the vessel inside and out, excepting the worn 
parts above mentioned, is less or more covered with a dull greenish-blue 
soot-like substance evidently acquired by use and the effect of the soil 
in which it was found. This patination or covering seems to be part 
of the vessel in the same way as the patina of coins which have laid a 
long time in the ground, and even Neolithic flint flakes are thus affected. 
Some of the discoloration is most likely due to fire. The larger 
skillet is 9 inches long (handle 4f inches, diameter of bowl, lip to lip, 
4g inches). The depth of centre of bowl inside is 2^- inches, nearer 
the side 2f inches, whilst the outside of the bowl is 2g inches. The 
smaller skillet is in all respects of the same design, colour, etc., as the 
larger. Its weight is 8J ozs., full length 7^ inches, diameter of bowl 
4^- inches. The large vessel has the same ringed design on the 
bottom as that seen on the smaller one in the photograph. This 
ringed ornamentation has evidently been turned on the lathe. 

The third object, the ladle, the middle figure in the photograph, 
is very different in appearance, as it presents a brassy yellow colour 
all over it and shows none of the patination associated with the two 
first objects. It has been made of one piece of metal ; evidently 
the bowl, which is very thin, has been formed by the hammer. The 
surface, which is bright yellow, shows a fine wrinkled appearance, 
with pitted holes containing some dark substance which is scarcely 
visible to the naked eye. On applying the acid it responded with 
a .green effervescence. The full length of the handle is 6 inches, 
diameter of bowl from lip to lip 3 inches, depth of bowl 2 inches. 
The handle, which is fairly strong, is -inch wide, and the object as 
a whole is lOf inches long, and 2| ozs. in weight. The very thin 
bowl shows signs of fire and, a large piece has evidently been burnt 
out, necessitating a patch of the same material. 

The skillet can be traced back to the Late-Keltic or Romano- 
British period, and authorities state that it was common in medieval 
times, and the following quotation shows that this domestic utensil 
has been responsible for a surname in the north of England at an 
early period: ' In 1403, at Lanchester (co. Durham), Robert Todd 
was sued by Richard Skellet for the unlawful detention of one horse, 
with saddle and bridle, one bow and twenty four-arrows, and a pair 
of spurs, of the total value in the whole of 9/8.' " l 

In the Archaeologia* of the London society mention is made of 
skillets being found at Castle Howard, Yorkshire, and in Scotland, 
bearing respectively the letters P. CIPI.POLIBI, p. CIPI POLIB, and 
CIPI POLIE, which correspond with the inscription on the Weardale 
skillets under notice. The letters on the smaller object POIYBI are 
remains of the same name. The Castle Howard five bronze vessels 
were found at a depth of three feel from the surface, while the workman 
was cutting a drain." 

By Mrs. Clayton of Chesters : photographs of two Roman altars, 
each about 34 inches high, both inscribed, found lately near 
Chesterholm (Vindolana). On one of them the only remains of 
the inscription is the dedication to Jupiter i. o. M. and a letter 
or two below. The other has a long inscription dedicated to the 
divine house and to the shades of the emperors (PRO DOMV | 


1 North Country Sketches by George Neasham, page 296. 

2 Archaeologia, XLI (1867), page 325. 


some lines of letters, including a reference, apparently, to 
VINDOLANA (see opposite plate). 

By Mrs. Willaris (per Mr. R. O. Heslop, F.S.A., V.P.) : three little 
pen drawings of local interest, copied by her from the headings of 
sale bills and advertisements in the posession of the society : 

(1) Relates to a dwelling house in Hanover Square, Newcastle, 
as follows : " TO BE SOLD. A superb Dwelling House, situated 
on the S.E. side of Hanover Square, Newcastle, containing 4 
entertaining Rooms, 5 Bedchambers, with 3 Dressing rooms, 
2 Servants' rooms, besides Kitchen and Servants Hall, Laundry, 
Cellars, &c., &c. One Half or more of the Purchase Money may 
remain on Security of the Premises, if required. Apply to the 
Proprietor, Dr. Steavenson." Septr. 25th, 1810. 

(" The house was sold, and afterwards divided into two or three 
smaller houses. The above cut is the South front of the building. 
Property in this part of the town is decreasing considerably in 
value. Heron's, Abbs' late House, &c., are both unlet." MS. 
note, Jan. 1812.) 

(2) A view of Newcastle in 1794, by Thomas Bewick 

~ s 


John Grey Bell writes of the block, in 1850: "The block for initial 
letter was cut by Mr. Bewick for the Newcastle Chronicle newspaper, 
and headed the local and London news in that paper for above twenty 
years, during which time, according to a calculation of the late Dr. 
John Murray, above two millions of impressions had been taken from 
it." The original measures one inch square, and in it the church, castle 
and Blackgate are represented on an almost microscopic scale. In 
restoring the well-worn impiession to its pristine freshness, Mrs. 
Willans has cleverly drawn it on an enlarged scale, in which the 
picturesqueness of the group of houses surrounding the main features 
of the place is clearly brought out. Battlements were added to the 
keep early in the 19th century. Here the structure is shown before 
these excrescences were added. 

(3) A view of Bishop Middleham Hall in 1800 : 

" Bishop Middleham was for many years the seat of the Pearson 
tamily ; of Gerard, Roger, and Robert Pearson, esquires. The 
last named married a daughter of the Right Honourable Charles 
Cockayne, Lord Viscount Cullen, of the kingdom of Ireland, and 
their daughter and heiress married Gilbert Spearman of Thornley 

[ Hall, Esq. George Spearman, Esq., his son, was seated at 
Bishop Middleham, and died there, A.D. 1760 ; his eldest daughter 
by Miss Sneyd, his wife, of the ancient family of Sneyd, of Biston, 
Staffordshire, married William John Spearman Wasey, Esq., a 
colonel in the Guards." 

By Mr. Alfred Brewis : three proclamations issued during the 
threatened invasion of England at the end of the 18 th and 
beginning of the 19 th century. 

adopted and acted upon by His Majesty's Government, for \ 
insuring \ A Regular Supply of Bread to His Majesty's Forces, | 
In CASE of INVASION, | In Conformity to the Act of the 38 th 
Year of his Majesty's Reign, Cap. XXVII. for the Defence of the 
Country. | Conditions to be performed by the MILLERS of every 
Parish furnishing a regular Supply of such READY-DRESSED 
FLOUR as they may have in Hand, over and above the | immedi- 
ate Wants of their Customers.' It is a broad-sheet, 1 foot 
8 inches long by 1 foot 3 inches wide, and water-marked ' Tyne ' 
and ' 1794.' 

adopted and acted upon by His Majesty's Government, for \ 


For Saving other Descriptions of Property as much as possible I 
AND FURTHER | For furnishing Waggons, Carts, and Horses, for 


his Majesty's Service, and contributing to the Supply of his Majesty's 
Forces, with Flour, Wheat, Oats, Hay, Straw, and Fuel, \ In CASE 
of an INVASION, | In conformity,' etc. [as before]. A broad 
sheet, 1 foot 8 inches long by 1 foot 4 inches broad, and is also 
watermarked ' TYNE ' and ' 1794.' A reproduction of it on a 
reduced scale is given in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle of 2 d 
January, 1915. 

(3) A reduced reproduction of this, which is a folded sheet of 
4 pp., the last being blank, is given on pages 15-17. Each page is 
10 inches by 7 inches. 

Alderman Hogg of North Shields, said the proclamation just read 
was a remarkable illustration of how history was repeating itself in 
the present war. He had been struck with another illustration so 
far as Tynemouth was concerned. The authorities had recently 
sent round to enquire what conveyances were available to convey 
civilians away inland in case of invasion. His grandmother's sister 
spent the closing years of her life with them. She was an old woman 
and died over thirty years ago. She was a growing girl at the time 
of the threatened Napoleonic invasion, and he had often heard her 
tell of the rows of carts and horses which stood for weeks together, 
ready yoked, in the Front Street, Tynemouth, ready to convey the 
residents inland as soon as Napoleon's armada made its appearance. 
It served, he thought, not only to prove how history repeated itself 
but it also showed that over 100 years ago the country was in a much 
tighter corner than it was at the present time. 

The chairman remarked that the two proclamations exhibited are 
interesting since the earlier one (1798) must have been issued during the 
first scare when the local Armed Associations were formed ; whilst that 
of 1804 was issued during the second scare, war having broken out 
again in 1803. 

By the Rev. T. Stephens, of Horsley : 

(1) Another copy of the last mentioned document, without the 
name of the sheriff. 

(2) ' A PARTICULAR or RENTAL of Part of the estate late 
of JAMES late Earl of Derwentwater, in Northumberland.' (It 
is reproduced on a reduced scale on pages 18 and 19.) 

By Dr. Hardcastle : 

(1) The grant of the office of steward of the town and lordship 
of Barnardcastle to Thomas Rolandson in 1584, by Queen 
Elizabeth, on the advice of William, baron Burghley. Thomas 
Rolandson is to succeed Humphrey Orme, who was appointed 
to that office in 1553 by king Edward vi. With the office is a 
fee of two pence a day. Former stewards are mentioned in this 
document and among those is one Ambrose Barnes. This 
Ambrose Barnes was the grandfather of Alderman Ambrose 
Barnes of Newcastle, whose very curious diary has been printed 
by the Surtees Society. 1 
The following is a translation of the original document : 

' Elizabeth by the grace of God queen of England, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, etc., to all those to whom this present letter shall come, greeting ; whereas our 
well beloved brother, Edward the 6th, late king of England, by his letters patent under 
his great seal of England bearing date the llth day of January, in the 5th year of his 
reign, gave and granted at this time to his worthy servant, Humphrey Orme, his gentle- 
man of the bedchamber, the office of steward of the town and lordship of Barnard castle 
1 50 Surt. Soc. publ. 



, 1804. 


ISSUED under and by Virtue of an Aft pafled in the forty-third Year of the 
Reign of His prefent Majefty, intituled, " An Aft to enable His Majefty more 
" effectually to provide for the Defence and Security of the Realm during the 
" prefent War, and for indemnifying Perfons who may fuffer in their Property, 
" by, fuch Meafures as may be necefiary for that Purpofe," and which are to be 
obferved b*y the Inhabitants of this Town, in the Event of the General Officer? 
commanding His Majesty's Forces in this Diftrict, giving Directions for the Re- 
moval of the Inhabitants and Stock in Cafe of Invafion. 


For fuch Removal will be A RED FLAG by Day, and A LIGHT by Night, 
hoifted at the following Places, viz. The Co/lie, St Nicholas Church, All Saintt 
Church, St Andrews Church, and the Tower at the Weft Gate, accompanied with 
five Minute Guns, fired at each of the following Places,' viz. The Caftle, All 
Saints Church, Newgate, and Weftgate. 

Immediately upon the above Signals being made (if by Day, and at Day -break the. 
next Morning, if- by NightJ all Cattle and Live Stock, of every Description, muft 
be collected together upon the Town-Moor, where Perfons appointed for that 
Purpofe will take them in Charge : At the fame Time, fuch of the infirm Inhabi- 
tants, aud Children, who are defirous of being removed, but unable to remove 
tnemfelves, and who may wi(h to avail themfeWes of the Affiftance aflvr_dd by the 
Public for that Purpofe, muft be brought to the following Places of Rendezvous, 
where proper Means for their Conveyance will be provided, and in readinefs, ..viz. - 

Thofc who refide in 

St Nicholas' Parish, { To the Skinner-Burn, Forth Lsme, &c 

M. Angw an<fSon, 


r Eaft Drvifion, lying without the Walls, to The 
AU&untf Parish. ) Garth-Heads. 

_) Weft Divifion. lying within the Walls, to The 
C Carlipl Croft. 

St Andrew's Parish* { To Percy-Street. 
St John's Parish, { To the SpitaL 

Proper Means will be provided for the Conveyance of fuch Beds and Blankets 
as are neceflkry for each Family, upon Condition that the fame are brought to the 
Place of Rendezvous well packed ap, and a Ticket, containing the Owner's 
Name, and the Name of the Parifh and Street where they refide, affixed to each 
Package. 'Each Perlbn mutt come provided with THREE DAYS' PROVISION., 
and Cooking Utenfils ; befides thefe, and Beds and Blankets, no other Defcrip- 
tbft of Property will be allowed to be put into the. Carriage or Craft, appropriated 
for the Removal of the Inhabitants., 

Newburn, Wylam, Ry ton, and their Vicinities, 

Being appointed the Places of General Depot (in. the fir.fl Inftance) for this Town, 
temporary Habitations, and every poflible Convenience will, in .the Event of a 
Removal becoming necefiary, be there provided : and to thefe Places, all Perfons 
riot engaged in tha..public Service, xlefirpus of removing, and who arc able to travel, 
or have the Means of removing themfelves, may, upon the foregoing Signals being 
made, repair, but with at leaft three Days' Provisions. And in order to avoid giving 
any Interruption to the March of His Majefty's Troops, it is hereby strictly requir- 
ed, That no Perfon travelling on Foot, mall on any Account -come upon the Weft 
Military Road, but fuch Perfons muft make Ufe of the Bye- Roads : And in order 
to leave thof^ -Roads as much at Liberty as poflible, the Foot-Path leading up the 
Norlh Side of the Tyne, is ftrongly recommended to People of the above Def. 
cription. And it is alfo required that no Carriages, or Perfons on Horfeback, do, 
on any Account, quit the Town after the Signals are made, except under the 
Pirection of the Perfons appointed to fuperintend their Route, fo that they may 
be under proper Regulations ; and for this Purpofe; all fuch Cai riages and Horl'es 
mull be "brought to fome of the Places of Rendezvous. 

The following Gentlemen have, in purfuanee of the foregoing Act, been appoint- 
ed by His Majefty to carry the Provifions thereof into Execution, under the Direc- 
tion of the Lord Lieutenant : 

The Mayor of Newcaftle for the Time being, Lieutenant of Division. 
Parishes Inspectors Superintcndants Assistant Ditto 

St Nicholas Thos. Burdon, Efq. ^* ^ l^'J^ 

/- Mr John Head, 

AH Saints Miles Monkhoufe, Efq. <> ^ N - Re " d - , Mr Tho ' Brown 

n p Mr Iho. Head, PUgrim-Strtct. 

C Pandon-Bank. 

St Andrews Wra Yielder, Efq. $ Mr Geo Dunn, MrD. Henderfon, 

Pilgrtm-Slrcet. Ditto. 

St John Fra. Johhfon, Efq. \ M r/ ' Sanderfon, Mr W. Harbottle, 

Hanover- Square, Percy-Street* 


The above-named Officers are empowered to call in to their Afliflance fuch Perfons 
: as they may deem Jie<;eflary for carrymg into Execution the feveral Duties commit- 
ted to their Charge; -and any Perfon guilty of a Difobedience of thefe Orders, or 
any other Orders which they may from Time to Time iflue under the before-men- 
tioned Aft, are thereby fubje&ed to a Penalty of one Hundred Pounds^ 

THOS> SMITH, Mayor. 

. The Public are hereby apprifed, that the abovementioned Act only provides the 
Means of facilitating the Removal of iuch Perfons as may be inclined to quit 
the Town upon the foregoing Emergency ; but no Provifion is thereby made 
for maintaining fuch Perlons at the Expence of the Public when fo removed. 
Every Comfort and Accommodation within the Power of the Lieutenant of 
Divihon \viil, however, be procured for fuch- Perfons at the Place of Depot. 

The foregoing Signals* which are intijpded for the above Purpofes only, and 
are in no manner conne&ed with the general Signals of Alarm eftablifhed 
throughout the Countj^'i will not be made unlefs by exprefj^ prder from the 
General Officer commanding the Diftricl, which Order he will riot illuCj ex- 
cept upon the moft prefling Emergency ; and to the End that all Perlons 
may be acquainted with fuch Signals, the fame will be made for their Infor- 
INSTANT, from twelve to one o'clock at Noon, and from eight to nine 
o'Clock in the Evening.- And the fame will not again be repeated, 
by fuch Order, and for the Purpofe abovementioned. 

ft is requested that these Orders and Regulations may be preserved. 

*ewlt : -M, ANCW A SON, TYUhn. 

[Pfoc. 3 Ser. vii] 


of the Eftate late of JAMES late Earl of *Der- 
wentivatcr, in Northumberland. 

To be Sold before the Commiflioners and Trnjites for the Forfeited 
Ejlates, at their Office in the Inner-Temple,, on Thurfday the \ ith 
P^o/July, 1723. 

TENANTS. | F A R M S, &>' ' 

Annual Rent. 


TJ Obert WnUringtorf, ?le/ej Hall, &c. 

/. .' d. 


/. s. d, 
4f8 o? oo 

STjS5g k Z=i{^-dbi- 

-/,,. PnAfir/rtTT Tim ) * 


27 10 
13 if 

Wrltr/THf <w7fKrrrtft ttridtrr TTnttft* Firm 

J V ^J 

?!, -TV,* 1 The Mill > with aboutT 
JobnTomg, j. 14 Acres of Land-/ 
'William Fletcher , 'Hartford Bridge-Houfe 
Ricbard&JIy, Efq; The Colliery 


3J ~ H 


Thews BtU Csfen,,, _^ J 

fohn AnaerjoHj' ( (, 
Willijm Gillcfpy - J 

}i c > J 

n r 

31. oy 

7ci* 'Rotinfon'*Sm. Sbotten We$ Houfes - i - 
Jo^w ^, Shouen-Edge 


Ed-ward Bjers, The Demefne, &c. 
D; tto . .. The Weft Farm 

54 ~ *- 

4 o 

Francis Weldon, Link-Hnfe Farm 
William SHvertop, Blytb-Nooke Farm 
John Clarkfy Cuthfiertforis Farm 

4 " " 
9 o 

t? - - 
11 jo 
Zl IO 


| g^', } The great Wtf Farm \ 
PMf JM, A Houfc and Clbfe 

Carry 'd over 

1 9 J 

4j8 oj -co 


'T^E N A N T s. i 

FARMS, &c. 

Annual Rent. 

Richer J Nicbolfon, 
Richard L<rmb, -\ 
M irv Grrv / 

Brought over 
The Fifhery 




s. d. 



/. X. </. 

4j8 of oo 

4)8 if 60 

118 co oc 


John Ward, > 

Robert Wright, Efq; 7 
John Spearman, Efq; J 








i; 04 

n 04 
ij 04 

ab 1 if Acr.ofLandJ 

Steatb Rooms ^ 


jtrtmia rown, i 

K ff r 


The Inheritance of the above Premises is to be fold Expeftant on the Death of 
the Lady Mary Radclyffe. 

y. B. This Eftatc was devifed by Colonel Thomas RaJcty/e, deceas'd, to the 
Lady Mary Radchffc during her Life ; and after her Deceafc, to James late 
Earl of Denventwater, and his Heirs. The Will wa's made fince the Statute 
of nth and nth of William the 3d ; and Lady Mary Radclyfl'e being a Pa* 
pift, was incapable to take by Vertue of that Devife, and confequently that 
Devife void ; and if fo, the Purchafer will be entitled to tlie Eftate in Pollef- 
fion ;.Jamet late Earl of Denventftater being not only Devifee, but Heir at 
Law to Colonel Thomas Radcljfft, his Uncle, the Devifor. 

within the bishopric of Durham, To have, to hold, and to occupy the said office to the 
aforesaid Humphrey Orme, by him or by his sufficient deputy or deputies during his 
life, with a fee of 2 pence a day for the exercise of the said office to be received annually 
during his said life out of the issues and profits of the town and lordship of Barnard castle, 
coming forth and arising, by the hands of the receiver or other occupier of the town and 
lordship aforesaid for the time being, at the usual feasts, by equal portions, together with 
all other profits, commodities, advantages and emoluments to the said office, owing or 
pertaining as by the said letters patent plainly appears, which letters patent accordingly 
the said Humphrey Orme having and enjoying our combined office and fee aforesaid, 
gave up and handed over to be cancelled, with the intention that we should deign to 
make over and grant our letters patent and our concession of the same office and fee to 
our worthy Thomas Rolandson, junior, gentleman, in the following form, which surrender 
we have agreed to by these presents. 

Know ye therefore that we by the advice of our worthy and faithful counsellers, 
William, baron of Burghley, treasurer of England, and Walter Myldmay, knight, 
chancellor of our Exchequer, we have assigned and appointed the aforesaid Thomas 
Rolandson to the aforesaid office of steward and collector of the town and lordship of 
Barnard castle within the bishopric of Durham aforesaid, and the same Thomas Rolandson 
we ordain and appoint by these presents to do, carry out, exercise and hold the said 
office as he will, so that touching or concerning the moneys and all other profits, and 
issues of the said town and lordship, lands, tenements and other premises from time to 
time, which come in or accrue to the hand ot our general receiver within the bishopric 
of Durham every year, he shall answer according to custom and duty in the 7th year of 
our well beloved brother Edward the 6th, in that case later made and provided, To 
have, to hold, enjoy and exercise the aforesaid office to the same Thomas Rolandson, 
either by himself or by sufficient deputy or deputies during our pleasure, and further 
by the advice aforesaid we assign and apportion to the aforesaid Thomas Rolandson for 
the exercise of the said office and fee two pence a day of legal money of England, to be 
received annually from the issues and rents of the town and lordship aforesaid, from 
time to time coming forth and arising either by his own hand, and in his own hand retained, 
or by the hand of the steward or receiver general at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
and the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by equal portions, to be paid during our 
good pleasure together with all other fees, allotments, liberties, profits, commodities, ad- 
vantages, authorities and places whatsoever, to the said office, by right, owing, or per- 
taining in such ample manner and form as Ambrose Barnes, Edward Forrest and Hum- 
phrey Orme, or any other or others who had formerly exercised or occupied the said 
office. In witness whereof we have made these our letters patent. 

Witness, our worthy and faithful counsellor William, baron of Burghley, treasurer of 
England, at Westminster, the 26th day of June, in the 26th year of our reign.' 
(2) The proceedings at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, between Henry 
Maddison and Nicholas Cole relate to a trial, before Robert 
Anderson, sheriff and a jury, at the Guildhall. Henry Maddison 
of Newcastle, merchant, requests that Nicholas Cole of Gates- 
head, yeoman, should be kept in the guardianship of Hugo 
Mason, remaining in prison till he returns to him four pounds 
which he owes and detains unjustly. The four pounds was in 
consideration that Henry Maddison conceded to Nicholas Cole 
way-leave through a certain close called Choprydinge for one 
year, for carrying sea coal from a coal mine belonging to Nicholas 
Cole, in the Parson's flatt. The jury decided that the four 
pounds should be recovered. The figure of Henry Maddison 
is in the centre of the famous Maddison monument in Newcastle 
cathedral church. Facing this figure is Elizabeth, who in the 
inscription is described as his only wife, by whom he had 16 
children. Nicholas Cole is a name famous throughout the Civil 


War and after. The Nicholas Cole mentioned in this document 
was evidently grandfather of the noted baronet, Sir Nicholas 
Cole, and great grandfather of Nicholas Cole whose name and 
arms are on the great mace of the town of Newcastle, which was 
ordered in 1686 when he was mayor. Parson's flatt mentioned 
in this document is referred to in Surtees's History of Durham, 
vol. ii, p. 119. There it says the rector of Gateshead has ' 40s. 
paid annually by the grassmen for Parson's flatt." 
The following is a translation of the document: 

' Elizabeth by the grace of God queen of England, France and Ireland, defender of the 
faith, etc., to the Mayor and Sheriff of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, greeting, 
whereas in record and process and to the giving of justice which was before you in our 
court in the said town without our brief, according to the custom of the said town, be- 
tween Henry Maddison and Nicholas Cole, concerning a debt of 4 pounds for which the 
said Henry sues, as it is said, from the aforesaid Nicholas, to the grave loss of the same 
Nicholas, so we have heard by his complaint. We, wishing the error, if error there has 
been, to be corrected in due manner and full and swift justice to be done between the 
aforesaid parties in this suit, order you that if judgment in it has been given, you should 
send the record and process aforesaid with all that touches it, to us under your seal, 
distinctly and openly, and that quickly. So you shall do this within the octave of St. 
Hilary, wherever in England you may then be, in order that having inspected further 
the record and process aforesaid, we may have corrected the error as should be done by 
right, and according to the law and custom of our kingdom of England. At Westminster, 
llth day of Nov'r, in the 43rd year of our reign. 

The court of our Lady the Queen held in the Guildhall of the town of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, on Friday the 24th day of April, in the 43rd year of our lady the queen, that now is 
before Robert Anderson, sheriff of the same town and county, according to force, form 
and effect, and by virtue of divers charters of our most serene lady, the queen, that now 
is and her progenitors kings of England granted and confirmed, etc. 

Henry Maddyson of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, merchant, by Andrew Boone, 
his attorney, complains that Nicholas Cole of Gateshead in co: Durham, yeoman, should 
be kept in the guardianship of Hugo Mayson, remaining in the prison in the same town 
of Newcastle during pleasure till he returns to them 4 pounds of legal English money, 
which he owes and detains unjustly, in that the aforesaid Nicholas on the 2nd day of 
February, in the 43rd year of our lady queen Elizabeth, that now is at the town of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne aforesaid, within the jurisdiction of this court, for and in considera- 
tion that the aforesaid Henry Maddyson should give and concede to the aforesaid Nicholas, 
the right of way, in English way leave into and through a certain close belonging to the 
same Henry, called the Choprydinge, situated and being in the county of Durham, for 
the space and period of one whole year then following, for the carrying and taking away 
of certain sea coal from a certain coal mine belonging to the same Nicholas in the Parson's 
flatt in the said county of Durham, be granted the payment to the said Henry of 4 pounds 
on the feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary then next following, and 
now last past, to which concession the said Henry then and there agreed, and the same 
Henry states that in the same town of Newcastle in other matters the custom is and has 
been from time immemorial that if any one in that same town of Newcastle has granted 
to anyone the payment of a debt or a sum of money and he has not paid that sum ac- 
cording to the concession he has made, then he in whose favour the concession has been 
made has had an action in complaint of the debt in this court and against him who made 
the concession in such power and in the same manner and form as they had for any 
obligation made in the jurisdiction of this court and although the same Henry gave and 
granted to the aforesaid Nicholas Cole a right of way, in English wayleave, into and 
through the aforesaid close of the same Henry, called Choprydinge, for the carrying and 
taking away of the aforesaid sea coal of the aforesaid Nicholas, and this is binding on the 
aforesaid coalmine belonging to the said Nicholas. Nevertheless the aforesaid Nicholas, 


though he often requisitioned the said four pounds has not'paid them to the aforesaid 
Henry Maddyson, but refused to pay them and by this refusal brought a loss of 40 shillings 
to the said Henry. And the aforesaid Nicholas Cole by William Watson his attorney 
comes and defends the wrong done to him and says that the aforesaid Henry ought not 
to have or maintain his aforesaid action against him, by protesting that he, the aforesaid 
Nicholas did not make any concession to pay to the said complainant 4 pounds in con- 
sideration that he the said complainant should give and grant a right of way, in English 
called wayleave into and through a certain close belonging to the same complainant, 
called Choprydinge, for the said space of a year for the carrying and taking away of sea 
coal, the obligation being upon the coalmine of the same Nicholas in Parson's flatt, stated 
in manner and form in the preceding statement. By protesting against the allegation 
that the said complainant did not agree with this conclusion or that any of the other 
allegations made against the same Nicholas in the preceding statement are true. The 
aforesaid defendant states that the aforesaid defendant does not owe the aforesaid com- 
plainant 4 pounds or a single penny of it in the manner and form that the same com- 
plainant claims against the same defendant and on that he asks the judgment of his country 
and the aforesaid complainant similarly. So it was ordered by Robert Anderson, sheriff 
of the town of Newcastle, that the aforesaid Hugo Mason should keep him guarded in the 
prison of the same town till he should come there on Wednesday the 17th day of June, in 
the 43rd year of our lady the queen, that now is and that there should be appointed 12 
honest and legal men of the town aforesaid, through whom the truth of the matter might 
better be known and who neither to recognition, etc., because so, etc. The same day 
is given to the aforesaid parties on which should come both the aforesaid Henry and the 
aforesaid Nicholas and the aforesaid servant according to his instructions, together with 
a panel from the list of the jury attached to the instructions and the jury aforesaid, 
'exactly 12 came, namely William Herryson, tailor; Thomas Smyth, cordyner; John 
Pottes, cordyner; Roger Frear, cordyner; Ralph Totherick, butcher; Gerard Reay, 
yeoman ; John Hunter, musician ; John Atkinson, cordyner ; George Rysley, cordyner ; 
Thomas Bowcer (?), yeoman ; Robert Fryzzell, tailor ; and Matthew Sheill, cordyner, 
who, after trial on oath of the truth of the premises, state that the aforesaid Nicholas 
owes the aforesaid Henry the aforesaid 4 pounds as the said Henry in his aforesaid state- 
ment supports, and they assess the loss of the said Henry over and above this through the 
detention of the debt and the custody of the defendant in this suit at one penny, and 
for sending him forward in custody 3 shillings and sixpence. So by the court it was 
granted that the aforesaid Henry should recover against the aforesaid Nicholas his debt 
aforesaid, and his losses aforesaid, and in the aforesaid form of assessment. Execution 
made the 17th of June, 1601.' 

The brief for correction of the error is lodged the llth of December, 1601. 
Mr. A. M. Oliver, the town clerk, said this is the earliest record of a 
suit in the sheriff's court. The official records of the court now extant 
commence in the year 1613. The records of the mayor's court begin in 
1650, of the Piepowder court of the town, only one or two cases are 
recorded. The mayor's and sheriff's courts are now known as the 
burgess and the non-burgess courts respectively. They are courts 
of record and are the survivals of the old merchant court of the town, 
of the existence of which we have evidence in the customs of Newcastle, 
as they existed in the time of Henry i. ' Inter burgensem et mer- 
catorem si placitum oriatur finiatur ante tertiam refluxionem maris ' 
(Stubbs, Select Charters, p. 112). There is no authority for the state- 
ment in Welford's Newcastle and Gateshead (vol. n, p. 6) that the sheriff's 
court was established about the year 1500. It is in all probability 
the continuation of a court held by the bailiffs of the town prior to 
the grant of the shrievalty in 1400. None but free burgesses and their 
widows can be sued in the burgess court, and none but non-freemen 
and foreigners in the non-burgess court. A breach of this rule results 


in the plaintiff being non -suited. On the request of the justices of 
the peace for the county of Durham, and the town councils of New- 
castle and Gateshead, the jurisdiction of the mayor's court, the 
sheriff's court and the court of conscience of Newcastle was, on 1 2th 
March, 1838, extended over the borough of Gateshead. Some of the 
small silver maces of the Serjeants at mace (servienles ad clavam) of 
the courts, are preserved in the Lord Mayor's chamber. 

The following are extracts from ' The Practice and orders of the 
Mayor's and Sheriff's Courts,' of which a few manuscript copies are 
known still to exist : 

20 May, 1668. It was ordered that those Serjeants at Mace who had not kid in Bail 
to the Mayor or Sheriff should not officiate until the same was done. 

21 Feb. 1675. Ordered (after reciting the Misbehaviour of many of the Serjeants) 
that unless they give better attendance in future on Court days the Mayor and Aldermen 
were determined to elect new ones without any ffee or reward. 

22 Jan. 1676. Ordered that all Serjeants shall bring yeir maces to court every Court 
Day under the penalty of 10s. 

12 April, 1679. Serjeants to be fined 20s. for going out of Church during divine service. 

4 July, 1681. Ordered that Eleazor Robson be fined 5 for his ill behaviour to the 
Deputy Mayor. 

3 Sept. 1707. Ordered that Mr. Joshua Greenwell be suspended from practising in 
the Sheriff's court during the pleasure of Mr. Sheriff. 

2 April, 1739. Any Attorney or Clerk coming into Court during the time of holding 
same with a Night Gown on to forfeit 6s. Sd. before they leave Court. 
The exhibitors were heartily thanked for their exhibits. 


Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., read a paper ' Notices of Chapels and 
Towers of Northumberland, circa 1715.' 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Hodgson by acclamation. 


Mr. W. H. Knowles, F.S.A., V.P., read notes on Newburn hall 
and manor house, with lantern illustrations of plans, elevations, 

The paper will probably be printed in full in Archaeologia Aeliana, 
3 SER. xn. 

Mr. Knowles was thanked for his paper. 


The following letters, etc., are from the Radcliffe papers belonging 
to the Rev. T. Stephens (continued from page 8). The letters 
were written by Thomas Errington, who seems to have been one of 
Lady Derwentwater's agents : 

May it please yor Ladyshipe Capheaton March the 23d: 172J 

I haue Receiued your Ladyships letter of the 20 Instant foraigne Style last Munday, 
as to the two Tennants of meldon they are very honest men, the one is a papist, and his 
name is William Weldon, his Grand ffather, and his ffather now is liueing and has liued all 
theire lifes att Aydon sheells vnder your late Good Lord and his ancesters, and he now liues 
att Capheaton, and has been Steward to old Sr John Swinburne and now is to the old Lady 
Swinburne, the other mans name is Robert Twisle, and liues att Harborne Grange, and has 
liued there for some yeares, and that Estate belongs to my young Lord, they are both very 
able Substantiall men, and when the agreement was made with them for raeldon and meldon 


parke, they would not Comply to pay more than 400W. for the first three yeares, because 
the grounds were mush Run out by the formor Tennants, that paid all theire Rents to the 
publike, and by the misfortune of the times, and that after the first three yeares for a 
Eleauen more they were to pay 448W. $ ann and that was Soe Expressed in the account of 
the aduance Rents I sent your Ladyshipe an account of, and that article was Referd to your 
Ladyshipe, I shall take care to mind Patrick Dauison the marchant hi Hezham there was 
none Spoke to me but him of what I writt your Ladyshipe in that affaire, I haue not Since 
seen Admirall Dalaval that I Receiued your Ladyships letter, for he is very Bussye in 
Parlimentareing, vpon his nephews account, but I hope to see him in a short time, I had 
a letter from one Mr. Nicholas Ridley who is now at London, and he writt me amongst other 
things, that he beleaued the late Coll: Radclyffes Estate, would not be Sett vp to sale this 
yeare or more, but I cannot beleaue him in that matter, for his Brother Adlerman Ridley 
had and has adesigne in Buying it, and Nicho Ridleys writeing soe is but a Blind, as to the 
Lead mynes being soe poor, what is allready gott, Cannot be gott againe, and there is noe 
new Tryalls proues worth any thing, I Cannot tell what Mr Bacon may doe at Green Gill, 
your Ladyshipe may be assured I shall doe all in my power to Encourage the Lead mynes, 
I am mush affraid theire is but litle hopes of that money for the Lead oare that the Comis- 
sionrs Enterd vpon, I shall allwayes keep a full yeares annuity of Mr Arthurs in my hand 
before I pay him another yeare, I thinke it were mush bettor to keep two yeares, for he has 
noe occassion for it, and what he has he does noe good with it, I spoke to him as your Lady- 
shipe orderd me Relateing to my Lady Mary Tuder and told him shee was goeing to be 
maryed, and it woud be a porticular fauour and true freindshipe in him to make a handsome 
present to her at this time, but all the answere I could gett of nun was, that his Sister the 
old Lady Swnburne had Spoken to him a boute that matter and he had told her to write 
to your Ladyshipe what he would doe in that matter, which I am affraid is nothing at all, 
I wish they doe not Speake for theire owne Intrests when they make Application to him 
but please to keep this to your Ladyships Selfe, as to what your Ladyshipe mentiones in yours 
aboute those Tennants that paid theire Rents to the Gouerment, it is true, that I writt 
your Ladyshipe that Councell did aduise that such Rents as was paid after my Lords Death 
to the Gouerment the Tennants would be oblidged to Repay them back if they were able, 
but there can no thing be done in that matter till theComissionrs power by act of Parliament 
is Ended and that will not be till the 24 of June 1723, and Chapes then gett another act 
of Parliament for a longer time, Mr Edward Ridell of Swinburne Castle dyed last Tuesday, 
which is a mallancolly death to that famally, for his Eldest Son was in the misfortune with 
the other Gent, and I am affraid the whole Estate is in a dangerous way, my Lady Mary 
Radclyfife of Durham is Three Thousand pounds Deep there, all this famally are well and 
giues theire humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and famally, and I am, 

yor Ladyshipes Most obedient Soruant Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' A Madame | Madame La Comtesse De | Darwent- 
water dans la Rue haute | proche L'Eglise de la Chappell I A I 
Bruxelles | By Ostend.'] 

The following appeared in Notes and Queries (11 ser. x, 373) : 

Your Derwentwater correspondents may be interested to know, if they do not already, 
that in Hartford Church, Huntingdon, is an entry in the register relating to the execution 
of the last Earl [of Derwentwater]. It is very faint, almost illegible, but if permission 
could be obtained to photograph it, it might come out clearer, or a very strong 
magnifying glass might be sufficient. I suppose every one knows of the monument 
erected to his memory by the Countess in the grounds of her residence at Acton. It is 
now enclosed in the public park at Acton. 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 3 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 31 st March, 1915, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, F.S.A., a vice- 
president, being in the chair. 


The chairman said, 

" Since our last meeting we have lost our venerable custodian, Mr. 
John Gibson, whose death, after a brief illness, occurred on the 12th 
March, 1915. He had reached the age of 82, and he was laid to rest 
on the Monday following at Gosforth Church, when his funeral was 
attended by a representative gathering of our members. 

I interpret the feeling of all here present in moving that an ex- 
pression of our sympathy in the bereavement be sent to the late Mr. 
Gibson's niece (Miss Gibson) and to his relatives, and that we here 
record our appreciation of his long and faithful services as custodian 
of the Castle for the period of 43 years. 

It is difficult to express the character and worth of the services 
rendered to our society by our late custodian. He was devoted to 
its interests ; he dedicated himself whole-heartedly to its service and 
was unfailingly at the post of duty throughout the two score years 
and more by which the length of his service is measured. His 
modest, retiring and reserved character obscured at first sight the 
wealth of information which he had acquired by experience and 
observation and was able to impart on closer intimacy. As a silent 
listener at the society's monthly meetings he could recall minutely 
the subjects that interested the members of a past generation. He 
was a keen critic of theories and of their champions, whilst his pene- 
tration of character gave point to his verdict on the men and measures 
under discussion. This was especially the case in relation to the Roman 
occupation of the north, in which he took much interest, so that, in 
later years, an annual vacation granted him was always spent upon 
the line of the Roman Wall, in careful investigation of its remains. 

.But the keep, in which we are now assembled, and wherein he kept 
watch and ward daily, formed a continued object of his solicitude. 
He had assisted Dr. Bruce in borings made to ascertain if any sub- 
terranean work existed beneath the present floor level, and again 
in probing the tower over the stairs of the fore-building. In both 
cases no discovery resulted and for many years further investigation 
ceased. Mr. Gibson, however, continued unceasingly to direct attention 
to other problems that awaited solution until his importunity was 
rewarded by an awakening of the lapsed interest in the structure. 
Our vice-president, Mr. W. H Knowles, forced an entrance into and 
discovered the large and lofty chamber on the ground level where 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 4 


the garderobe shafts of the building terminated upon the west front 
of the keep. This, as late as 1817, had lain behind an embankment 
of earth and was therefore unknown to Vulliamy, and thus omitted 
from the survey reproduced in Vetusta Monumenta. The lower mural 
gallery and its blind stairway in the great hall was later shown by Mr. 
Sheriton Holmes to demonstrate the fact that at the last step of the 
-eturn stair the plan of the engineer, Mauricius Cementarius, had 
been abruptly changed, the stairway abandoned, and the super- 
structure raised on the altered lines. Mr. Gibson himself, working 
above this point, lifted a trapdoor in the upper gallery and cleared 
it of loose rubbish, thereby revealing an ashlar-faced conduit carried 
through from the inner to the outer face of the wall. This was the 
original exit of the roof drainage, of sufficient capacity to carry off 
the outflow of the entire roof. The discovery not only determined 
the height from floor to roof of the great hall, but solved the long- 
standing controversy as to the existence of upper stages over that 
splendid apartment, whose original proportions were thus manifested 
beyond doubt. The large apertures in the upper gallery were seen 
to have once opened to the day, rising over a dropped roof of hipped 
construction. Following up the investigation, Mr. W. H. Knowles 
discovered a second rainwater outlet on the north face of the building, 
of quite rude work. Its extemporized character indicated its pro- 
vision for an altered form of roof construction when the original 
hipped roof gave place to a plain ridge roof stretching from wall to 
wall, having two independent gutter lines each necessitating a separate 
exit through the outer walls. Marks of weather lines on the inner 
faces of the great hall corroborate these features. Yet another in- 
vestigation in the great hall was entirely carried out by Mr. Gibson 
himself. The existence of square recesses in the wall faces had long 
been known, but their irregular positions afforded no clue whatever 
to their purpose. Mr. Gibson carefully marked them, and in each case 
discovered, by sounding, corresponding holes on the opposite walls. 
All these he opened out by removing their covering of plaster. They 
proved to be beam-holes intended for carrying eleven-inch square 
beams for the support of platforms at the sill levels of the south and 
north window embrasures. The provisional character of this work 
points to some temporary adaptation of the building, such as was 
made when Sir John Marley called in the services of the ship carpenters 
in 1643, with their planks and beams, to render the half -ruined fortress 
once more capable of defence. 

You will forgive me for going into such detail, but these elucidations 
of the structural character of the keep are of great interest, and their 
inception was due to the insistence with which Mr. Gibson had urged 
them upon our members year in, year out. A notice of his life and 
service would be incomplete without some record of the valuable 
knowledge thus acquired by us all, largely through him." 

The resolution was carried in silent sympathy. 

The following books, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. R. H. Edleston, F.S.A. (the author) : Napoleon JII and 
Italv, part iii, 1865-1868. 

From the Rev. J.Marshall Aitken, secretary of the Berwickshire 
Naturalists' Club : Transactions of the Berwickshire Naturalists' 
Club, xx, i and ii, xxi (1909-1910-1911), xxn, i (completing 
the society's set of these transactions up to date). 


From R. Blair : The Antiquary for March and April, 1915. 
Exchanges : 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Proceedings, XLVIII, 

sm. 4to, cl. 

From the Surrey Archaeological Society : Collections, xxvn, 8vo. cl. 
From the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

Journal, xxxvu. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : Proceedings, LXVI. 
From the Royal Archaeological Institute : The. Archaeological 

Journal, LXI, nos. 281 and 282. 

From the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 
(1) The Magazine, no. 122 ; and (2) Inquisiliones Post Mortem 
relating to Wiltshire, from the Reign of Edward III, part vi. 
From the Sumersetshire Archaeological and Natural History 

Society : Proceedings, LX. 

From the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire : Transac- 
tions, LXVI. 

From the British School at Rome : Papers, vn. 
Purchases : 

The Pedigree Register, m, no. 32 ; Notes and Queries for the month : 
The Registers of Sherburn Hospital and of Castle Eden (North, 
and Durham Par. Reg. Soc.) ; The Museums Journal, xiv, 
no. 10 ; Proceedings, xxix, ii, Year Book, xxix, ii and iv, and 
Index for 1913 of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. 

From Sir Walter Essex, M.P. (per Mr. Parker Brewis, F.S.A.) : A 
pre-historic currency bar of iron found near Bourton-on-the 

Mr. Brewis said, " I have much pleasure, on behalf of Sir Walter 
Essex, in presenting to the society this pre-historic iron currency bar, 
found near Bourton-on-the-Water, Gloucestershire, in 1860. It 
consists of a slightly tapering strap of iron averaging about 1 ins. 
in width, -^ ins. in thickness, and is now about 31 ins. long, and 
weighs 21 ounces ; but a small portion is missing from the broader 
end, which as usual is pinched up to form a sort of handle. It would 
originally be about 32 ins. long, and weigh about 21 ounces. Accord- 
ing to the authorities at the British Museum, iron bar currency may 
be classified in three denominations, viz., once, twice, and four times 
the unit of 4700 grains. This specimen clearly belongs to the middle, 
or double, unit, which is the most usual. Caesar, in his description 
of the manners and customs of the Britons, remarks that some of them 
used iron bars of specified weights as a substitute for coins. Of course 
coinage had already been introduced into Britain, but, as in parts of 
Central Africa at the present day, bars of iron were used as a medium 
of exchange. The distribution of known specimens indicates that 
this more primitive form of currency was confined, at least in Caesar's 
time, to the interior of Britain. They have been found in seven 
English counties, sometimes on known early British sites. Perhaps 
the most significant discovery of currency bars was made at Glaston- 
bury on the site of the marsh village, where there is no trace of contact 
with Roman civilization. 

I also exhibit a second specimen of my own, obtained through 
Mr. Knowles and Dr. Greenwell. It is from the same locality, 
but probably not from the same find. I have submitted both speci- 


mens to the British Museum, and an account of them will appear in 

a forthcoming paper by Mr. Reginald Smith." 

Sir Walter Essex was thanked for his gift, as was also Mr. Brewis 

for the exhibit. 


By Mr. W. H. Cullen : a very fine silver medal of queen Anne, 
commemorating the peace of Utrecht, in its original round shagreen 
case. The medal is 1^ ins. in diameter. Obverse : laureated head 
and draped bust to left, and the inscription ANNA. D.G. MAG. BRIT. 
FR: ET. HIB: REG. Reverse : Britannia standing looking to left 
with shield and spear in left hand, and holding out olive branch 
in right ; in the background is a fleet of ships, etc. ; inscription 


By - of Gateshead : Kitchin's map of co. Durham, of 

about the middle of the 18th century. 


The Rev. T. Stephens, in sending a squeeze of the inscription on this 
altar, said, ' I have made an attempt to read the inscription, but the 
face of the stone is much worn and some of the letters yet remaining 
ill-formed. The inscription appears to be : 





V S L M 

In English: To Victory, the first Cohort of the Vardudi, a mil!iary one 

[commanded by] Publius in discharge of a vow freely and 

deservedly made. 

The altar is now preserved in the porch of Horsley on Rede church. 

Mr. Stephens was thanked for his communication. 


Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read a short paper by Professor 
Haverfield on the two altars recently discovered at Chesterholm ; 
one of them interesting from the circumstance that it gives the Latin 
name of the place as Vindolande. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Haverfield. 

The paper will be printed in Arch. A el., 3 ser. xn. 


Mr. William Brown, F.S.A., sent the following notes of Local Wills 
from the Yorkshire Record series, vol. 49. 

, Jan. 3, 1661. Barker, Samuell, [Barwick upon Tweed], one of the soldiers rydeing in 
the Right Honorable the Lord Generall Monckes owne troope of horse, Oct. 29, 1659. 

44, 14. 

Jan. 18, 1665. Bell, William, Gateside, [near Newcastle-upon-Tyne], co. Durham, milliner, 

Dec. 26, 1665. 47, 317. 

July 20, 1664. Bell, William, Tickhill, yeoman, [bur. Quakeres buryall place in Sunder- 

land], May 3, 1659. 46, 340. 

Oct. 16, 1660. Bowes, Thomas, Streatlam castle, co. Durham, esquier, Sep, 6, 1660. 

43, 9. 

June 8, 1663. Bulmer, Isabell, [Marrick], widdow, late wife of Sir Bartram B. knight, 

Oct. 12, 1642. 45, 521. 

Jan. 28, 1661. Charleton, Isabell, par. St. John de Lees within the iurisdiccion of Hexham 

and Hexhamshire, widow, about Dec. 7, 1661. 44, 266. 


July 9, 1662. Clark, Gabriel, D.D., archdeacon of Durham, [bur. Durham Cath.], May 8, 

1662. 44, 510. 

Jan. 28, 1661. Colling, Hugh, Barnarde Castle, co. Durham, yeoman, Mar. 9, 13 Charles I. 

44, 265. 

June 10, 1661. Dethicke, Thomas, Greatham, co. Durham, gent., Sept. 22, 1656. 43, 373. 
June 10, 1661. Fishwecke, Thomas, Eadsforth within Crooke, husbandman, Jan. 3, 1656. 

43, 21. 

June 26. 1661. Forthe, John, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, merchante, May 15, 1660. 43, 504. 
Jan. 13, 1663. Green, John, par. Allhallowes, Newcastle-upon-Tine, marchante, about 

Nov. 7, 1662. 46, 218. 

Aug. 22, 1661. Osmounderlaw, William, Langrigge, [co. Northumberland], (bur. Brum- 

feild), April 23, 1660. 44, 119. 

Aug. 5, 1663. Scrogges, Alice, Middleton-one-rowe, co. Durham, widow, Dec. 18, 1662. 

45, 596. 

Nov. 1, 1661. Staynes, Thomas; par. Sockburne, Sep. 19, 1661. 43, 689. 

Oct. 25, 1660. Trotter, Mary, Escombe, par. St. Andrew, Awckland, dioc. Durham, 

widow, in or about the month of June, 1659. 43, 11. 

July 1, 1664. Widdrington, Thomas, Chesburne grange, co. Northumberland, [knight], 

(bur. St. Gyles in the feildes, co. Middlesex), Sept. 1, 1663. 46, 330. 

Unregistered Wills. 

[Nov. 20, 1633]. Alderson, Thomas, Barnerd-castle, co. Durham, miller, May 11, 1633. 
Dec. 12, 1633. Barbar, Bridgett, Eglsclife. No date. 
June 17, 1634. Medley, John, Thockrington, co. Northumberland (bur. Challerton), 

yeoman, Feb. 8, 1629. 

June 25, 1634. Jonson, William, Carlton, co. Durham, husbandman, Nov. 30, 1633 
Feb. 25, 1633. Wrey, Thomas, Witton hall, co. Durham, yeoman, April 28, 1633. 

Re infecta Wills. 
Fairless, Matthew, monke in Allendale, co. Northumberland, [yeoman], Dec. [21], 1672. 

Farlom, Samuell, Neither Bishopside in Allendale, [co. Northumberland, yeoman], Mar. 

(25), 1675, Prerogative. 
Thurswall, Ann, Hexham, co. Northumberland, July [29], 1666. Prerogative. 

A dministrations. 
Dec. 28, 1661. Foster, Giles, clerk, late curate of Wytton on Weare, dioc. Durham, fol. 

93, Prerogative. 

April 24, 1662. Crissopp, George. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, fol. 971, Prerogative. 
June 17, 1663. Marley, Ralph, Picktree,. dioc. Durham, fol. 107; and March 80, 1665, 

fol. 123, Prerogative. 
Mar. 28, 1665. Gilbertson, Andiew, par. St. Nicholas, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, fol. 123, 


April 11, 1665. Stevenson, Jacobus, Evenwood, dioc. Durham, fol. 123, Prerogative. 
May 17, 1665. Forster, Dame Elizabeth, Blanchland, dioc. Durham, fol. 131, Prerogative 
Mr. Brown was thanked. 



The following are more letters from the Rev. T. Stephens 's collection 
(continued from page 24) : 
May it please your Ladyshipe Capheaton Aprill 23d: 1722. 

I haue not much to trouble your with at this time, but to accquaint your Ladyshipe that 
mr Busby and I was at Kesswicke aboute Tenn dayes since, Receiueinge the last Martinmas 
Rents, and holding Courts there with mr. Simpson the Steward of the Courts in Cumberland, 
and all the Tennants there that aduariced theire Rents att Kesswicke aboute a yeare and a 
halfe Since, are giueing vp there farmes, and declares they Cannot be able to hold them 


for Corne being very Cheap, Catle very Cheap, noe trade, nor noe money, they Cannot tell 
what Course to take, and it is the Same in this County of northumberland, and all Countys 
in England where Lands were aduanced, this is a mallancolly storey but it is a true one, 
the Cottagers of Dilston was with me last Tuesday att Hexham aboute theire Cottages 
Rents of Tenn Shillings a Cottage, and Swinburne the Taylers is twenty shillings because 
he has a Close to it, I find they would pay noe Rents att all, but hopes your Ladyshipe will 
lett them haue them Rent ffree, I had your Ladyships order to put them in the Rentalls 
for the old Lord Darwentwater Built all those houses, and if your Ladyshipe haue a mind 
to giue them the Houses Rent ffree, I am Satisfyed, they Intend to petition your Ladyshipe 
aboute this matter, they might haue had some pretence of fauour had they built the Houses 
at theire owne Costs and Charge, but as my old Lord Built them, its my thoughts they are 
not Intituld to any, Mr Arthur Radclyffe who Hues here, is Goeing to make a ffine Damaske 
Bedd, which I am told will Cost him aboue a hundred pounds, it is for him Selfe at prsent, 
but its my thoughts it will be for this famally a litle while hense, please to take noe notice 
of it, I had a letter from Mr. Radbourne the 13: of this month, wherein he writt me, your 
Ladyshipe was mistaken of the 700/i: annuity Money being in mrsers ffenwicks and waters 
hands, but Mr. Radbourne writes me it was all Returnd to him long before your Ladyshipe 
writt me, I haue paid 500ft. more on the annuity account to mrsrs ffenwicks and waters as 
I writt your Ladyshipe in my last and of which I aduised Mr. Radburne, which makes 1200fts 
paid on the Annuityes account Since the 14 of July last 1721 and to be Returnd to London, 
Mr Radburne writt me in his last letter, that your Ladyshipe had writt him aboute the 
Duble Taxes, and he writt me what he thought was proper to be done, which was to Apply 
to the Comissionrs of the Land Tax, which I thinke is to litle purpose and I writt him soe 
for all the Applycation that coud be made to them was done last yeare, and to noe purpose, 
for as I haue often writt your Ladyshipe, that all those Comissionrs has Estates lyes in the 
same parishes where my Lords Estates are, and those Comissioners and others of theire freinds 
are loe in the Taxes, and if my Lords Estates in those parishes were lessend, then theires 
would be aduanced, and Euen those persons who seemes and pretends a great freindshipe 
and ffauour to your Ladyshipe and my Lord is quite alterd when there Interests are any 
way Concernd ; Mr. Radbourne writes, that if wee cannot prevaile with them this yeare 
to accquaint them your Ladyshipe will trye it with them, and I beleaue it will neuer be gott 
done till that methode is taken, your Ladyshipe writt me in your last of the 10: of this 
month, that Mr. Radburne thought it was neccessary that I shall send him Rentalls of the 
last two yeares accounts, and a perticular of each yeares arreares, which shall be done this 
Sumer, and a Rentall as the Estate is now lett at this yeare 1722, I shall gett Mr Busby to 
Cuppy mine to be sent mr Radburne, your Ladyshipe may be assured of it, I shall doe all 
in my power to serue you and my Lord very Justly, altho I gett the 111 will of some people 
for standing for your Interests ; I doe not value such people as those are, all this famally 
are well and giues theire humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and famally, I am, 

yor Ladyshipes most obedent Seruant Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' A Madame | Madame La Comtesse De | Darwent- 
water dans la Rue haute | proche L'Eglise de la Chappell | A | 
Bruxelles ; By Ostend.'] 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton May the 25th: 1722. 

I haue the Honnr of yours of the 22d Instant, which is a great Satisfaction to me to heare 
that your Ladyshipe and the Childer are all in good health which god allmighty long continue, 
there is none of the Leases Signed by any of the Tennants as yett, there is noe doubt but 
they would haue been all Signed if times were as good now as they were two yeares Since, 
there is euery day greater Complaints for want of Trade and want of money, and Lands 
will fall as fast as euer they were aduanced for its not poseable Tennants can hold out to 
pay Dear Rents and haue noe vend for either Corne or Catle, I cannot say any more in this 
matter aboue but its but amallancolly Story, as to mr Arthur Radclyffe its not in the power 
of any body liueing to perswade him to doe any thing for his Relations and for that Reason 
he must take his owne Course, I have not Seen Aclmirall Delavale of late, but I hope before 


he goes out of the Countrey to London to waite vpon him, and discourse him in that affaire 
I mentioned to your Ladyshipe, and what pases in it shall lett you know, as to the Taxes 
I hope wee haue made Some Steps this yeare that will be of Some aduantage to my Lord, 
last Tuesday 22d: Instant the Comissionrs mett att Hexham being an Appeale day, there 
was fiue in number, vizt Mr. John Douglas, Capt Cotesworth, Mr. Robert Cotesforth, Mr. 
Geo: Ledgard, and Alderman ffenwick, the two last gentlemen I prevailed with to come 
from Newcastle where they liue, to Hexham that day and accordingly they did, and they 
all agreed vpon this footeing, that as nothing did appeare to them, but that your Ladyshipes 
Joynture was allowed to you, that was to be dubly Taxt, and all the other part of the Estate 
Singley Taxt, had Mr. Radburne Sent downe a Certificate from the Comissonrs of Inquirey, 
that your Ladyships Joynture was not as yett allowed you, it would haue been Single Taxt 
as well as the other part of the Estate, which the Comissionrs of the Land Tax wanted to 
See, Mr. Busby writt to Mr. Radburne three times pressingly to send downe Such a Certifi- 
cate, but none comeing your Ladyships Joynture was Taxt duble, I can assure you that all 
those gentlemen aboue was very Ciuill arid I hope the Rest all ouer this County will follow 
there Example, I am of that mind that Seuerall of the Tennants will Signe there Leases, 
I shall pay ffrancis wilson Tenn pounds as your Ladyshipe orders, it will be very Joyfull 
to me, to Receiue a letter from my Deare Lord and master, Mr. Charleton of Reds Mouth, 
who is Cheife Bayliffe in the manner of warke has gott a Conueyance of those Lands in 
that Mannor, Called Palmars Lands, taken in the name of one Graham in London from 
one Mr. Ceasar, Mr. Charleton has deliured me the Said Conueyance, and I haue giuen the 
same to mr John Aynsley to carry vp with him to London, who will be there in foureteen 
or Twenty dayes time, and your Ladyshipe please to write mr Rodbourne and appoint what 
protestant you thinke proper to haue the Conueyance made to from Graham of the Said 
Lands, mr Charleton is to haue noe money on this account, but a new Lease of Buteland 
farme which he now farmes for one and twenty yeares at the same Rent he now payes which 
is of Qli. $ ann' as I writt your Ladyshipe some time Since, and which you agreed to, he 
may haue Chapemen Enough for it, but it is most Conuenent for my Lord, mr Tuck who 
is now at London, and is Concernd for the Comissionrs of Enquiry, writt a letter to mr 
Busby not long Since, that they will not allow her to be an Exrs to either Coll: Radclyffe 
or mr ffrancis Radclyffe her two Brothers, and shee Cannot hold anything dureing her life, 
by Hows disableing act, this is my Lady Mary Radclyffe of Durham, which if soe, will be 
very hard, there is orders come downe from London, to sease of Horses and arms and Secure 
all disaffected persons to the Gouerment, there is a Camp at Hyde parke, and its talkt there 
is to be more Camps in other places for the Security of the kingdom, all this I supose your 
Ladyshipe has from the news papers from London, this famally are all well, and giues theire 
humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and famally, I hope in a litle time to pay more money 
at Newcastle to be Returnd to mr Radburne, when I doe shall aduise him how much it is, 
as alsoe your Ladyshipe, whose most obedent Seruant I am, Tho: Errington. 1 

[Addressed : ' A Madame | Madame la Comtesse De j Darwentwater 
dans la Rue haute | proche L'Eglise de la Chappell | A | Bruxelles | 
By Ostend..'] 

1 " Thomas Errington, the writer of these letters printed was, I think, Thomas Errington 
of Sandhoe, who was admitted to the Hostmen's Company by mandamus in 1686, 
and died 30th May. 1748 (see pedigree, new History of Northumberland, vol. iv, 
p. 189). The Mr. George Errington of Gray's Inn, 'who jockyed Coll: Radclifle 
out of Plessy colliery,' was a son of Nicholas Errington of Ponteland, and admitted 
to Gray's Inn 27th January 1674-5. His connection with Plessey Colliery is noticed 
in Mr. T. E. Forster's chapter on the Collieries and the Coal Trade of the chapelry 
of Horton (new Hist., vol. ix, p. 231). If I am not mistaken, the above-named George 
Errington of Gray's Inn was buried before 15th December, 1725, in a vault in St. Pancras's 
church yard." J/C. Hodgson. 


The following arc abstracts of deeds in the collection of Dr. Burman 
of Alnwick, kindly made by Mr. R. Welford : 


Exemplification from De Banco Roll, Michaelmas, 2 George 11, roll 272, wherein Ralph 
Fetherstonhalgh, gentleman, claims against William Surtees, gentleman, three messuages, 
50 acres of land, 50 acres of meadow, 50 acres of pasture, 50 acres of moor and common 
of pasture for all beasts in Sandhoe Kells Leazoes, and parish of St. John Lee, co. 
Northumberland, as his right and heritage. William appeared and defended his right 
therein and called to warranty Thomas Allison, junior, and Jane, his wife. Owing to a 
default, the said Ralph recovered seisin against the said William, and Ralph claims to 
have seisin of the premises made to him by the Sheriff and the said seisin was made 
to him in the octaves of St. Hilary. Dated 28 November, 2 Geo. n. 


In the March Antiquary, p. 106, is a note by Mr. H. R. Leighton on 
two inscriptions scribbled with a diamond on panes of glassin old houses. 
One is in West Boklon old hall (for which see Proc. 2 ser. in, .136), the 
other at No. 27 North Bailey, Durham, the house for long and still 
occupied by our vice-president, the Rev. W. Greenwell ; an illustration 



> t/f- <*y 


?f-!,x ls S lven ' of whlch thls is a c Py- The main portion is ' My D r miss 
Midford ot Newcastle march ye 10 1756.' This refers to Miss Midford, 
daughter of James Midford, whose marriage at St. Andrew's church 
Newcastle, to Ralph Bates of Newcastle, is recorded in the Newcastle 
Courant of 14th July 1759. Her death is recorded in the same 
newspaper of 10th July 1762 

(no 1 I U 1 L 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 4 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, on Wednesday, the 28th April 1915, at seven 
o'clock in the evening, Mr. Nicholas Temperley, a member of the 
council, being in'^jfie chair. 

An acknowledgment was read from Miss S. A. Gibson for the expres- 
sions of sympathy from the society shown to her on the death of her 
uncle, the late Mr. ]. Gibson, the castle attendant, and her sincere 
thanks for the same. 

The following books, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. A. Elliott Dickinson, of Croft Terrace, Jarrow : An 

election bill of 1774, found amongst some old papers. It includes 

' An address to Freeholders of Northumberland, dated 12 August, 

1774, and signed by William Middleton and William Fenwick ; 

' A Phalanx of Real Patriots,' of 6 October 1774 ; ' An address 

to Freeholders of Northumberland, signed by " An Old Whig." l ' 
From the Cardiff Naturalists Society : Transactions, XLVI, 1913. 
From the Trustees of the late Honyman Gillespie : The Life and 

Teaching of William Honyman Gillespie, by Jas. Urquhart, 

F.S.A. (Scot.). 
Exchanges : 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Annual 

Report for 1915. 
From the Roya,! Society of History and Antiquities, Stockholm : 

Fornv nnen for 1914. 
From the Cambrian Archaeological Society: Archaeologia Cam" 


Purchase: The Museums Journal, iv, no. 11 (May, 1913). 

Thanks were voted for the following : 

To Mr. W. H. Cullen : For the silver medal of queen Anne, 
exhibited at the meeting of the society on the 31st March last 

(see page 28). 

By Mrs. Willans : The Book of Nouns, a miniature book (2J ins. 

by If ins.) for children, printed in 1806. 
Mrs. Willans was thanked. 

Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) announced that since the March 
meeting the following coins had been found on the beach at South 
Shields, and are now in the possession of Mr. T. J. Bell of Cleadon : 

iThe bill is printed in Northumberland Pott Books in the Years 1747-8, 1774, and in 
February and March 1826 (Davison, Alnwick, 1826) p. 120. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 5 


Roman denarii : Trajan 

1. Obverse, IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM ; bust laureated to right ; reverse, 
p M TR P cos mi P P ; Victory marching to right. (Cohen, 2nd ed., 243). 

2. Obverse, IMP TRAIANO OP[TIMO] . . . . ; head laureated to right ; reverse ... cos 
vi P P s P Q R ; figure (Genius), naked, standing to left, holding a patera and ears of 

English : three sixpences of Elizabeth, of 1569 (m.m. a coronet), 1582 (m.m. a sword), 
and the third with date illegible. 


Mr. Oswald (one of the secretaries) read the following notes, by 
Mr. R. A. Aird : 

" Further interesting discoveries have been made at St. Mary's 
church, Seaham, revealing two niches at the east end of the south 
wall within the sanctuary. Drawings accompany these notes, giving 
details to scale which show the character of the work. It will be 
seen that the western niche has a roll-mould on the jambs and sill 
If inches in diameter, with nail-head surround f inch in width : there 
is no splay, the roll-mould forming the corner. The front stone of 
the arch has been removed, but stones remain towards the back cut into 
the form of a trefoil arch. The floor of the niche is set back 1 inches 
from the face of the ornament, and it is also raised 1 inches above the 
edge of the mould. The recess is 12 inches deep front to back, 15| 
wide, and 13 to spring of arch. Other dimensions are set out on the 
sketch. The most interesting feature in connexion with this recess, 
and one which I think is unique, is the representation of a hand, 
shown in the sketch, cut in the centre of the stone, forming the 
back of the recess, and is an outline formed by a groove about an 
eighth or three-sixteenths of an inch deep. The hand is raised in 
an attitude of benediction, with the thumb and two first fingers ex- 
tended. The palm of the hand is 3| inches wide, the wrist 2 inches, 
and the length from the wrist to the tip of the finger 1\ inches ; the 
cuff is 4 inches wide by 4 broad. The eastern niche has a pointed 
arch and moulded edge of three members at an angle of about 45 splay. 
The measurements of the recess are, depth front to back, 11 inches ; 
width, 16| inches ; height to point of arch, 22f inches, and 12f inches 
to the spring of the arch. The centre of the floor of the niche is formed 
into a plain basin, 10J inches diameter and If inches deep, the front 
of the rim projects an inch beyond the recess, and is turned into a 
rounded edge with a slight fillet beneath. The stone is fractured and 
has been roughly repaired. There is no appearance of any hole in the 
bottom. In addition to the above discoveries, some of the plaster 
has been removed from the north wall of the nave and the original 
mortar of the joints revealed : th : s shows the lime to have been mixed 
with gravel, some of the particles being quite large. The plaster on 
the east wall of the tower has a 1 so been removed, and here the 
mortar is of quite a different nature, the tower being of a much later 
date than the nave." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Aird for his communication. 


At the meeting on the 31st March, 1915, Miss S. A. Gibson, niece 
of the late Mr. J. Gibson, the Castle attendant, was elected a member 
of the society. This was accidentally omitted from the Proceedings 
of the meeting. 


< en 

. 5 -g 

a> i 

i i 




The following are abstracts of documents in the collection of Dr. 
Burman of Alnwick, kindly made by Mr. R. Welford : 


1811, September 4. Indenture of six parts* (1) of South Lambeth, esq., 

and John Towell Rutt, of Go , in co. Middlesex, assignees to the estate of Samuel 

Parker, late of South Lambeth, underwriter ; (2) Richard Strutt of London, glass cutter ; 

(3) xh of Shardalow, co. Derby, glass cutter; (4) Thomas Kent of Ipswich, glass 

cutter; (5) Henry Hammond of London, glass cutter, and (6) Samuel Parker of London, 
cut glass manufacturer. Reciting articles of association, dated August 15, 1793, made 

by Green of Gateshead, agent for Sarah Bonner of Flat House, Gateshead, spinster, 

and Ann Bonnerf of Callerton, co. Northumberland, spinster, and John Robinson of New- 
castle, agent for Joseph Liddell of Moorhouse, co. Cumberland, esq. (which said Bonners 
and Liddell were lessees under the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle of the premises here- 
inafter mentioned), and John Barber of Newcastle, gent., and agent of a company formed 
to carry on a glass manufactory at the Salt Meadows and South Shore, Gateshead. J Said 
Green and Robinson covenanted with Barber, the Bonners and Liddell, that on or before 
the [llth] November next ensuing, they would demise to said Barber, or the said Company, 
the buildings formerly used as a glass house, with the land and premises, then in the occu- 
pation of Isaac Cookson, esq., and others at the South Shore, Gateshead, with liberty to build 

etc., from November 11, for years at a rent of 1801. per annum, payable half-yearly. 

Reciting also another agreement of 4 parts, dated November 2. 1795, between (1) said 
Barber, (2) said Richard Strutt, (3) Thomas Strutt of London, glass cutter, and (4) Thomas 
Wheeler of St. Andrew's Hill, London, but now a bankrupt, in which it was stated that said 
Barber carried on said glass house for manufacturing crown glass, under the name of the 
Tyne Glass-house, and had agreed to take the said Strutts and Wheeler into partnership 
for 18 years from November 11, then instant, upon terms therein mentioned, Barber taking 
5 tenth shares, the Strutts 2 tenths respectively, and Wheeler the remaining tenth. (Rest 
of the document missing). 

Endorsed : ' Mr. Wm. Parker, and Mr. John Towell Rutt to Mr. Samuel Parker. Assign- 
ment of Shares in the Tyne Glass Company. Witness to sealing : Thos. Williams, clerk 
to Mr. Hindmarsh, Dyer's Court, Alderinanbury,' 


Letters of Excommunication dated at Durham 12 October, 1700, of Nathaniel, bishop 
of Durham, against Lancelot Newton of Stocksfield Hall in the parish of Bywell St. Andrew, 
co. Northumberland, in the diocese of Durham, gentleman, to continue for 40 days, because 
of his contumacy in refusing to pay John Ritschel, clerk, Vicar of St. Andrew's aforesaid 
35s. by John Brookbank, Dr. of Law, in a cause between the said John Ritschel and Lancelot 
Newton concerning tithes. 

*OnIy one skin of the parchment preserved, and that much mutilated. 

ISarah and Ann Bonner were daughters of Thos. Bonner of High Callerton, a descendant 
of Thos. Bonner, the Puritan mayor of Newcastle in 1648-9 and 1659-60. He was buried 
at Ponteland, January 25th, 1796, aged 71. Sarah, born February 18th, 1764, died March 
1st, 1840 ; Ann, born at Gateshead, August llth, 1767, died August 21th, 1846. 

jVide a paper on ' The Manufacture of Glass,' by R. W. Swinburne, in The Industrial 
Rtsourus of the Tyne. Wear and Tees. Newcastle : A. Reid, 1864. 




By Mr. Parker Brewis, F.S.A., and Mr. D. D. Dixon, F.S.A. 

Very scant are the traces of Pre-Roman remains found in the upper 
reaches of the river Coquet above Alwinton, but immediately on 
emerging from amongst the ten miles of densely packed hills of Upper 
Coquet, marks of an early occupation are visible on every hand. 


GALLOW LAW CAMP (885 feet above sea level). About half a mile 
north of the village of Alwinton, where Hawsden Burn issues from a 
deep cleft in the hills, high up on the left bank of the stream, are the 
remains of a strongly fortified camp, enclosed by a stout rampart, 
whilst the south and west fronts are further defended by the steep 
declivity on which the fortress is perched. (Alwinton Parish.) 

CLENNELL CAMP (800 feet contour line). On the western slopes 
of Clennell Hill, about a mile to the east of Gallow Law, are the out- 
lines of another circular camp with a single rampart, situated on the 
left bank of the river Alwin. (Alwinton Parish.) 

CAMPVILLE CAMP (500 feet above sea level). In a park-like field 
in front of Campville House on the southern slopes of the hill, over- 
looking the village of Holystone on the north, are sections of the ram- 
parts and ditches of what has evidently been an extensive camp, 
having double ramparts. A subsidiary range of earthworks that 
appear on the moors on the western banks of the gorge through 
which flows the Dove Crag Burn in line with those in the field, seem 
to be a continuation of the camp. If so, this presents rather an 
uncommon feature, as if the cliffs of the deep rocky ravine that inter- 
sects the camp had been thought a sufficient defence in itself. 
(Alwinton Parish). 

HARECLEUGH OR HAREHAUGH CAMP (500 feet contour line). About 
two miles down the river Coquet beyond Holystone are the remains 
of this camp whose triple ramparts furrow the summit of an almost 
inaccessible promontorial ridge that stretches across the valley. 
Roughly speaking its diameter within the ramparts measures 270 
feet, and the ditches are 15 feet wide. The base of the hill is protected 
on the south by Swindon Burn, on the east by the liver Coquet- and 
on the noith by Harecleugh Burn. The strongest portion of the forti- 
fications are on the western side, where there are no natural defences, 
here there are three high earthen ramparts with corresponding deep 
ditches. (Alwinton Parish). 

ROBERTS LAW CAMP (602 feet above sea level). In a high lying 
field on the extreme south eastern boundary of Netherton township 
are faint traces of an ancient camp in which during the early part of 
last century John Smart of Trewhitt Hall found a number of querns 
or hand-mill stones. (Alwinton Parish). 

WHITEFIELD CAMP (HEPPI.E) (600 feet contour line). On a rocky 
bluff overlooking the valley of the Coquet from the south, one mile 
south east of Harehaugh Camp, is found another pre-historic strong- 
hold generally known as Whitefield Camp (also as " Soldier's Fauld " 
and ' Witches Neuk '). The camp measures about 270 feet east 
and west by 212 feet north and south ; with the exception of the north 
side, where the rocky bluff forms a natural defence, the camp is enclosed 
by ramparts of great strength, a ditch on the south east Jines is 


yet some 20 feet deep. There are two entrances to the camp, 
at the north east and north west corners, both of these are placed close 
to the bluff. The north western is protected by an earthwork on the 
south side of the opening thus causing the path to lead out of the en- 
closure in an oblique manner. (Rothbury Parish). 

HETCHESTER CAMP (HEPPLE) (600 feet contour line) . ^ In the New- 
minster Cartulary this place-name is spelt ' Heichester,' probably to 
distinguish it from the monks' contiguous lands at Caistron, where 
there is also a low lying camp. Hetchester Camp is on the brow of 
Wreigh Hill about a mile north of the village of Hepple, on the north 
side of the river Coquet. The outlines of the ramparts are almost 
entirely obliterated by the workings of a limestone quarry. Dr. 
Greenwell has in his collection ' a very small food vessel with four 
perforated ears, being only If inches high, 2J inches wide at the mouth, 
and Jf inches at the bottom, on which is a cross of twisted-thong im- 
pression.' Several querns, and a large quantity of antlers of the red 
deer, have been from time to time laid bare by the quarrymen when 
removing the earth from the top of the limestone rock. (Rothbury 

CAISTRON CAMP (300 feet contour line). Faint outlines of the 
ramparts of a camp are yet traceable in a field east of Caistron, a 
few hundred yards north of the river Coquet. There appeals to have 
been only one rampart. (Rothbury Parish). 

BICKERTON CAMP (500 feet contour line). About one mile south 
of Bickerton, on the heathery slopes of the Simonside range, the 
ramparts of a circular camp are visible ; from its low lying situation 
it may have been like Swindon and Caistron, used as an enclosure 
for cattle. (Rothbury Parish). 

TOSSON BURGH CAMP (747 feet above sea level). The Burgh 
(pronounced Bruff) hill is a quarter of a mile west of Great Tosson, 
near Rothbury. Its verdure and flattened summit makes it a well- 
known landmark for miles around. The camp occupies the summit 
of the hill, which is steep on the north side, but on the west and east 
the slope of the hill is gradual. In form it is roughly oval, lying N.W. 
and S.E. by N.E. and S.W. ; it measures 348 feet by 168 feet, and 
contains 1-7 acres. The rampart has been thrown up paitly from 
the inside of the camp, and partly from the outside. The rampart 
on the north side is now very ruinous and seems never to have been 
of large size : the natural strength of this side would render much 
artificial protection unnecessary. There appears to have been an 
entrance at the east side as the ditch ends abruptly there. Another 
entrance at the west end, and a third seems to have existed near the 
centre of the south side. A series of very puzzling mounds and ditches 
occur east of the camp, and on the south face of the hill. (Rothbury 
Parish) . 

NEWTOWN CAMP (6-700 feet contour lines). About a mile east of 
the Burgh Camp, amongst the heath on Newtown Hill, on the banks 
of Routing Burn, there is a small enclosure quadrangular in form, 
some 45 feet each way, having a simgle rampart and ditch, probably 
an enclosure for cattle. (Rothbury Parish). 

LORDENSHAW'S CAMP (879 feet above sea level). This camp occupies 
the summit of a lofty ridge, an eastern spur of the Simondside range, 
about two miles south of the village of Rothbury. Located as it is 
on this moorland ridge with nearly an even slope on all sides, its 
outline unbroken except a section of the outer rampart on the eastern 

line of defence, which a dyke intersects, enclosing a piece of ground 
termed in the parish tithe map as ' Old Improvement/ This camp 
is one of the most complete in the valley. Its defences consist of 
three ramparts, with a deep ditch between the two outer ones which 
in several places yet measure 12 feet in depth. The outer rampart 
encloses within a circumference of 474 yards an area of 3-483 acres, 
the inner on-?, within a circuit of 225 yards encloses 1-282 acres, thus 
leaving 2-201 acres between the outer and inner lines of defence. The 
two entrances to the camp are unique, that on the eastern side 
with its grey lichen covered gateposts still appears almost in its 
primitive condition. This entrance is defended by earthworks to the 
right and left, which extend from the inner to the outer ramparts, 
forming a passage 66 feet long by 18 feet in width, the width of the 
gateways being 8 feet 4 inches. The western entrance has, at the 
present day, an earthwork only on the south side with one gatepost 
on the north remaining. (Rothbury Parish). 

PIKE HOUSE CAMP (6-700 feet contour lines). About two miles 
down the moors to the north east of Lordenshaws Camp are the ram- 
part and ditch of Pike House Camp, which is oval in form, and 180 
fest in diameter. There appears to have been an entrance on the 
west, but a modern fence intersects the western lines of the camp. 
(Rothbury Parish). 

CRAGHEAD CAMP (400 feet contour line). Further down the hill 
to the north of Pike House Camp, on the south side, and close to the 
North British Railway, nearly opposite to a cottage named Craghead, 
there is a strongly entrenched camp. On its most exposed sides near 
the rise of the hill triple ramparts are found ; but on the north, where 
the steep and rugged ascent forms a natural defence, two ramparts 
have been deemed sufficient, the entrance has evidently been on the 
south east, as a trackway leads from the lines of the camp at that 
point. The camp is circular and measures about 170 feet in diameter 
within the inner rampart. (Rothbury Parish). 

OLD ROTHBURY (600 feet contour line). Half-a-mile north west 
from Rothbury, is situated the camp at Old Rothbury. It occupies 
the western extremity of the freestone range of hills which encircles 
Lord Armstrong's moorland estate, and the village of Rothbury. 
The situation is naturally a strong one, on its northern and western 
sides. To the east it is sheltered by a higher plateau of the same 
formation, but this shelter is gained at the expense of security, as 
the site is overlooked and commanded from this plateau within bow- 
shot of the ramparts. The camp area is intersected north and south 
by a road and east and west by a farm fence ; the land north of the 
fence has been under cultivatidn and consequently the defences have 
been very much destroyed. The eastern lines immediately north of 
a gateway in the south rampart are in particularly fine preservation. 
They consist of two ramparts and two ditches, the dimensions of which 
are as follows : Depth of first ditch, 5 feet 8 inches ; height of first 
rampart from outer ditch, 7 feet 4 inches ; depth of inner ditch, 8 
feet 6 inches ; height of inner rampart, 7 feet. The total area en- 
closed by the inner part of Old Rothbury Camp is 3-429 acres, within 
a circuit of 530 yards. (Rothbury Parish). 

WEST HILLS CAMP (5-600 feet contour lines). On a lower ridge 
of the hill, half-a-mile to the west of Old Rothbury Camp are the double 
ramparts of the circular camp of West Hills, whose lines are in a much 
more perfect condition than those of Old Rothbury. Its diameter 


within the inner ramparts is 167 feet, and that of the outer, 411 feet. 
The camp occupies the western edge of a rocky bluff overlooking the 
valley. (Rothbury Parish}. 

BRINKBURN PRIORY CAMP. The hill on the north bank of the 
Coquet behind Brinkburn Priory bears signs of an early occupation. 
' The ancient camp,' says Mr. Maclauchlan, ' on the hill above 
the Priory of Brinkburn is about 300 yards long, and 100 wide. It 
contains about seven acres ; is precipitous on the north, south, and 
west sides, and is cut off from the east by a formidable rampart, 
extending about 100 yards in length from the declivity on one side, 
to that on the other. It apparently had a ditch to the east, faint 
traces of which are still observable. The rampart has four openings 
through it at present, but which was the original one, or how many 
there were, must be a matter of conjecture. Perhaps only that at 
the south east corner was originally there, for there is a hollow way 
passing out of this corner of the camp, which seems to have had a 
branch near the foot of the hill.' (Framlington Chapelry). 


EWESLEY CAMPS (7-800 feet contour lines). Hodgson in his History 
of Northumberland thus records these camps : ' ... to the west of 
the hamlet ... is a camp, oblong with rounded corners. The 
entrance to it on the east, inside dimensions 90 yards by 48 yards, 
with double ramparts and ditches which measure 25 yards across.' 
(This camp is in a small plantation on the fells west of Ewesley 
Railway Station). ' . . . A second camp a little north of Ewesley, 
and on the west side of the Alnmouth road, eliptical, 135 yards by 
110, the ditch single.' (The railway runs through the middle of this 
camp, and the station stands just within the south rampart). ' . . . 
A third, small, on a rounded hill, on the right bank of the Font, just 
below the Combe Bridge.' (Netherwitton Parish). 

CASTLE HILL CAMP (944 feet above sea level). On the Castle Hill, 
west of the village of Alnham, there is a well-defined circular camp, 
with double ramparts, 100 yards diameter within the inner lines. 
The entrance is on the east. Traces of hut circles and other enclosures 
are seen within the lines of the camp. (Alnham Parish). 

CALLALY CAMPS. The camps at Callaly are thus described by 
Mr. Maclauchlan : ' Callaly is remarkable for its camps, of which 
there are three, if not four ; one at High Houses, one at the Rabbit 
Hall, and one on the hill above the Mansion House.' (Whittingham 
Parish) . 

HIGH HOUSES CAMP (549 feet above sea level) . ' That at High 
Houses is on the farm of Cross Hill. It is on high ground, and com- 
mands the vale of Whittingham, particularly towards the west. It 
is nearly ploughed down but its form can still be seen : it was an 
oval, about 1 10 yards east and west, 90 yards north and south, defended 
apparently by a strong rampart and deep ditch.' (Whittingham 
Parish) . 

RABBIT HALL CAMP. ' Rabbit Hall (or Hill) Camp is on much 
lower ground. It is so destroyed in parts that its shape originally 
is scarcely discernible. It is about 1,100 yards on the north east 
of Lorbottle House, and close to the old road to Callaly. It was 
an oval, the north east and south west diameter Jabout^90 yards, and 
the north west and south east about 65 yards.' (Whittingham 


CASTLE HILL CAMP (700 feet contour line). ' The camp on the 
conical-topped hill, called the Castle Hill, is covered with wood, 
briers and ferns, so that it is very difficult to ascertain the shape 
properly. The shape of the inner ward of the camp is nearly a semi- 
circle, with a diameter of about 100 yards, which coincides nearly with 
the outcrop of strata. The area of the inner part may be about 
three-quarters of an acre, three of the sides are very precipitous, so 
much so that the second rampart has not been continued all round ; 
but on the other side towards the west, where the slope is not so rapid, 
an outer line is continued, forming a sort of outer baly. The ditch 
towards the west appears to have been excavated out of the rock, 
and when made was about 40 feet wide ; altogether it must have been 
a very strong post, and from its extensive command of view, both 
in a west and east direction, along the line of the Roman Way, must, 
it is imagined, have been occupied by that people, though probably 
not originally constructed by them. . . . The Roman Way turns 
close under the hill on the north side.' (Henry Maclauchlan's 
Survey, 1857-8-9). (Whittingham Parish). 


NEAR LORDENSHAW'S CAMP (800 feet contour line). An open cist 
can yet be seen, with its large covering slab of freestone lying near, 
on the lower northern ridge of Lordenshaw's hill. After climbing 
the last stile on the footpath leading from Rothbury to Lordenshaws 
farmhouse, the cist lies up to the right on the ridge of the hill. This 
cist was opened by Dr. Greenwell many years ago. It measures 3 
feet 8 inches long, I foot 10 inches wide, and 2 feet 3 inches deep, 
and lies nearly east and west. (Rothbury Parish). 

SPITAL HILL (800 feet contour line) . There is a perfect and well 
shaped cist on Spital Hill, near Great Tosson. This was excavated 
by Lord Armstrong's workmen in 1889. It lies nearly east and west, 
measures 3 feet 4 inches long, 1 foot 10 inches wide at the west end, 
2 feet 1 inch at the east end, and 20 inches deep. It contained a brachy- 
cephalic skull and fragments of bones. A thick fir plantation now 
surrounds the spot which renders it difficult to find. (Rothbury 


NEAR LORDENSHAW'S CAMP (8-900 feet contour lines). No. 1. 
A large sandstone rock containing a number of ' Cup and Ring ' 
markings, lies about 240 yards south west of Lordenshaws camp, 
on the west side of an old deer park wall : the rock slopes towards 
the south east. Several of the cups have three and four rings, the 
outer ring ending in a duct or channelled groove. (Rothbury Parish). 

No. 2. Another smaller rock lies amongst the heather, 154 yards 
north west of No. 1. It contains an interesting example of the ' horse- 
shoe type,' a form not frequently found, where the cups and rings are 
enclosed within a groove, in shape somewhat resembling a horse shoe. 
(Rothbury Parish). 

GARLEY MOOR (400 feet contour line). No. 1. About half-a-mile 
south of Whitton on the northern edge of Garley Moor, close to a fence 
that divides the moor from a field, on the right of a footpath, there 
is a fine specimen of an inscribed rock. It measures 6 feet east and 
west by 5 feet north and south, with a slope towards the south. 
There are twelve markings, nine simple cups and three cups and 
rings. The diameter of the cups range from 1 inches to 3 inches, 
the rings 4 and 5 inches in diameter. 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 6 


No. 2. A second rock a few yards west of No. 1, contains several 
imperfect markings. There are several burial mounds in the vicinity 
of these rocks. (Rothbury Parish}. 


ON WINDY GYLE (1,750 contour line). An upright slab of 
porphyry, about 6 feet high, stands on the southern slope of Windy 
Gyle, in a south easterly direction from the cairns. The shepherds 
call this rock ' Split the Deil.' It is not certain that this is a relic 
of pre-historic times, but the rock has all the appearance of having 
been ' set up.' A shepherd surprized a golden eagle perched on this 
rock early one morning. (Alwinton Parish}. 

WOODHOUSES BEACON, THE FIVE KINGS (700 feet contour line). 
On the south eastern slopes of Woodhouses Beacon, there is an align- 
ment of standing stones locally known as ' The Five Kings.' Four 
only now remain, the fifth having been removed some years ago to 
serve the purpose of a gate post. The stones, roughly speaking, 
stand in a row east and west. The western stone is 8 feet high, the 
eastern 7 feet, and the two centre ones are each 5 feet in height. The 
alignment at present measures 46 feet, when there were five stones the 
full extent was 63 feet. They are all composed of freestone blocks 
from the hill. (Alwinton Parish}. 


contour lines). Regarding these stones which lie in the slack between 
Lordenshaw's Hill and Gar ley Pike Dr. Greenwell says : ' Three 
lines of stones placed apart are still to be seen, which (although the 
stones comprising them are but of small size) appear to be representa- 
tions of the megalithic linear structures found elsewhere, and of which 
the lines of Carnac are the grandest and best known examples.' 
The Parish Tithe Map (1840) describes them as ' large stones set in 
a line.' (Rothbury Parish). 

CHIRNELLS MOOR (600 feet contour line). On the moors between 
Rothbury and Cartington, on the north west side of a field that forms 
part of Chirnells Moor, amongst a growth of whins, there is a ridge 
of sandstone rock containing a number of cup and ring markings 
rather indistinct from long exposure. The face of rock slopes to the 
south. An ancient green lane leading from the moors to the village 
of Thropton forms the southern boundary of the field. (Rothbury 

NEAR OLD ROTHBURY CAMP. Below the camp is a recess or cave 
on the top of a freestone quarry, locally called Cartington Cove. Within 
the cove there was some years ago a rock on which were several cup 
and ring markings. These were known in the locality as ' Cups and 
Saucers.' (Rothbury Parish). 


GARLEY PIKE (879 feet above sea level). The remains of several 
hut circles are plainly to be seen on the summit of Garley Pike a 
hill about one mile east of Lordenshaw's Camp, and a short distance 
west of the Hexham turnpike. (Rothbury Parish). 

LORDENSHAW'S CAMP (879 feet above sea level). Within the inner 
rampart of this camp are the remains of several hut circles, one of 
which is 19 feet in diameter. The doorway on the south ; this circle 
was excavated some years by Dr. Greenwell. The walls and the pave- 
ment of the floor were at one time clearly visible, but of late years 
the circle has become overgrown with heather. There are also a few 
hut circles between the inner and outer ramparts. (Rothbury Parish). 


WHITEFIELD MOOR (CRAGSIDE) (700 feet above sea level). There 
is a group of ten well denned hut circles on Whitefield Moor, about 
two miles north east of Cragside, and half a mile south of the moor- 
land road from Rothbury to Alnwick. The hut circles occupy the 
southern slopes of a heathery ridge on the west banks of the Black 
Burn, and east of a craggy hill end named ' Soulsby Shield.' The 
diameter of the ordinary single circles range from nine to ten feet, 
but in one instance there is a combination of four huts opening into 
each other, the principal one is 33 feet, the attached hut foundations, 
which are irregular in form, measure 10 feet, 11 feet and 14 feet across, 
whilst another oblong enclosure with rounded corners is 30 feet by 
14 feet with the doorway due south. The doorways of the other huts 
are chiefly south east. These were noticed by the late Lord Arm- 
strong several years ago, when he caused one to be excavated and found 
in the floor of the hut circle, charcoal, fragments of deer antlers, and 
bones of other animals. (Rothbury Parish). 

OLD ROTHBURY CAMP (600 feet contour line). Both within the 
ramparts and outside of this camp are a number of ordinary hut circles, 
about 16 feet in diameter, and one of 20 feet, whilst there is a circle 
of earth and stones within the ramparts which measures no less than 
56 feet in diameter. Whatever its use may have been this can scarcely 
be termed a hut circle. (Rothbury Parish). 


LORD'S SEAT (1,286 feet above sea level). TERRACE CULTIVATION 
(7-800 contour lines) . On the lower eastern slopes of Lord's Seat, 
on the opposite side of Hawsden Burn from Gallow Law Camp, occur 
a series of narrow clearly defined platforms, which may be remains 
of early terrace cultivation. Speaking of similar terraces, Dr. Green- 
well says : ' These terraces have been considered by many persons, 
and, I think, with every probability, to be the places upon which some 
cereal crop was grown under a system of agriculture not quite intellig- 
able to us.' (Alwinton Parish). 

CAMP. On the eastern face of Tosson Burgh hill are a number of 
hollow ways leading up to the camp, and one leading from the camp 
to a spring on the hillside. Mr. Hedley says : ' It must be admitted, 
however, that the ditches and mounds to the east of the camp, and in 
the face of the hill, eighty yards south of it, are very puzzling, and 
but for their absolute want of connection and continuity might well 
claim to be artificial ; some of them have probably been formed by 
the traffic to and from the camp, and by the flow of drainage water.' 
Dr. Greenwell says : ' I think many of these hollow ways which are 
found in many places in Coquetdale may have been made by carts 
traversing the moor for peat.' (Rothbury Parish). 

WHITTON BURN (500 feet contour line) . An ancient trackway trends 
up the hill from this streamlet, just where the footpath crosses it by 
a bridge, towards Lordenshaw's Camp. This trackway seems to have 
led down the little valley of Whitton Dene, to the river Coquet, below 
the Little Mill. It is probable there would be frequent communi- 
cation between the various settlements, and as this road leads up to 
Lordenshaw's Camp, it may be part of a highway up and down the 
main valley of the Coquet, as here and there along the course of the 
river are seen traces of old ' hollow ways.' Below Lordenshaw's 
Camp, near some barrows, are lines of small stones evidently arti- 
ficially placed. (Rothbury Parish). 


ON SPITAL HILL (SIMONSIDE) (8-900 feet contour lines). ON SPY 
LAW BEACON (SIMONSIDE) (8-900 feet contour lines). ON ADDEY- 
HEUGH HILL (ROTHBURY) (6-600 feet contour lines). ON CARTINGTON 
HILL (800 feet contour line). A series of deep trenches which, in 
some instances, but not all, shew signs of having been hollowed out, 
are found, running in parallel lines up the slopes of the hills noted 
above. There seems no plan of defence in their arrangement, but 
their proximity to pre-historic Camps in out-of-the-way spots rather 
goes to shew they have been connected with the adjacent settlements. 
From the position of the deep furrows on Spital Hill and Spy Law 
Beacon, it does not appear at all likely that they are old water courses, 
or lines of defence. The following more minute description of the 
tenches on Addeyheugh Hill, to the north of the village of Rothbury, 
may be applicable to all. In the case of the so-called trenches on 
Addeyheugh, they are probably pre-historic trackways or cattleways 
leading from the hill to the pasture lands below. The trenches on 
Addeyheugh, nine in number, are close to each other, only the thrown 
up ridge being between them. At the present day they vary from 
5 feet to 10 feet in depth, and range from 20 to 100 yards in length. 
Then there is a break of level green sward, and they again appear 
leading down to a fine spring of water. Towards the top of the ridge 
they gradually merge with the level plateau on the summit, exactly 
where there is a burial mound 20 feet in diameter. A little higher 
up are three similar trenches, which from their position cannot possibly 
be the result of running water. About 20 yards to the east of the 
trenches is a deep rocky ravine, called ' Copletch,' down which flows 
the drainage of a morass ; this ravine is from 20 to 50 feet deep. 
(Rothbury Parish). 

ON BEGGAR RIG, NEAR ROTHBURY (400 feet contour line). About 
100 yards up a slanting road, near the County Hotel, known as the 
' Gravelly Road,' a rampart and ditch can be seen on the left of the 
road, winding perhaps about 100 yards along the higher part of 
' Beggar Rig,' as nearly as possible in an east and westerly direction. 
At the present day the ditch (or rather hollow) is 6 feet to 8 feet deep, 
with a high thrown up embankment on the south only, having steep 
sloping sides facing towards the river Coquet which runs below some 
200 yards distant. The eastern end of the earthwork has been entirely 
effaced, in the making of the ' Gravelly Road,' but the western por- 
tion continues to the New Cloud House Cottage, where there are 
evident traces of what appears to have been a circular enclosure, 
probably a cattle enclosure, for the protection of the herds belonging 
to the settlement of ' Old Rothbury ' ; for it is close to the foot of 
the steep craggy hill on which Old Rothbury Camp is situated. If 
the enclosure was constructed for the purpose mentioned, the pro- 
tected trench would be the cattle way leading to it. The high rampart 
which has very steep sides on the south, would rather suggest the 
idea of defence. Wolves, and other wild animals now extinct, abounded 
in Britain during pre-historic times, and their former presence is shewn 
by the following local place names within a radius of a mile from the 
spot. Wolf hole, Wolfhaugh, and Wolfershiel. This rampart sur- 
mounted by a high wattle fence was probably for the protection of 
the herds from wild animals as much as from the attacks of men. 
The low-lying sites, and the less elaborate defences of the following 
camps or enclosures rather point to the same use : 
Clennell Hill Camp, near to Gallow Law Camp. 
Swindon Camp, near to Harehaugh Camp. 


Bickerton Camp, near to Whitefield Camp. 

Caistron Camp, near to Hetchester Camp. 

Newtown Camp, near to Tosson Burgh Camp. 

Pike Camp, near to Lordenshaw's Camp. 

The late Lord Armstrong thought these might have been game 
drives into which the larger wild animals were driven to be more easily 
killed. (Rothbury Parish). 


THIRLMOOR (1,833 feet above sea level). Immediately on the east 
of Watling Street, as it climbs the ridge from Chew Green Camp, 
at the head of Coquet, Thirlmoor raises his dark and frowning peaks, 
its slopes deeply furrowed with dangerous chasms, known amongst 
the shepherds as ' peat hags ' ; its summit crowned with three huge 
cairns, well-known landmarks from far and near. The ordnance 
map denotes these as tumuli. (Alwinton Parish). 

RTDLEES CAIRN (1,346 feet above sea level). This is a hill a mile 
and a quarter south of Ridlees farm house on Ridlees burn, east of 
Thirlmoor. (Alwinton Parish) 

CRIGDON HILL (1,238 feet above sea level). Two curricks on Crigdon 
Hill, a mile and a quarter south east of Ridlees, as denoted on the 
ordnance map (Alwinton Parish). 

DYKEHAM'S EDGE (1,000 feet above sea level). The ordnance 
map denotes a currick near a plantation north east of Dykeham's 
Edge farm house. (Alwinton Parish). 

WINDY GYT-E (1,963 feet above sea level) There are two large 
cairns near the summit of Windy Gyle, one of these is known as 
' Russell's Cairn,' being the spot where Lord Russell was slain in 
an encounter with the Scots, on the 27th July. 1585. No doubt this 
cairn was then standing as it is at the present day. The ordnance 
map records two tumuli here. (Alwinton Parish). 

CUSHAT LAW (2,020 feet above sea level) . Cushat Law is surmounted 
by a large cairn of stones, but not shewn on the ordnance map. (Al- 
winton Parish). 

DEW'S HILL (650 feet above sea level). Dew's Hill, south of Holy- 
stone is capped with a large cairn of stones, on the right bank of the 
Coquet. (Alwinton Parish). 

WOODHOUSES BEACON (988 feet above sea level). Woodhouscs 
Beacon lies about two miles south of Dew's Hill, and is crowned by 
an immense cairn of stones many feet in extent. (Alwinton Parish). 

DAW'S CAIRN (900 feet contour line) . Daw's Hill is a short distance 
to the north west of Woodhouses Beacon, on which there is a large 
cairn of stones. The last three noted cairns are in the midst of other 
pre-Roman remains. (Alwinton Parish). 

WHITEFIELD (HEPPLE). There is a mound, marked on the ordnance 
map as a tumulus, on the moor about a mile south of Whitefield Camp. 
(Rothbury Parish). 

CAISTRON. In a field to the west of the road leading from Flo+ter- 
ton to Hepple, just beneath Hetchester Camp, there is a conspicuous 
mound that can be seen from the road, but ploughing operations is 
gradually levelling it down. (Rothbury Parish). 

SIMONSIDE BEACON (1,401 feet above sea level). This is the middle 
peak of Simonside Hill proper, on which stands a massive cairn of 
stones. Some two years ago this cairn was struck by lightning and 
much shattered. (Rothbury Parish). 


SIMONSIDE HILL. Three mounds occur, between the 1,250 and 
1,000 feet contour lines on the north eastern slopes of Simonside Hill 
proper, and are thus denoted on the ordnance map. (Rothbury Parish) . 

SPY LAW BEACON (1.181 feet above sea level) . The summit is capped 
by a cairn of stones, also a circle of stones 36 feet in diameter. This 
hill overlooks Lordenshaw's Camp on the north east. (Rothbury 
Parish) . 

CRAGSIDE HILL (64.3 feet above sea level) . A tumulus is shewn on 
the ordnance map as being on Cragside Hill, but as the hill has been 
closely planted with trees by the late Lord Armstrong, it will now 
be most difficult to find. (Rothbury Parish). 

ROTHBURY HILL (762 feet above sea level). On the ridge of the 
hill, immediately north of the village of Rothbury, there is a cairn 
of stones, about 500 yards north east of Old Rothbury Camp. (Roth- 
bury Parish). 

WEST HILLS (800 feet above sea level). On the western point of 
the same range of hills as the last noted is another cairn, known as 
the ' Foot Ball Cairn ' (vide Parish Tithe Map) . (Rothbury Parish) . 

CARTINGTON HILL (988 feet above sea level). On the summit of 
this hill, sometimes termed Cartington Pike, is a huge cairn of stones, 
whilst two smaller cairns, and a number of small mounds, are scattered 
along its upper ridges. (Rothbury Parish). 

Low TREWHITT. There is a tumulus planted with trees in the field 
to the west of Low Trewitt farm house, known as the Maiden Knowe. 
A second large mound is seen on the right bank of the Rithe, about 
a mile to the north of Low Trewhitt. It was excavated in 1908 by 
Miss D. M. A. Bate, and described by that lady in the Proceedings of 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. XLVI. The mound 
measured 120 yards in circumference and about 11 feet in height. 
Three cists were discovered positions central (near the summit), 
eastern and western. An urn 6| inches high, fragments of pottery, 
flint chippings, and charcoal were also found. (Rothbury Parish). 

HURLEY KNOWES, ROTHBURY. On the right hand immediately 
on leaving Rothbury Railway Station, close to Messrs. Donkin's 
Cattle Mart, is a series of high green mounds, bearing the name of 
' Hurley Knowes,' which have been thought by certain antiquaries 
to be burial mounds, but to all appearance these tumuli-like mounds 
are alluvial deposits, yet they may have been used for burials by the 
early occupants of the valley. (Rothbury Parish). 

line). About half-a-mile to the north of Cartington Lough (or the 
Black Pool), and the same distance west of Debdon farm house, stand- 
ing in a slack is a circle of standing stones enclosing a burial place, 
16 feet in diameter. The stone slabs vary in height, up to 3 feet 
7 inches and 4 feet 10 inches. This burial was opened by Dr. Greenwell 
some years ago, who found in it a deposit of burnt bones intermixed 
with pieces of charcoal. At that time there were eight standing 
stones, there are now six standing and two fallen. (Rothbury Parish). 

CRAGSIDE HILL (500 feet contour line). On the northern slopes 
of Cragside Hill, near to the turnpike road leading from Rothbury 
to Alnwick are two mounds, both on the 500 feet contour 
line. No. 1 mound is in a plantation, 50 yards north east 
of an old hovel, called ' Tumleton,' now used as "a cattle shed. It 
is circular in form, about 18 feet in diameter, much defaced by the 
planting of trees. Some 36 feet south of the mound there is a roughly 


hewn standing stone, probably an old boundary mark. There are 
traces of ancient hollow ways or trenches in close vicinity to the 
mound. (Marked on the 6-inch Ordnance Map as ' mound.') (Roth- 
bury Parish) . 

CRAGSIDE HILL (500 feet contour line). Mound No. 2 lies in the 
same plantation about 250 yards north-west of No. 1, and 200 yards 
south of the Alnwick road. Along the south side of this mound rims a 
conduit, constructed by the late Lord Armstrong, to convey the Deb- 
don old pit drift along the hill side to prevent it from polluting the 
waters of Debdon burn, which flows through Cragside grounds. The 
mound appears to be oblong, but a dense growth of heather and the 
making of the conduit renders it somewhat difficult to determine its 
original form and dimensions. Ancient hollow ways lead up to the 
mound. (Marked on the 6-inch Ordnance Map as ' mound '). 
(Rothbury Parish). 


Besides the tumuli already noted, there are numberless large and 
small burial mounds scattered over the moors in Upper Coquetdale, 
which can scarcely be enumerated. These, which vary in size, from 
4 to 20 feet in diameter, are mostly found in the vicinity of pre-Roman 
camps. They are found on : Debdon Moor (Cragside), Whitefield 
Moor (Cragside), Garley Moor (Rothbury Forest), Spital Hill (Great 
Tosson), Whitefield Moor (Hepple), Holystone Common, Cartington 
Moor, and other places. 


It may be remembered that communications were received by the 
secretaries of this Society in October, 1911, from H.M. Office of 
Works, and also from the County Council of Northumberland, 
asking for the co-operation of the Society in compiling a list 
of ancient historical buildings and monuments in the county, and that 
the council thereupon appointed several small committees for the 
purpose of collecting the necessary material. Messrs. F. G. Simpson 
and P. Newbold were appointed to prepare a list of Roman sites in 
the county, and drew up their report in the course of 1912. It seems 
desirable that this should be placed on record, and it is therefore 
here printed. 

The report is a summary inventory of (A) known forts, mile-castles 
and turrets on the line of the Roman Wall up to the border of Cumber- 
land ; (B) Roman remains south of the Wall ; (C) forts north of the 
Wall ; (D) earthworks of unproved origin, some of which may be 
Roman. It briefly states the condition of each site, and states which 
are especially worthy of preservation, and which are in danger of 
destruction. Names of sites that cannot be certainly located 01 
that are entirely covered by modern buildings are given in square 

A. THE ROMAN WALL and accompanying works from Wallsend to 
the county boundary at the Poltross burn. 
[() WALLSEND FORT (Segedunum). Site entirely covered by modern buildings 

and streets.] 

(b) WALKER MILECASTLE. No trace on surface. Site arable, but threatened by 
new road akeady surveyed. 


(c) BYKER MILECASTLE. No trace on surface. Site partially covered by temporary 


[(d) OUSEBURN MILECASTLE. Whole neighbourhood built over.] 
NOTE. In this section there are no visible remains of masonry at the present time. 

[() NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE FORT (Pons AeM). Position of site uncertain. Whole 
neighbourhood built over.] Sites of milecastles uncertain and whole neighbour- 
hood is built over. 

NOTE. In this section the modern road and houses cover any possible remains of the 

(a) BENWELL FORT (Condercum). About of area is north of the modem road 
and occupied by a reservoir. Remaining area, south of road, lies in the private 
grounds of Condercum House (Capt. Lloyd) and Benwell Park (Mr. Macarthy) : 
only a small portion is covered by modem buildings. The remains are well- 
marked. In the grounds of Condercum House to the south-east of the fort are 
traces of suburban buildings, one of which is partially exposed and worthy of 
preservation, though in no danger at present. 
[(&) BENWELL BANK MILECASTLE. Site uncertain ; ground about here open.] 

(c) WEST DENTON MILECASTLE. Site entirely in grass field and well-marked. 

(d) CHAPEL HOUSE MILECASTLE. No visible remains ; but building operations are 

rapidly approaching the traditional site. 

(c) WALBOTTLE DENE MILECASTLE. Site intersected by Wade's road. North gate- 
way is exposed in the garden of Walbottle Dene House ; worthy of preservation 
but in no danger. 

(/) THROCKLEY MILECASTLE. Site in grass field and well-marked ; building opera- 
tions are approaching. 
[(g) HEDDON-ON-THE-WALL MILECASTLE. Site uncertain, but among farm buildings 

in the village.] 

(h) RUDCHESTER BURN MILECASTLE. Site fairly clear; covered by old plantation. 
NOTE. (i) In this section the Wall is generally underneath Wade's road, except (1) between 
sites (b) and (c) where it lies in grass fields south of the road, and a small portion east of 
Denton burn is exposed : (2) between Great Hill and Heddon-on-the-Wall, where a 
length of about 150 yards is exposed. Both these portions are worthy of preservation, 
though in no danger except through neglect. 

NOTE. (ii) The Vallum begins to be continuously traceable through this and the following 
sections. For about half a mile east of Heddon-on-the-Wall it is well marked, especially 
on Great Hill. 

(a) RUDCHESTER FORT (Vindobala). Whole area open and well marked, though 

intersected by Wade's road and a cross-road which interferes with the east 
rampart. Area to north of Wade's road arable, area to south grass. 

(b) HIGH SEAT MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(c) WHITCHESTER MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(d) HARLOW HILL MILECASTLE. Remains probably destroyed by old quarries. 

(e) WHITTLEDENE MILECASTLE. Site well marked; grass. 

[(/) EAST WALLHOUSES MILECASTLE. Site uncertain. Land open.] 

(f) MATFEN PIERS MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; arable. 

[(h) HALTON SHIELDS MILECASTLE. Site uncertain. Modern buildings hereabouts.] 
[(*) DOWN HILL MILECASTLE. Site uncertain ; grass.] 
NOTE. (i) In this section the Wall is generally under Wade's road, except for a short length 

at Harlow Hill, which with site (d) has been largely destroyed by ancient quarrying. 
NOTE. (ii) The Vallum is usually well marked and particularly so at Down Hill, where 
the remains are worthy of preservation. 



(a) HALTON FORT (Hunnum). Whole area open and well marked, especially the 

portion south of Wade's road, which intersects the site. The area to the north 
of the road is arable, that to the south grass. 

(b) PORTGATE MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(c) STANLEY PLANTATION MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(d) WALL FELL MILECASTLE. Remains much disturbed. 

(e) CODLAW HILL MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(/) PLANETREES MILECASTLE. Site largely covered by Wade's road and farm 

(g) BRUNTON TURRET. Fully exposed. Remains considerable and worthy of preser- 
vation. Suffering from neglect and much overgrown. 
[(h) Low BRUNTON MILECASTLE. Site uncertain ; grass.] 


(1) EAST ABUTMENT. Considerable remains exposed ; well protected and in 
no danger. Particularly worthy of preservation. 

(2) WATER-PIERS. Remains always covered by river. 

(3) WEST ABUTMENT. Only a small portion in the bed of the river exposed. 
NOTE. (i) In this section the Wall is covered by Wade's road from site (a) till a short dis- 
tance west of site (e). A small portion is exposed immediately west of site (h), and a 
stretch of 100 yards including site (g) in the grounds of Brunton House. This part is much 
overgrown and in some danger from the roots of trees. 

NOTE. (ii) The Vallum is well marked throughout most of this section, and especially so 

in Stanley Plantation and the neighbourhood thereof. 
NOTE. (iii) The Fosse of the Wall is in excellent condition between sites (b) and (e). 


(a) CHESTERS FORT (Cilurnum.) Whole area open grass land in the park of the 

Chesters. About one-third fully exposed, and particularly worthy of preser- 
vation. Well protected and in no danger. 

(b) WALWICK MILECASTLE. Remains satisfactorily marked ; grass. 

(c) TOWER TYE MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(d) BLACKCARTS TURRET. Fully exposed ; worthy of preservation. 

(e) EARTHWORK. 2 furlongs south by west of site (c). Area recently covered by 

young plantation. 

(/) LIMESTONE BANK TURRET. Excavated 1912. Covered again, 
(g) LIMESTONE BANK MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. Small portion of 

east wall exposed. 
(h) EARTHWORK ON WALWICK FELL. 1J furlongs south south-east of site (g). Well 

marked ; grass. 
() CARRAWBURGH EAST TURRET. Site located ; grass, but mostly under Wade's 


(k) CARRAWBURGH WEST TURRET. Site located ; grass. 
(/) CARRAWBURGH MILECASTLE. Remains somewhat disturbed ; grass. 
NOTE. (i) The Wall is this section is covered by Wade's road for a short distance east of 
site (b), and from about J mile west of site (g) to Carrawburgh Fort. It is exposed (1) 
for a short distance in the garden west of Chesters ; (2) for about 350 yards, in three 
portions, east and west of site (d), where it is particularly worthy of preservation. In 
places it is in danger from tree roots, and generally from neglect. 
NOTE. (ii) The Vallum is generally well marked. It is particularly worthy of preservation 

near and west of site (g), but is in no danger. 
NOTE. (iii) The ditch of the Wall is cut through rock for about 250 yards near and west 

of site (g), and is particularly worthy of preservation though in no danger. 
NOTE. (iv) The Military Way is well marked in the neighbourhood of site (g). 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 7 



(a) CARRAWBURGH FORT (Procoliiia), Whole area open grassland, except north ram- 
part which is under Wade's road. The remains are well marked. A portion 
of the west gateway and a tower on the west rampart are exposed and in danger 
through neglect. 

(6) CARRAW MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(c) EARTHWORK " BROWN DIKES." J mile west south-west of site (6). Well marked ; 


(d) SHIELD-ON-THE-WALL (E.) MILECASTLE. North gateway and wall and part of 

south gateway exposed. In danger through neglect. Worthy of preservation. 

() COWEY SIKE TURRET. Site well marked ; grass. 

(/) SEWINGSHIELDS EAST MILECASTLE Site well marked, but covered with old plan- 

(g) EARTHWORK. 2 furlongs south by east of site (/). Well marked ; grass. 

(h) EARTHWORK " GRINDON." 6 furlongs south east of site (g). Site well marked ; 

(i) SEWINGSHIELDS CRAG MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(ft) KING'S HILL MILECASTLE. Remains much disturbed ; grass. 

(/) KENNFL CRAG TURRET. Site located ; grass. 

(m) GATEWAY WITH FLANKING TOWERS. 100 yards east of Housesteads Fort. Fully 
exposed. Remains of towers in danger through neglect. Worthy of preser- 

(n) BATH-BUILDING on east bank of Knagburn, 200 yards south of site (m). Site 
well marked ; grass. 

(0) LIME-KILN in west bank of Knagburn, opposite site (). Excavated 1909 and 

covered again. Worthy of preservation. 

NOTE. (i) In this section the Wall is covered by Wade's road from site (a) to within J mile 
east of site (d). The Wall is not exposed between site (d) and a point 50 yards east of 
site (m), the remains being generally very much disturbed. From the above point to 
Housesteads Fort it is fully exposed and worthy of preservation. 

NOTE. (ii) The Vallum is generally well marked and of great size near Shield-on-the- 

NOTE. (iii) The Military Way appears regularly westward from site (e) and is well marked 
near sites (K) and (/). 


(a) HOUSESTEADS FORT (Borcovicus or Borcovicium). Whole area open grass-land. 

Ramparts, towers, and gates exposed, as well as central headquarters building 
and small portions of others. Portions of ramparts suffering from 'neglect, 
but generally protected and in no danger. Particularly worthy of preservation, 
Extensive traces of suburban buildings to south where ground is also open grass 

(b) HOUSESTEADS MILECASTLE. Fully exposed. Considerable remains ; particularly 

worth of preservation. 

(c) RAPISHAW GAP TURRET. Site located ; grass. 
(.i) HOTBANK CRAG TURRET. Site located ; grass. 

(#) HOTBANK MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 

(/) HIGH SHIELD CRAG EAST TURRET. Site located ; grass. 

(g) HIGH SHIELD CRAG WEST TURRET. Site located ; grass. 

(h) CASTLE NICK MILECASTLE. Fully exposed ; particularly worthy of preservation. 

(1) PEEL CRAG TURRET. Excavated 1911 and covered again, except built-up recess, 

which is exposed. Worthy of preservation, 
(ft) STEELRIGG TURRET. Excavated 1912 and covered again. 
(/) WINSHIELDS MILF.CASILE. Excavated 1908 and 1912, and covered again. 
(m) SHIELD-ON-THE-WALL (W.) MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 
(n) CAWIIELDS MILECASTLE. Fully exposed ; particularly worthy of preservation. 


(o) WATERMILL. East bank of Haltwhistle Burn, 70 yards south of Wall. Excavated 

1907-8 and covered again. 

NOTE. (i) Throughout this section the Wall is frequently exposed for considerable stretches, 

standing to a greater height and in better condition than anywhere else throughout its 

course. In many parts it is suffering from neglect, and every year its condition becomes 

worse. Special steps should be taken to preserve the exposed parts. 

NOTE. (ii) The Vallum is well marked, except near site (a), though interfered with by 

Wade's road for about a mile between sites (/) and (ft). 

NOTE. (iii) The Military Way is especially well marked throughout this section. 

(a) GREATCHESTERS FORT (Aesica). Of the whole area about one quarter (including 
the whole east rampart) is occupied by farm buildings, yard and garden. The 
rest of the site is open grass land. The west rampart with gateway and angle 
towers and portions of two internal buildings are exposed and protected where 
necessary, but in need of attention. Particularly worthy of preservation. 
(6) BATH-BUILDING, 120 yards south of south-east angle of the fort. Partly exposed, 
but very ruinous, and should be covered again to preserve the remains. 

(c) AQUEDUCT (earthwork). About 6 miles long, which conveyed water from Saughy 

Rigg Pool in the Cawburn to the fort at Greatchesters. Well marked for 
greater part of its course through grassland. 

(d) ALLALEE MILECASTLE. Site well marked; grass. 

(e) MIDDLEBANK TURRET. Site well marked ; grass. 

{/) MUCKLEBANK TURRET. Exposed and in danger through neglect. Particularly 

worthy of preservation. 

(g) WALLTOWN MILECASTLE. Site well marked ; grass. 
(h) WALLTOWN TURRET. Partly exposed ; in danger through neglect. 
NOTE. (i) In this section extensive stretches of the Wall are partially exposed, but suffer- 
ing considerably from neglect ; west of site (k) the remains are in imminent danger owing 
to quarrying operations. The whole length of this section is specially worthy of preser- 

NOTE. (ii) The Vallum and Military Way are generally well marked. 

(a) CARVORAN FORT (Magna). Whole area open grassland. Remains well marked. 

North-west angle tower exposed and not protected ; at present in need of repair. 

(b) CARVORAN MILECASTLE. Site fairly well marked ; grass. 

(c) CHAPELHOUSE MILECASTLE. Site traceable ; arable. 

NOTE. (i) The Wall is nowhere exposed in this section and the remains of it throughout 
must be slight. 

NOTE. (ii) The Vallum is fairly well marked, and particularly so on Wallend Common, 
J mile east of site (b). 

NOTE. (iii) The ditch of the Wall is large throughout this section and worthy of preserva- 
tion near site (b). 

B. ROMAN REMAINS south of the line of the Roman Wall. 

I. CORBRIDGE (Corstopitum). Roman town on the north bank of the Tyne. Ex- 

cavations have been carried on here since 1906, and are still in progress. The 
remains are either covered again each year, or if worthy of remaining exposed, 
carefully preserved. 

II. CHESTERHOLM (Vindolana). Fort of 3J acres. Remains well marked in grass 


III. MILESTONE on west bank of Bradley burn, close to Chesterholm. Standing well 

preserved, though not in its original position. 

IV. MILESTONE, 7 furlongs west of Chesterholm. A stump of a milestone set up by 

the side of the Stanegate, close to the spot where it was found. The upper portion 
was split for use as gateposts some years ago ; one half which remained lying 
close by was destroyed in 1912. 


V. HALTWHISTLE BURN FORT. Well marked remains on east bank of Haltwhistle 

Burn; excavated 1907, and covered again. The Stanegate on both banks 
of the Haltwhistle burn is exceptionally well preserved. 

VI. WHITLEY CASTLE, near Alston. Very well marked remains of fort on line of the 

Maiden Way. Grass. 
. _ ROMAN REMAINS north of the line of the Roman Wall. 

I. RISINGHAM FORT (Habitancium). Remains, well-marked, of stone buildings and 

ramparts. Area, about 4 acres, under grass. 

II. HIGH ROCHESTER FORT (Bremenium). Partly covered by modern buildings. 

Part of the site was excavated 1853 and covered again. 

III. CHEW GREEN or MAKENDON CAMPS. May possibly become endangered by an 

artillery camp recently formed in the neighbourhood. 
). _ EARTHWORK CAMPS, some of which may be of Roman origin. 

(a) Stagshaw Common. (k) Bagraw Burn. (0 Longframlington. 

(b) Bewclay. (I) Birdhope Crag. () Crawley. 

(c) Oxhill. (m) Woollaw. () Belford. 

(d) Camp HilL (n) Bellshields Craig. (w) Outchester, Budle Bay. 

(e) Fourlaws. (o) Dour Hill. (*) Roundabout. 
(/) Troughend. (p) Foulplay East. (v) Raylees. 

(g) Dargues. (<?) Foulplay West. (r) Plashetts. 

(h) Blakehope. (r) Ferny Chesters. 

(t) Greenchesters. (s) Angerton South Stead. 


The following document is in Dr. Burman's collection ; the copy 
has been kindly made by Mr. Welford (continued from page 36) ; 

Anne, by the grace of God, etc., to our trusty and well beloved John Cuthbert* and Thomas 
Browne, esquires, William Collier, Charles Clarke and Charles Parke, junr., gent., greeting. 
Whereas we are informed that William Fallay, late of Newcatle-upon-Tyne, chapman, 
using and exercising the trade of merchandize by way of bargaining, exchange, bartering, 
and chevisance, seeking his trade of living by buying and selling, did become bankrupt, 
within the several statutes made against bankruptcy to the intent to defraud and hinder 
John Moor of London, haberdasher, and others his creditors of their just debts and duties 
to them due, or owing. We, minding the due execution, as well of the statutes touching 
bankrupts, etc., and trusting in the wisdom, fidelity, diligence and the provident circum- 
spection which we have conceived in you, do, by these presents, appoint you, etc., our special 
commissioners, giving full power and authority unto you, four or three of you whereof you 
the said John Cuthbert, or Thomas Browne to be one, to proceed according to the said 
statutes, etc., not only concerning the said bankrupt, his body, lands, tenements, freehold 
and customary goods, debts and other things whatsoever, but also concerning all other 
persons who, by concealment, claim or otherwise, shall offend, touching the premises, etc., 
to do and execute all and everything whatsoever, as well for and towards satisfaction and 
payment of the said creditors as towards and for all other intents and purposes according 
to the ordinances and provisions of the same statutes. Willing and commanding you 
tour, or three, etc., to proceed to the execution and accomplishment of this our commission, 
with all diligence and effect. Witness ourself at Westminster, the second day of February, 
in the ninth year of our reign. BRIDGEMAN. 

* John Cuthbert, sergeant at law, elected recorder of Newcastle, January 18th, 1706, 
Married Dorothy, youngest daughter of John Spearman, the antiquary, and held the office 
of recorder till his death. Buried at St. Nicholas's, Newcastle, April 7tb, 1724, where 
is a mural monument to his memory and that of his son William, who was recorder also 
from November 1739, till his decease, August 29th, 1746. 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 5 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 26th May, 1915, at 
seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., a vice-president, 
being in the chair. 


Mr. Oswald (secretary) announced that in the fighting in Flanders, 
one of their members, Captain George Edward Hunter of Gos- 
forth, son of their member, Mr. Edward Hunter, had been killed, 
along with his brother, on the 26th April, and he moved that the 
sympathy of members be conveyed, by letter, to his father. 

Mr. Blair (secretary) then moved that a similar letter be sent to 
Mrs. Lamb, widow of their late member, Captain Everard Lamb, 
killed at the end of 1914 in the same warfare. 

The motions on being seconded were carried in silence, by members 
rising in their places. 

The following books, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From R. Blair (secretary) : The Antiquary for May 1915 (xi, v). 
This number contains the second part of Mr. R. C. Clephan's 
account of Roman Trier, with illustrations. A note of a meeting 
of the London Society of Antiquaries is also given (p. 194) ; at 
this meeting Mr. C. R. Peers, the secretary, exhibited a Saxon 
pillow stone discovered at Holy Island, 8f inches high by 6 
inches wide, similar to the Hartlepool stones. Incised on it is a 
cross, below in the arms of the cross is the woman's name OSGYTH 
in Saxon letters, and above the arms the same name in runes. 
From Mr. William Clark of Newcastle : Account o/ the Case of \ 
Jane Jamieson \ charged with the \ Murder of her own Mother \ 
Margaret Jamieson, in the Keelmen's Hospital, on the \ New Road, 
on the 2nd January, 1829 (broadsheet mounted on cardboard). 
From the North Eastern Railway Company (per Mr. P. Brewis, 
F.S.A.) : 

I. A series of guides to places in the north of England. (1) York, 
(2) Beverley and Howden, (3) Durham, (4) Ripon and Fountains 
Abbey, (5) Hexham and the Roman Wall, (6) Old Castle Barnard ; 
and five others entitled Historic Monuments in North East England. 
They are all well illustrated. 

II. A series of posters issued by the Government relating to (1) 
recruiting for the war ; (2) special railway notices necessitated by 
the war; and (3) N.E.R. pictorial posters. 
Exchanges : 

From the Royal Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, 

4th ser., no. 57. 

From the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland : Journal, XLV, i. 
(Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 8 


From the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History : 

Proceedings, xv, ii. 
From the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society : 

Transactions, xxxvn, i. 

From the British Archaeological Association : Journal, xxi, i. 
It contains a list of earthwork enclosures in Northumberland, 
by Mr. J. G. N. Clift. 
Purchases : The Registers of Dunston, Somerset; of St. Michael Church, 

Somerset; and of Denchurch, Berks. (Parish Reg. Soc.) 

By Mr. W. Hardcastle : Four letters about the Percy Riflemen, 
from the duke of Northumberland to Christopher Blackett, 
1803-4. They are as follows : 
DEAR SIR l Alnwick Castle, 19th Oct., 1803. 

As Major Watson 2 informs me that you were kind enough during the last war to get 
the Bullets cast for this division of the Percy Tenantry, I should be much obliged to you 
if you will order directly the usual quantity to be cast, and sent down here as soon as possible. 
As you have got your Rifles you will be able to have them cast the right size. They must 
just be able to fit the piece well when wrapped in a double piece of linen rag or a piece of 
paper. We are in great want of them as soon as possible, as our powder is arrived. I hope 
your's is arrived likewise. Pray let me know what quantity of cloathing you have got, 
and what number of caps. I will likewise trouble you to inform me, whether any and what 
cloathing, bridles, holsters, or goat skins are arrived for the cavalry. I hope to have the 
pleasure of seeing you and the officers of the corps, who are here on Tuesday next, at dinner 
on that day. I have prepared my uniform for that purpose. The company of Riflemen 
at Alnwick are coming on very fast and like their Rifles extremely. The Board of ordnance 
assure me they have all been proved. I have written to London for accoutrements, exactly 
the same as Col. Manningham's 3 Corps, at my own expense that the corps may be com- 
pletely fit for service. 

The Duchess and my family desire I will offer their compliments, with mine, to you, 
Mrs. Blackett, and the rest of your family. I have the pleasure to be with great regard, 

Dear Sir, Yours most sincerely, 
1 Northumberland. 4 

DEAR SIR, Alnwick Castle, 5th Novr., 1803. 

Enclosed I do myself the pleasure of sending a Draft upon Messrs. Hoare of Fleet 
Street for Five Hundred Pounds on account of the Percy Tenantry Riflemen and I must 
desire you to inform me as soon as half of it is expended, in order that I may send you a 
further supply. 

As I understand there is a dangerous and contagious fever 5 at Newcastle, all idea of 
the corps going to that place must for the present of course be abandoned. 

1 Christopher Blackett, esq., of Wylam, Major Commandant of the Percy Tenantry Volun- 
teer Infantry for the Southern Division of the County of Northumberland, enrolled on the 
llth May, 1798. "Notices of the Services," by William Adamson, Newcastle, 1877, p, 86. 

3 John Watson, esq., of Warkworth, Major of the Percy Tenantry Volunteers, raised 
in the Northern Division of Northumberland, enrolled llth May, 1798. Ibid., p. 87. 

3 Colonel Coote Manningham Formation of the Rifle Brigade, December, 1800. CoL 
Manningham was employed to instruct them in the use of the Rifle and in light infantry 
training. Hist. Brit. Army, iv, ii, p. 918. 

4 Hugh Percy, 2nd duke of Northumberland, July 2nd, 1764, b. 1742, a general in the 
army, d. July 10th, 1817. The House of Percy, by Gerald Brenan, 1902. 

6 In 1803 a discussion took place in Newcastle as to the cure of Infectious Fevers 
in Newcastle. John Clark, M.D., was in favour of annexing fever-wards to the Newcastle 
Infirmary. This was opposed and a Fever Hospital was erected outside^the town's wall 
behind the Black Friars. Mackenzie's History of Newcastle., 1827, pp. 509 and 516. 


i hope your Sergt Major will return to you perfect in the Rifle exercise. He appeared 
however to be more inclined to play at Ball with my servants than to improve himself in 
his exercise. 

Pray let me know whether you have had your complete share of Rifles for Maj'r Watson 
informs me that the number sent here are 620 instead of 603. 

The Duchess and my family unite with me in offering our compliments to you, Mrs. 
and Miss Blackett. 

I have the pleasure to be, with great regard, 

Dear Sir, Yours most sincerely, 


Alnwick Castle, 5th Jan'ry, 1804. 

I return you my thanks for the present of lamb, which you have been so kind as to send, 
and which is remarkably fine. 

I desired Lord Percy 1 to recommend to your assistance and protection my friend, Mr. 
Stephen Kemble, 2 who is fearful that some of the Proprietors of the Theatre wish to take 
away that Theatre from him. Considering the expense he has been at, and his readiness 
at all times to forward both Publick and Private charities, it would I think be hard upon 
him, and I really believe him to be a reasonable and worthy man. If you can be of use 
to him I shall feel myself obliged to you. 

May I beg of you to let me have my private account with you, in order that I may 
discharge it. 

I have heard nothing as yet from the Harton Colliery. 

I lament that Lord Percy has been so unlucky in his weather, now the Tyneside 
Squadron is with him. They are obliged to go down, all the way to the sands, to exercise, 
and it is now snowing as hard as it can. 

The Duchess and my family unite with me in compliments to you, Mrs. Blackett and 
the rest of your family. I have the pleasure to be with the greatest regard. 

Dear Sir, Your sincere friend, 

Northumberland . 
Christ'r Blackett, Esq. 

Alnwick Castle, 20th February, 1804. 

I have just received your letter with Lt. Colonel Blakeney's 3 enclosed, which 1 herein 
do myself the pleasure of returning to you. As I am to go from hence to Capheaton, and 
have some business to transact with Sir John Swinburne, it will not be in my power to see 
any part of the Percy Tenantry on the Tyne Side, soonei than Saturday next, when I think 

1 Hugh Percy, 3rd duke of Northumberland, April 10th, 1817, b. April 20th, 1785, Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland (1829), d. Feb. llth, 1847 The House of Percy, by Gerald Brenan, 

The Percy Tenantry Volunteer Cavalry and Riflemen commanded by the Right Hon. 
Earl Percy, enrolled on the 20th August, 1803. Notices of the Services, by William Adamson, 
Newcastle, 1877, p. 88. 

2 Stephen Kemble for 14 years manager of the Newcastle Theatre in Mosley Street was 
the brother of John and Charles Kemble and Mrs. Siddons, b. May 3rd, 1758. His remarkable 
obesity enabled him to personate Falstaff, ' without stuffing.' Mackenzie's History of 
Newcastle, 1827. He died at Durham, 11 June 1822, and was buried in the chapel of the 
' Nine Altars.' 

3 Died, Yesterday se'nnight at his house in Saville Row in this town, William Blakeney, 
esq., lieutenant-colonel in the army, formerly commandant of the Newcastle Loyal Volun- 
teers and member of the Irish parliament for the borough of Athenry, till the union. He 
served his country in America and was wounded in the fatal battle of Bunker's Hill. 
Newcastle Courant, Nov. 10th, 1804. His funeral achievement is in St. Andrew's church. 
Armorial bearings in the Church of St. Andrew. Newcastle-upon-Tyns, Newcastle, 1818. 


1 could get from Capheaton to Barrisford to see the two companies there. But I will write 
decisively to you from Sir John's. The other companies I must see the next week. 

I am much obliged to you for your kind invitation to Wylam, and had I got to you 
alone, or only with Lord Percy as I at first hoped, I certainly should have troubled you, 
but as we shall be on our Southern journey, and are such a tribe of us, no less than six, we 
shall be too troublesome and crowd you too much. 

As we shall begin to be on the move next Wednesday morning, I have desired my letters 
may for some days be directed to me at the Post Office, Newcastle. Will you be kind 
enough to desire your assistant to send my letters over to Capheaton with Sir John's, till 
I write to him. 

We all unite in compliments to you, Mrs. Blackett and the rest of your family. 

I have the pleasure to be with great regard. 

Dear Sir, Yours most sincerely, 


As in former years it was decided not to hold a meeting either of the 
council or of the society at the end of June. 


Mr. C. Hunter Blair read the following notes on some notarial marks 
on charters in the treasury of the Dean and Chapter of Durham : 

" The nine photographs of notarial marks which I exhibit to-night 
are drawn on charters relating to the archbishopric of York, preserved 
in the treasury at Durham. Our society is indebted to the Dean 
and Chapter and to Mr. K. C. Bayley, the keeper of the records, for 
permission to reproduce them and for facilities granted to me to photo- 
graph them. They are drawn with a pen on the parchment at the 
left hand side of the attesting clause, or clauses, at the foot of the 
various documents which range in date from A.D. 1321 to A.D. 1420. 

Dr. Freshfield in an article on ' Some Notarial Marks in the " Com- 
mon Paper" of the Scriveners' Company/ published in Arckaeologia, 
vol. 54, part 2, page 240, thus describes the functions of a notary. 
' The notaries occupied a double position. On the one hand they were 
public officers having a fixed international position recognised by the 
civil law, and holding an authority from the Emperor and Pope, but 
not in any way recognised by the Common Law of England. On 
the other hand they and the scriveners discharged all the functions 
now performed by conveyancing counsel and solicitors in the drawing 
of deeds and instruments in England.' These London notaries call 
themselves papal and imperial ' Notarius Papalis et Imperialis.' 
They appear to have differed from the notaries whose marks are 
here' reproduced, who were attached to the archbishops of York or 
other high ecclesiastics, and call themselves public notaries by 
apostolic authority ' auctoritate apostolica publicus notarius.' No. 1 
expands the phrase, and names himself notary by the authority of 
the Holy Apostolic See ' sancto sedis apostolice auctoritate.' 

The cross motive appears to be the groundwork of all the devices, 
though it is sometimes lost in ornamental detail (nos. 3, 4, 8). 

No. 1 is of an unusual form and much larger than the others ; in 
reproducing it has been largely reduced in size, which in the original 
measures 5|- inches by 2|- inches. The other marks are all reproduced 
half the size of the originals. No. 2 has the notary's name round the 
inner margin of the circumference, RRarUllS StIOU. No. 3 has the 
initial of the owner's Christian name ' I ' in the upper fleur de lys and 
his surname DiSfOfd in the lower. No. 4, a very beautiful design 
has a suggestion of heraldic influence in the ermine fess ; the 
general style suggests that this notary, at least, was also an illuminator. 


The large initial letter 'J ' for John of Thoresby, archbishop of York, 
with which the charter begins is an elaborately beautiful letter and 
has the ermine fess of the mark across the loop of the letter. No. 
6 has the user's initial in the centre of the interlaced work, and at 
the foot is a bell with the letters 1)3$ beneath it, thus forming a rebus 
on his name of Belvas. No. 8 has the letters a tn, which I am unable 
to interpret, in the upper compartment of the pediment, and the 
owner's name, Robt dfc Bcrail, in the lower. 

The remaining marks do not call for any special notes. Below are 
the names of the various notaries, with the first words of the attestation 
clause (the words ' et ego ' omitted) and the treasury reference to the 
different charters with their dates (see opposite plate). 

1. The mark of ' Hugo dictus Palmer de Corbrige clericus Dunel- 
mensis diocesis sacro sancte sedis apostolice auctoritate notarius 
publicus.' Durham treasury charter, no. 1 11 Spec. 29, dated 
A.D. 1321. The illustration is considerably reduced, the size 
of the original is 5| inches by 2 inches. 

2. The mark of ' Ricardus de Snoweshull clericus Wigorniensis 
diocesis apostolica auctoritate notarius publicus.' Durham 
treasury charter, no. 4 1 Archiep. 5, dated A.D. 1322. ' Durham 
Seals ' catalogue no. 3229. 

3. The mark of ' Walterus de Skyrlagh clericus Eboracensis diocesis 
publicus auctoritate apostolica notarius.' Durham treasury 
charter no. 4 2 Archiep. no. 2, dated A.D. 1356. ' Durham 
Seals ' catalogue no. 3232. 

4. The mark of ' Ricardus de Stanton clericus Eboracensis diocesis 
auctoritate apostolica publicus notarius.' Durham treasury 
charter no. 3 2 Archiep, no. 1, dated A.D. 1410. 'Durham 
Seals ' catalogue no. 3235. 

5. The mark of ' Johannes Beluas clericus Eboracensis diocesis 
publicus notarius.' On the same charter as no. 4. 

6. The mark of ' Johannes de Welton clericus Eboracensis diocesis 
auctoritate apostolica publicus notarius.' On same charter 
as no. 4 and 5. 

7. The mark of ' Robertus de Berall clericus Dunelmensis diocesis 
auctoritate apostolica publicus notarius.' ' Durham treasury 
charter no. 43 sacr. 5, dated the third year of pope Martin v 
(A.D. 1420). 'Durham Seals' catalogue no. 3174. 

8. The mark of ' Ricardus de Skypton clericus Eboracensis diocesis 
publicus auctoritate apostolica notarius.' Durham treasury 
charter, no. 3 1 Ebor. 19, dated A.D. 1353. ' Durham Seals ' 
catalogue no. 3247. 

9. The mark of ' Johannes de Disford clericus Eboracensis diocesis 
publicus anctoritate apostolica notarius.' Durham treasury 
charter no. 3 1 Ebor. 19, dated A.D. 1353. ' Durham Seals ' 
catalogue no. 3247. 

The following is the full transcription and translation of the attes- 
tation clauses of Richard of Skypton and John of Disford on charter 
3 1 Ebor., no. 19 ; marks nos. 8 and 9: 1 

Et ego Ricardus de Skypton', clericus, Eboracensis diocesis, publicus auctoritate apostolica 
notarius, premissis sentencie prolacioni, condempnacioni, ac presencium litterarum sigillo 
dicti domini officialis consignacioni, ac ceteris omnibus et singulis, dum, prout supra scribuntur 
et recitantur per dictum dominum officialem curie Eboracensis dicto sextodecimo die mensis 
Octobris, anno Domini millesimo trecentesimo quinquagesimo tercio, pontificatus sanctissime 
1 The Society is indebted to Mr. A. Hamilton Thompson, F.S.A., for this transcription 
and translation. 


in Christo patris et domini, domini lunocencij diuina prouidencia pape sexti, anno prime, 
indiccione septima, agerentur et fierent, vna cum infrascriptis testibus personaliter presens 
interfui, eaque sic fieri vidi et audiui, ac de mandate domini officiate predict! predict! (sic) 
scripsi et in hanc publicam formam redegi, signoque meo et nomine consuetis signaui, rogatus 
in fidem et testimonium premissorum : presentibus in dicte sentencie prolacione magistro 
Ade de Twysilton', Willelmo de Langton', et Galfiido de Langton', dicte curie Eboracensis 
aduocatis, ac in presencium litterarum consignacione magistris Johanne de Dysford ' et 
Waltero de Skyrlagh', auctoritate apostolica notariis publicis, et aliis testibus quampluribus 
vocatis specialiter et rogatis. 

Et ego Johannes de Disford', clericus, Eboracensis diocesis, publicus auctoritate apostolica 
notarms, dicte sentencie prolacioni ac omnibus aliis et singulis, prout suprascribuntur et 
recitantur per magistrum Ricardum de Skypton,' publicum auctoritate apostolica notarium, 
ac dum per reuerendum virum dominum officialem curie Eboracensis, sicut premittitur, 
agercntur et fierent, vna cum prenominatis testibus anno, mense, die, loco, indiccione, et 
pontincatu predicitis personaliter presens interfui, eaque omnia et singula fieri vidi et 
audiui, et ideo me in testem subscripsi, signumque meum et notnen consuetis (sic) apposui, 
rogatus in fidem et testimonium premissorum. 

And I, Richard Skypton, clerk of the diocese of York, by apostolic authority notary 
public, being present in person together with the witnesses written beneath, was at the 
aforesaid delivery of the sentence, condemnation, and sealing of the present letters with the 
seal of the said lord official, and at the other [proceedings] all and sundry, while, as they are 
above written and recited, they were done and performed by the said lord official of the court 
of York, on the said sixteenth day of the month of October, in the year of our Lord 1353, 
in the first year of the pontificate of the most holy father in Christ and lord, the lord Innocent, 
by divine providence sixth pope [of that name], in the seventh indiction ; and saw and 
heard them so done, and at the bidding of the lord official aforesaid wrote them down and 
drew them up into this public form, and have signed them with my accustomed mark and 
name, having been requested to [give] surety and witness of the premises ; those present 
at the delivery of the said sentence being master Adam Twysilton,' William Langton,' and 
Geoffrey Langton,' advocates of the said court of York, and at the sealing of the present 
letters masters John Dysford " [i.e. Dishforth] and Walter Skyrlagh,' by apostolic authority 
notaries public, and very many other witnesses specially called and requested. 

And I, John Dysford,' clerk, of the diocese of York, by apostolic authority notary public, 
being present in person, was at the delivery of the said sentence and all and sundry the other 
[proceedings], as they are above written and recited by master Richard Skypton, by apostolic 
authority notary public, and while they were done and performed, as is aforesaid, by the 
reverend the lord official of the court of York, together with the aforenamed witnesses, in 
and on the year, month, day, place, indiction, and pontificate aforesaid, and saw and heard 
them done all and sundry, and therefore have subscribed myself as a witness and have set 
[to the present letters] my accustomed sign and name, having been requested to [give] surety 
and witness of the premises. 


Mrs. Willans read the following notes, which were illustrated by 
lantern slides. They referred to a collection of engravings of 
instruments, nearly all obsolete, published either quite at the end 
of the 18th century, or at the beginning of the 19th, in a music album 
compiled by Domenico Corri. 

The slides were prepared by Mr. N. Temperley from drawings 
made by Mrs. Willans after the originals, which were in several 
instances too imperfectly printed to photograph directly. 

The instruments, broadly speaking, included examples of each 
class into which musical instruments can be roughly divided, namely, 
those of percussion, wind, and string ; dating from early Egyptian times 
down to the 18th century. 

(1) The SISTRUM, an early Egyptian instrument of uncertain musical 
pitch, allied to the triangle. It was employed by the priests in the 


temples of Isis to attract the notice of worshippers to certain parts 
of the ritual. It sometimes has been called ' Queen Cleopatra's war 
trumpet,' from having been used at the battle of Actium(fig. 1). 

(2) The CYMBALS, originally used by the Greeks in the worship 
of Cybele, were known in the middle ages as ' Clash-Pans ' or ' Basins.' 

(3) The KETTLE DRUM. The only member of the drum family 
that is a true musical instrument, being tuned in harmony with other 
instruments. The kettle drum is descended from Arabic sources, 
and known as ' Knakers/ was played in the middle ages, slung from 
the waist or shoulder of the performer. The larger size was intro- 
duced by the Hungarians to this country. The kettle-drum became the 
recognized appanage of every regiment of horse in the time of James II, 
and was first used in the opera by Lully, in the last half of the seven- 
teenth century. 

Passing on to the second class the wind instruments allusion 
was made to how large a part animal substances take in the construc- 
tion of musical instruments ; a fact most noticeable in primitive types. 
There are numerous legends of human relics being used for such pur- 
poses. Horn, bone, ivory, horse-hair, cat-gut (so called), leather, 
silk, quills (as in the case of the harpsichord), membrane and tortoise- 
shell, have all been, and in many instances still are employed ; though 
when replaced by other materials, chiefly metal, the instrument often 
retains a name that bespeaks its origin. The resonant quality of tightly 
stretched membrane must have been discovered .long before thin 
metal plates of any kind were arrived at. 

Vegetable matter, ol itself, does not give out satisfactory musical 
tones, but can be used to enhance, by sound-box or other contrivance, 
tones produced by membrane or metal strings. The gourd from which 
the sound-box of many eastern and southern stringed instruments 
was made, has given place in northern countries and more modern 
times to forms built up of thin strips of wood. Excepting 
the Pandean pipes, wooden wind instruments are generally of 
later date than those of horn or bone. Pre-historic remains abound 
in bone whistles, and there is at least one known example of a medieval 
flagolet, made from the ulna of a swan's wing. 


(4) The TIBIAE PARES, are allied as much to the double flutes of 
modern times, as to the old recorders and double pipes commonly 
depicted in early art of Assyria, Egypt, Greece and Rome. The 
example of TIBIAE PARES shown, is coupled together by four figures 
of the deadly Cerastes Cornuta, the two-horned viper of Northern 
Africa (fig. 2). 

(5) A group of three wind instruments, (a) the PLATERSPIL, a primi- 
tive type of bag-pipe, in which the air reservoir served to prolong 
the note only by its own contraction, not by pressure ; (b) the HUNTING 
HORN, an example played not by valves, but by ' hand stopping ' ; 
(c) the HORN THURNER. 

(6) Another group of four wind instruments : (a) the CLARINETTE, 
first used as an orchestral instrument in 1763 ; (b) the TIBIAE GEMINI ; 
(c) the TUBA COMMUNIS, the Roman straight trumpet ; (d) the 
BOMBARDT, belonging to the oboe or bassoon family, but in this 
instance much more simple than the modern oboe. 

(7-10) Four examples of the LYRE. The first was constructed of 
horns and tortoise-shell ; the second also with horns ; both known as 
the ' Lyre Cornu ' ; a third, of more conventional form, but all 
three Greek types ; the fourth of lyre, belonging to the cithara class, 
a heavy instrument, often depicted in Roman art (figs. 3 and 4.) 

(11) Two examples of Greek TRIGONS, one similar to the Egyptian 
harp, not having' a front stay or pillar. The other, with front stay, 
more approaching the ' psalterium ' in form. The harp was probably 
evolved from the bow, with two or three strings added ; a type clearly 
seen in primitive instruments. The difference between harps and lyres 
was noted, the first having a string for each note, while in the latter 
an almost indefinite number of notes could be produced from a few 
strings, by ' stopping ' them with the fingers. 

(12) The. PSALTERY, a stringed instrument something like the 
zither, was the parent of the ' hurdy-gurdy/ the virginals, the spinet, 
and the harpsichord, being played by the fingers or a plectrum, not 
struck like the dulcimer, which was the fore-runner of the pianoforte. 


(13) The MINAGNGHINIM, a variety of box-shaped monochord, 
probably only used for tuning the organ, and to train the voice to 
certain scales (fig. 5.). 

(14) The GEIG, from whence is derived the words jig and jog, indi- 
cating the motion of the arm when playing it. The geig and the 
rebec were sometimes identical. The bow used was very similar to 
the actual weapon ; and the form without a ' waist,' survives in the 
mandoline (fig. 6). 

(15) The SYMPHONY called, in its larger form, the ORGANISTRUM, 
was originally a church instrument, but came to be degraded to the 
'hurdy-gurdy ' or ' peasants' lyre,' and is still in use in some parts of 
France. The example shown has a curved breast, which was not, as 
now, confined to bowed instruments, until the 15th century (fig. 7). 

(16) The LUTE, of Oriental origin, came to Europe through Mahom- 
medan channels, and its name is derived from the Arabic. The shape 
of the instruments of this family is a survival of the gourd, from 
which they were first of all constructed. Lute players, i.e., luthers, 
were always part of the musical retinue of kings in the middle ages, 
and the instrument was used quite as much for the dance and chamber 
music, as to accompany the lyric. Though the lute was not obsolete 
at the time of Bach as he wrote three sets of pieces for it the fact 
that the notation was different from that in use at present, the difficulty 
in keeping the instrument in tune, and great cost of its upkeep, caused 
it to lose popularity when in competition with the violin ; and to be 
entirely superseded by the piano-forte. The Lute differed from the 
mandoline, by not being played by a plectrum, and having one to 
three sound-holes in the breast. 

(17) The LUTINA was another member of the lute family (fig. 8). 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 9 


(18) The GUITTAR or GUITAR also is played with the fingers like 
the lute, but is one of the stringed instruments that in most of its 
variants has a ' waist.' The example shown was evidently of the 
16th century. Except in the East, the form of the guittar is generally 
flat both back and front, and the ' roses ' or sound-holes, particularly 
in older models, are of extremely beautiful and varied designs. Doubt- 
less the Arab strain in Spain is accountable for this instrument being 
so popular in that country, both for accompanying the voice and the 

(19) The genealogy of the VIOLIN goes back to the ' geig,' the ' crwth,' 
the 'symphony/ the 'monochord/ the 'lyre,' and the 'bow; its 
two outstanding ancestors are the lyre and the monochord. The 
name ' fiddle ' is derived from the Latin word for a string. The 
form of the violin has scarcely altered at all during the past three 
centuries. The art of the violin makers reached a point of perfection 
in about the year 1700 that has never been surpassed. The violin 
bow, as we have it now, was perfected by Fra^ois Tourte, in the last 
half of the 18th century, so that shades of tone could then be produced 
that were quite unattainable before. 

7 8 

(20) The organ was certainly the earliest instrument to which 
the key-board was applied. The water organs of the second century 
and later were regarded as profane instruments, and only suitable for 
gladiatorial shows. Not until centuries after did organs become 
associated with religious music. The illustration of a ' Portable ' or 
Portative Organ ' (or merely ' Portative ') which was shown on the 
slide, differed in some details from those generally portrayed in old 
manuscripts, etc., and the bellows were not of the usual flap shape, 
and possibly required a second person to work them while the instru- 
ment was being played. 


(21) The subject of the last slide was the HARPSICHORD, of which no 
example, of the original type, is known to have been made later than 
1800, though the instrument continued in use for some time after. The 
principle of the harpsichord was known as early as the 14th century, 
for it was practically a key-board zither or psaltery, not being struck 
with hammers like a piano, but plucked by a quill or spine attached to 
a jack. For extra power and tone it was often made with two or 
three strings to a note, and was the standard instrument for chamber 
music, theatre or concert, until the end of the 18th century. The 
harpischord lacked the elaborate decoration and fine finish given to 
the cases of the old virginals. Older instruments of all classes, in- 
variably were artistic productions, as pleasing still to the eye, as 
their tones were to the ears of past generations. 

Mrs. Willans was thanked by acclamation for her notes. 


The Scottish Historical Review, no. 47 (April 1915), contains an able 
review by Dr. Robert Munro, of the work of ' the Royal Commission 
on the Ancient and Historical Monuments and Constructions of Scot- 
land,' in which he says (p. 246) ' Excavations conducted by unskilled 
persons, however well-meaning their intentions may be, will generally 
do more harm than good, by destroying or overlooking important 
relics, simply because they are ignorant of the kind of objects to be 
looked for. This kind of research is little better than what a farmer 
does when he removes the stones of a cairn, fort, or circle, to build 
his dykes with, but allows the associated relics to be dispersed. All 
such indiscriminate excavations ought to be forbidden by law/ 


The following is another letter from the Rev. T. Stephens's collection 
(continued from page 31) : 
May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton June 14th: 1722 

I haue Receiued yors of the 12 of this month new Style, the most of it Relates to one 
Loraine, and not one word of his Complaints to Sr John Webb truth, I did write your Lady- 
shipe formerly aboute this man, and Shall now againe giue you an account of him, his Cheife 
tallant is smoakeing and drinkeing, and has been Runing to and fro vp and downe, and when 
he was fixt at a place neuer stayd long there, he fell accquainted with mr Geo: Errington 
who is but an odd Sort of aman, and told him that there was a great many Slaggs and old 
waist heaps at wood hall Lead mill, which Coll: Radclyffe had a Lease of and was within 
Six months Expireing, and for which he paid 6li. $ ann' Rent, and he told mr Errington that 
as my Lady Mary Radclyffe was the Colls. Extrix it woud be very proper for him to apply 
to my Lady Mary and buy those dead heaps and Slaggs, which mr Errington did, and bought 
them for 501: which was much better, and he gott as much Iron as was worth 50/. more, and 
my Lady Mary being very willing to Catch the 50/. in hand, sold Lumping penyworths 
and if this Loraine had not applyed to mr Errington, and he to my Lady Mary, the Lease 
the Coll: had woud haue been out in 6: months after, and then those slaggs and dead heaps 
and all the Iron would haue belonged to your Ladyshipe and my young Lord, which woud 
haue been worth at least 150J: and if this Loraine and Errington had not medled, I am Sense- 
able noe others woud haue been Concernd, now when they had bought the Slaggs and Dead 
heaps, then they did not know how to gett the Lead mill at wood hall to smelt them att, 
but by pretending they woud lay out great Sumes of money in the Lead mynes in Aldston 
moore, and by that meanes perswaded your Ladyshipe to lett them haue the lead mill for 
Seauen yeares Rent ffree, which was 61 $ ann', and besides 3 Tunn of wood which was worth 
8/., and they haue not aduentured any thing in aids ton moore that Signifyes a farthing, 
nor in my thoughts neuer will to any purpose, but in Short theire Cheife designe was to gett 
the Lead mill after they had bought the Slaggs and Dead heaps, and now what Loraine 


wants widdow Browns House for is to keep an ale House in, her husband was a seruant to 
Coll: Radclyffe for aboute 20 yeare and was a very honest man and farmd 39J. a yeare of 
my Lord and his widd Browne farmes it now and pays her Rent very well, the farme shee 
farmes is a prety distances from the place where shee liues but has very badd houses vpon 
it, I cannot Say shee stands in need of Charity tho her husband Browne left her but 3/. a 
yeare, where shee now liues shee keeps an ale house and makes a prety good shift to liue, 
haueing but one Child and that a boy, I onely leaue your Ladyshipe to Judge what fauour 
Loraine deserues when he was the occassion of Soe much loss to your Ladyshipe and my 
Lord, and that his masters does nothing in Aldston moore to any purpose, the few men they 
Imploy there I am well Informd they doe not pay, and Such work as that will neuer Carry 
on a trade, I can assure your Ladyshipe Loraine tells a very great lye of me of being his 
Enimye, for you may be assured that if I see any prospect of his masters or of his Carrying 
on a good trade in Aldston moore in the Lead mynes, noe man liueing shoud be Readier 
to Encourage them then my Selfe, but I see noe such thing, and in a litle time I shall write 
your Ladyshipe More aboute this matter, and in case your Ladyshipe will haue me to Turn 
widd Browne out of her house and put Loraine in it, please to write me two lines to doe it, 
and it shall be done, shee is willing to pay forty shillings a yeare for the house, and that 
Rent Since her husband dyed which is three yeare Since, your Ladyshipe please to ask mr. 
sarsfeild aboute her husband who knew him very well, it is not an vsuall time for any body 
to Remoue at this Season, Mayday being the Comon time of Remoueing and Entering to 
houses and farmes, I ask your Ladyships pardon for this long letter, but its what is matter 
of fact, all this famally are well, and giues theire humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and 
Childer, and to the new maryed Cuple to whome they all wish health and hapyness to, I 
shall pay mr. ffenwicks and waters a Thousand pounds and more, as soon as I am able to 
Ride abroad, I haue been very ill of an ague euer Since I writt your Ladyshipe my last letter 
which is twenty day Since, and it is a generall distemper all ouer this Countrey, and I had 
besides it a Seuere Cold in my bowells which was very dangerous as the Doctors told me, 
thanke god I am Much better, when I say mr. ffenwick and waters the money which I hope 
will be in aweeke or ten dayes at furthest, then I shall write your Ladyshipe and lett you 
know what money is in my hand, I can assure your Ladyshipe that money euery day growes 
Scarser and Scarser, that in a litle time I am affraid many Tennants will be Ruined, I send 
your Ladyshipe a note here Inclosed, I had from mr. Tuck who is agent in the north to the 
Comissionrs of Inquirey he is now at newcastle, but goes for London on Sunday next, it is 
agreat pity that Estate in yorkshire shoud goe from the famally, being one of the best by 
fair that belongs to it, at the Rent it is now lett for which is 446J : OOs : 04d. $ ann' besides 
the advousion of a Church there this Estate has not been aduanced for a aboue a hundred 
yeares, it woud be a very good thing in your Ladyshipe to gett Sr John Webb to gett Some 
body to purchase it Some will Certainely gett a very good purchase of it, I cann assure your 
Ladyshipe, that who euer Informes your Ladyshipe they are very much mistaken that meldon 
and meldon parke are Cheape lett, for your Ladyshipe may depend vpon it the Tennants will 
not Signe theire Leases till they see how times goes and that trade doe mend, and that is 
a very demonstration that theire farmes is not Soe Cheap as is Represented to your Lady- 
shipe, nor neither is there one Lease as yett signd by any Tennants that agreed for theire 
farmes and that is agreat signe they are not Soe Cheape, it was the South Sea that made farmes 
aduance, when Such Extrordinry prices was giuen for purchaseing Estates, wee haue gott 
an abatement of the land Tax for Dilston, the Land in Corbridge, Spindleston and Vttchester, 
and midleton hall, as for the other parts of the Estate wee haue not gott any abatement on 
the account of Duble Taxes because the Appeals dayes was ouer before Mr. Radburne writt 
from London, but hopes next yeare all the ... will be abated, howeuer all the Estate 
will be one third less this yeare 1722 then it [was] in 1721 being that yeare 3s. in the pound, 
and this yeare 1722 : 2s: in the pound I haue [no] more to add at prsent but my humble 
Seruice to my Lord, and the famally, and I am, 

Mr. Aynsley the attorney is now at London Yor Ladyshipes most 

who will doe your Ladyshipe all the obedient Seruant 

Sarvice in his power. Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' A Madame | Madame La Comtesse De | Darwent- 
water dans la Rue haute I proche L'Eglise de la Chappell | A I 
Bruxelles | By Ostend.'] 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 6 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 28th July, 1915, at 
seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, F.S.A., a vice- 
president, being in the chair. 

The secretaries reported that they had communicated the votes 
of condolence to Mr. Edward Hunter on the death of his son, and to 
Mrs. Lamb on the death of her husband at the seat of war. 

Mrs. Lamb, commandant of the British Red Cross Society, thanked 
the society ' very much for your most kind letter of sympathy in the 
loss of my husband ' and expressed her ' grateful thanks for the kindness 
conveyed in the letter. Though Captain Lamb was not often able 
to attend the meetings of the society, owing to press of other business, 
his heart was very much in it as he loved and venerated all things 
connected with bygone ages.' 

Mr. Edward Hunter was most grateful for the ' kind letter of sym- 
pathy with us in our great sorrow and I shall be pleased if you will 
convey my thanks to the society. My son, Captain G. E. Hunter, 
took a great interest in antiquarian affairs, and I know looked forward 
to a time when he might take an active interest in the society.' 

The following ordinary member was proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

Thomas William Bourn, Jesmond Cottage, Newcastle. 

The following BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Yale University Library, U.S.A. : Essays on Milton, by 

E. N. S. Thompson, Ph.D. ; The Earliest Lives of Dante, bv 

J. A. Smith. 
From the Museum and Muniments Committee of the Borough of 

Colchester : Report of the Colchester Museum of Local Antiquities, 

From Mr. Arthur Stones : Transactions of the Lancashire and 

Cheshire Antiquarian Society, xxiv-xxvi. 
From Mr. F. J. Brient : Durham, by H. S. Ward. 
From Robert Blair : The Antiquary, vol. xi, nos. 5, 6, and 7. 
Exchanges : 

From the Sussex Archaeological Society : Archaeological Collec- 
tions, LVII. 
From the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

Transactions, 4th ser., iv, ii. 
From the Royal Archaeological Institute : The Archaeological 

Journal, LXXI, no. 284. 
From the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

Magazine, no. cxxin. 
[Ptoc. 3 Ser. vn] 10 


From the Royal Canadian Institute of Toronto : Transactions, x, ii. 

From the Thoresby Society : Publications, xx, ii, and xxn, iii. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia 
Cambrensis, xv, iii. 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Society : The Yorkshire 

Archaeological Journal, part 91. 
Purchases : 

The Registers of Sutton, co. Surrey (Parish Register Society) : The 
Pedigree Register, in, no. 33 ; The Museums Journal, xv, no. 1 
(July, 1915) ; Visitations of the North, I, edited by F. W. Dendy, 
D.C.L. (122 Surtees Soc. publ.) ; 21 Plans of Ancient Earthworks 
in Northumberland, by the Rev. E. A. Downman (completing 
the county) ; and The Scottish Historical Review, no. 48 (July, 1915). 
[In it is mentioned (p. 433) an article in The Modern Language 
Review for January, in which ' the Ruthwell and Bewcastle 
crosses are discussed as regards the linguistic indications of date, 
by M. D. Forbes and Bruce Dickens, who conclude very firmly 
for a date anterior to A.D. 867 ; they are therefore as much against 
Dr. Hewison as against Professor Cook.' In an article (p. 397) 
' Journey to Belgium and Germany a hundred years ago/ occurs 
the following, referring to some French officers met at Magdeburg, 
' Their opinion now was that they were to have peace with all 
the World but England. They admitted her generosity & 
disinterestedness in restoring their Colonies, . . but the dominion 
of the seas, the monopoly of Commerce, & delenda est Carthago, 
were words & phrases which they had got by rote, and all the 
ideas connected with them, created in their minds & fostered 
by the Emperor, continued to nourish with undiminished rancour 
against Great Britain.'] 
DONATIONS TO THE MUSEUM, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. W. Gibson (per Miss S. A. Gibson) : A special constable's 
staff which formerly belonged to his father-in-law, Mr. Joseph 
Smithson, of Cockermouth, Cumberland. It is 18 ins. long and 
bears the date 1839. 

From Mr. W. H. Cullen : (1) The Egyptian Ushabti exhibited on 
26th August 1914 (see Proc. vi, 237) ; (2) a bronze token, 1| in. 
diam., struck on the centenary of the battle of Trafalgar, from 
copper from the Victory presented by the Admiralty ; (3) a 
Nuremberg counter, or ' abbey piece/ from the Tyne, having on 
obverse a cross paty in a tressure, and reverse, three small circles 
in each of them a leaf (?) ; and inscriptions in black letter around 
both sides. 

From Mr. Arthur Stones : A halfpenny, of William in (?) 

The editor placed on the table Archaeologia Aeliana, 3 ser. xn, which 
is ready for issue to members. 


The Chairman stated that one of their members, Mrs. Willans, 
had spent many months in preparing a catalogue of the printed books 
in the library which would be of great service to membeis. The 
council as a slight recompense for the valuable work done had decided 
to present her with the first four volumes of the third series of 
Archaeologia Aeliana, and of the first three volumes of the third 
series of the Proceedings. 

This was unanimously confirmed. 



Mr. W. W. Tomlinson read some interesting notes relating to collieries 
in the Delaval district and other matters gleaned from the collection 
of Delaval papers in the possession of the society. 

Mr. Tomlinson was thanked by acclamation after some apposite 
remarks on the subject by the chairman. 


The following is from Dr. Burman's collection (continued from 
p. 52) :- 


Burgus et Man'iu' Memorand' Q'd Nono die Maij Anno Regn' d'ni & d'ne Will'i & Marie 
de Gillegate. dei gra' Angl' Scoc' ffranc' et Hib'nie Regis & Regine. &c. fidei 

defensor' &c. Sexto Anno d'ni 1694 Venit Abrahamus Allenson de 
Gillegate Skinner extra cur' maner' de Gillegate prd vizt apud Civitat' Dunelm' coram 
Johanne Tempest Ar' d'no maner' prd et Rob'to Smith gen'oso Sen'lo ejusd' maner' 
et cepit de d'no vnu' burgagiu' cum p'tin jacen' in Gillegate prd ex parte austral' ibm 
inter burgagiu' Eccl'ie Collegiat' Dunelm' ex parte occidental' & burgagiu' quondam 
in tenura Rob'ti Gibson ex parte oriental' In quibus margeria Allenson vid ? mater 
prd Abrahami inde h'ens jus totum jus statum titulum Intere'e clam' & demand' & 
sursu' reddidit & quiet' clam' in manus d'ni ad opus & vsu' p'fat' Abrahame Allenson 
Habend' & tenend' burgagiu' prd cum p'tin' eidem Abrahame Allenson et assign' 
suis a ffesto annuntiationis b'te Marie Virginis ult" prt'ito usq' finem et terminu' 
Nonagint' & novem Annor' extunc px sequen' & plenar' complend' Reddend' inde 
annuatim d'no manerij prd ad fiesta pentecostes & Sci Martini Epi in Hyeme tres 
Solidos per equal' porcones et inveniend' vnu' p'cariu' in Autumpno et Reddend' etiam 
p' annu* d'no manerij prd ad ffesta Natalis dni vnam gallina' et fac' dno s'vicia' que 
incumb' per pleg' &c. et dat dno $ ffine Ncvem decem solidos & sex denar' et 
admiss' est inde tenens. 

Ext' $ me Rob': Smith, sen'lum. 


The following are letters from the Rev. T. Stephens's collection 
(continued from page 64) : 
May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton, July the 23d: 1722. 

I haue Receiued your Ladyshipes letter of the 8th: of this Month, I am glad your Lady- 
shipe has the true thought of mr. Loraine and his Masters Concerneing widd Browns House, 
it is plaine^that they doe not Regard the Intrest of aldston moore, when they make Such 
apretence aboute that House, I am very glad to heare that your Ladyshipe and the Childer 
are well, God almighty Continue it, I obserue very well what your Ladyshipe writes aboute 
Mr. Simpson, if you would giue him a Thousand pounds he would make quit of it, and 
Spend it, for he is adowne Right Graceless as euer I knew, and Neuer would take anything 
in hand that was Good, but Still Idle, he is in morpeth Gaoll in Northumberland, and not 
in york Gaoll as your Ladyshipe writes, it is the Gaoller of york that puts him in where he 
is, and that man must be applyed to by Some body that has an Influence with him, to treate 
with him, and bring him to termes as loe as Can bee, for this Simpson and other three men 
that were prisoners with him in york Gaoll, Ruined the Gaoler that was there, and he was 
turnd out of his place, which was worth 80/. ayeare profitt to him, and neuer gott into it 
againe, for being to Ciuile and kind to them, and they Run away and left the Gaoler in the 
Lurch, in my thoughts I cannot See that he Suffers in the least vpon your Ladyshipes account, 
for he and a great many more Such louse Sort of men as he, was very glad of Such an op- 
portunity as hapend at that time, I shall accquaint Mr. Busby to manage this mater as well 
as he can, and to send your Ladyshipe the Receipt you want, but the Tennant Mathew 

Thompson who is 'in amaner allmost beggerd, as I shall tell your Ladyshipe afterwards, 
desires that when Simpson getts out of Gaoll, that he may not liue at Dilston, for if he does, 
he will Certainely distroy and kill all the Rabitts, for he Cannot liue there but he must and 
will kill and distroy them, what I haue now to write your Ladyshipe is a malancolly account, 
of the great damages done by the great floods that hapend the 7: and 8: of this prsent Month, 
by the Riuers Tine, wear, Darwin, Deuills water, and Seuerall others, it is Reckoned by the 
driueing downe of bridges, Spoile of meadows, Corne, and pasture grounds, to Twenty 
Thousand pounds Damages, and amongst the Rest, your Ladyshipes Tennants comes in 
for a good share, Mathew Thompson a farmer of Dilston has all his pasture grounds ouer 
flowed and Sanded with the flood, and a great deale of his Corne Spoiled by the flood Runing 
ouer it, his Rabitts which was very much Increasd by mr. Simpsons being in Gaoll, is most 
or all drownd by the flood, he computs the loss of the Rabitts to 50/. or Sixty pounds, the other 
Tennants of Dilston has much damage done in theire Corne by the flood Running ouer it, 
and Dilston Mill Dam which was a Strong dam all made of Good oake Timber is all gone 
away by the flood, it will Cost 40J. or 501. to Rebuild it againe, and there is all your Lady- 
ships Tennants of ffourestones which lyes aboute halfe amile from the River South Tyne, 
has a prety large feild that lyes neare the said Riuer, that was all ouer flowed with water and 
Spoiled, there was wheat, Rye, Bigg, oates, and pease groweing in that feild, and all spoyld, 
there are Seuerall more besides what I haue Mentioned, your Ladysp I supose has heard 
of the Sale of whenby Estate to orife Mr. Garthforth of york a wine marcht, in my thoughts 
it is Cheap, being Sold for 7210/:, I am much affraid Seuerall Tennants will breake, there 
being noe Trade, nor noe money for either Corne or Catle, and money is very Scarse and hard 
to come at, that people ought to be good husbands of it, but it is a generall Complaint, and 
other peoples Tennants that are aduanced, will find it as well as your Ladyships, wee baue 
had very great Raines euer Since the begining of may last, and wee haue now very wett 
wether, and a very bad hay haruest, our Corne not being Ripe as yet, I hope it may be 
better wether, in a litle time, all this family are well, and giues theire humble Seruice to your 
Ladyshipe and family, I am, Yor Ladyshipes most obedient Seruant ; Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Right Honn r able the Countis ! of Darwent- 
water att Bruxells | by ostend, by way of | London, j pst pd to London 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton 7ber 16: 1722. 

I haue Receiued your letter of this Same dayes date foraigne Style, and obserues what 
your Ladyshipe writes me, that there is as mr. Radburne writes your Ladyshipe, in mr. 
ffenwick and waters hands of the money I paid them a 1131Z. : 03s. : 04d. which I much 
admire att, for they promised me before this time they would Returne it all to mr. Radburne. 
I shall write them to Return him 350/. with all speed as your Ladyshipe orders, and to 
Returne the Remainder as Soon as poseable, I am very much Surprised that mr. Radburne 
should pay mr. wright 781. 3s. : 4d.forReturnes,and neuer writt me one line abopte it, which 
is 37/. : 2s. : Qd. more then the Returneing of the money woud haue come to Since I paid 
them for Returns, which was the 9: of January 1720, wden I paid them 8QI. : 10s. : OOd. 
att 10s. $ Cent, and what I haue paid them Since that time the Returneing of it (if it were all 
Returnd comes but to 41Z. being 8200/. at 10s. fS hundred, comes but to 41Z., but I thinke 
it must be some mistake that the 781. : 2s. : &d. paid mr. Wright, must be vpon Some other 
account, for I cann assure your Ladyshipe I was Resolued to pay them nothing foe aduance 
of theire bills sent to mr. Radburne, Except your Ladyshipe had orderd it, I obserue what 
your Ladyshipe writes Concerning my accounts, I am sorry I cannot please your Ladyshipe 
and mr. Radburne aboute them, but especially that Gentleman, I wish your Ladyshipe 
woud write him to send me a methode in what way he would haue them done and I shall 
obserue it, and if your Ladyshipe haue any body that you shall thinke more proper then I 
am to Recomend or oblidge, I shall quitt when euer your Ladyshipe pleases, this is the Third 
yeare Since I came downe and has been Concernd, vizt, 1720 : 1721 : and 1722:, but this yeare 
will not End till penticost next 1723, and by that time the Rents due last penticost and next 
martinmas will be Receiued, and what arreares has and will be due in the said three yeares 


shall at penticost next, be giuen an account of, and alsoe the Taxes, and the Rentalls for the 
said three yeares Shall be Trans Scribed and Sent your Ladyshipe, I haue noe body to write 
or assist me in Trans Scribeing any bookes or Rentalls, but what I doe my Selfe, I would 
your Ladyshipe would write to mr. Busby to assist in that matter, I vnderstood when your 
Ladyshipe sent him downe it was vpon that account he came to assist me, but I begg your 
Ladyshipe will write him in a calme way and take noe notice to him that I desired it, I am 
very much oblidged to your Ladyshipe for theConcerne you haue for my health, I tharikeGod I 
haue my health Indifferently well wee haue had a very wett Sumer and a very Indifferent 
hay haruest and a Corne haruest, and a great Many people has been much afflicted with 
agues, your Ladyshipe may be assured I shall doe all that is in my power to Serue your 
Ladyshipe and familly, and be very faithfull Just and honest to it, and if theire be any body 
that Represents me otherwise, they doe me Injustice, and pray god forgiue them, I am very 
glad to heare your Ladyshipe and familly are all well, and I hartily wish a long continueance 
of it, all this famally are well, and giues there humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and familly, 
your Ladyshipe Sayes nothing in your letter to me Concerneing the Repaireing Dilston 
mill Dam, I supose your Ladyshipe may haue giuen mr. Busby orders about that matter, 
I told him aboute mr. Simpson in morpeth Gaol in this County, but what he has done in that 
affaire I know not, I haue not more to add at prsent, but to assure your Ladyshipe, that I am. 

yor: Ladyshipes most obedient humble Seruant, 

Tho: Erriugton. 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton Nouember the 5th: 1722 

This day I haue paid Mr. ffenwicks and waters ffifteen Hundred pounds, to be Returnd 
to mr. Henry Radbunne att London for your Ladyships vse, there is one Thousand pounds 
of it, out of the Estate Computed at or aboute three Thousand pounds $ ann, and the other 
ffiue Hundred pounds, is out of the money belonging to the Annuityes, I did thinke it was 
proper to pay this ffiue Hundred pound on the annuityes account, least mr. Radburne might 
haue occassion to pay those that may want theire Annuityes, I haue writt mr. Radburne this 
Same day to lett him know it, I doe not heare as yett, Sr: John Swinburns Lady is with Child, 
all this ffamilly are well, and giues theire humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and ffamilly, 
and your Ladyshipe may be assured of it, that I am, 

Yor Ladyshipes faithfull and most obedient Seruant, Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Right Honn r able the Countis of | Dar- 
wentwater att Bruxells in | fflanders by way of London to | Ostend | 
p* p (1 London.'] 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton Aprill the 25th: 1723 

I writt your Ladyshipe about a month or fiue weeks Since, and then told you what money 
I had of your Ladyships in my hand, and haue Since that time gott some more, I desired 
your Ladyshipe to lett me know how much I must pay to mrsers ffenwicks and waters, to 
be Returnd to London to mr. Radburne, but I haue had noe answer from your Ladyshipe 
as yett aboute that affaire, mrsers ffenwicks and waters, and mr. Radburne, agrees in there 
account, of what money I paid to ffenwicks and waters as they told me last weeke, I cannot 
omitt accquainting your Ladyshipe what has hapend, lately, and Since I writt you Relateing 
to the ffarme of Buteland, which mr. wm Charleton of Reedsmouth now farmes of your 
Ladyshipe, and which he is to haue a new Lease of againe, at the Same Rent of 86/: $ ann 
vpon his procureing a good Tytle of the Lands in the manner of warke to those you shoud 
name in trust for you but Mr. John Aynsley does not Aproue of the Tytle to be one 
of the best, mr Roberf widdrington, whose Eldest Brother mr. Henry widdrington, 
was Killed by the Said mr. Charleton, as all people beleaued, for mr. Charleton ffledd out of 
this Kingdome vpon that misfortune now this mr. Robert widdringtons ffatber farmed this 
ffarme of Buteland which mr. Charleton now farmes and this mr. Robert widdrington has 
Lands to the value of aboute 120/: $ ann Joynes vpon Buteland, Called Broomvp, ffellin, 
Steell, Hindhaugh, and Stidley hill, which came by his mother, and the old ffrancis Earle 


of Darwentwater, when Sr ffrancis Radclyffe Bart Bought those Lands which mr. Charleton 
now ffarmes of the Said mr. Robert widdringtons mothers Sister, they being two Heireses, 
and that Sister Intermaryed with one mr. Sutton, of whome Sr ffrancis Radclyffe purchased 
from, Sr ffrancis and this mr. widdringtons ffather, whose name was william widdrington, 
being very Intimately accquainted, made a Deuision of those Lands, and which was aboute 
fifty yeares Since, but neuer Reduced into writeing, and Buteland was allotted and Sett 
for Sr ffrancis part, and the other Lands aboue named was allotted and Sett for mr. 
widdringtons part, but now mr. Robert widdrington thinks and beleaues that Buteland which 
is your Ladyships part, and which now mr. Charleton ffarmes, is of more value then his 
Lands are of, and woud now haue a new Diuision, and as there was noe writeings drawne 
of adiuision fformerly, he hopes the Law will allow him one now, and this mr. Robert 
widdrington told me before two very Substantiall men, that if he could haue a new devision 
he would giue your Ladyshipe 160/. $ arm' which is now but SQL $ arm' which is 74/. $ 
ann' aduance Rent, and what those Palmars Lands in the manner of warke may Turne to, 
noe body knows, I writt all this to mr. Radburne aboute Tenn dayes Since, if your Lady- 
shipe haue amind to be kind to this mr. Charleton I am very well pleased with it, but it is 
my Duty to lett you know what I am Informed of for your Ladyships Intrest and my Lords, 
this mr. Charleton has a Brother that is a Doctor of Phisicke, who has been, and still is a 
bitter Enimye of mine, he maryed my Cosin Erringtons widdow of wallicke Grange, and by 
that Mariage he came to be my Enimye, he made me pay 280/. for a ffine 4 yeares Since, 
which before was but 14/. ffine for a Lease of a small parcell of Ground belonging to the 
Duke of Somersitt, and now wallicke Grange Lease which the Doctor Hues in, and belongs 
to his Grace is neare Expired, and he will make me pay 3: or 400/. more for the Renewall of 
that Lease, if your Ladyshipe would be Soe kind to me, as to write to mr. wm. Charleton your 
Bayliffe in the mannor of warke, to prevaile with his Brother, in not Setting vp to bidd 
against me, for the Lease of wallicke Grange, it would Saue me a great deale of money, and 
if Soe, then your Ladyshipe might Show Some more fauour to mr. Charleton aboute 
Buteland ffarme, and I hope my Lord will gett more by me, then euer he will gett by mr. 
Charleton, but I leaue this to your Ladyships owne Consideration to doe as you thinke 
proper, I Cannot but put your Ladyshipe in mind, and I thinke it very proper for your 
Ladyshipe to write to your vnkle mr. Arthur Radclyffe who liues here, and Giue him an 
Invitation to Dilston House, I doe this for Seuerall Reasons, which I shall omitt here, att 
prsent, I am sure he will be very well there, and want for nothing that is Conuenient for 
him, all this familly are well, and Giues there humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and familly, 
and your Ladyshipe may be assured of it that I am, 

Yor most faithfull obedient humble Seruant, Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' A madame | Madame La Countese de Darwent- | 
water Dans La Rue Haute Proche | de La Chapell a Bruxells $ | 
ostend to | a Londra | pst. pd. 4d: to London.'] 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton May the 13th: 1723. 

I haue Receiued yours of the 4th: of this Instant, in which your Ladyshipe tells me, that 
you had a letter from Sr John webb, aboute Some affaires, that your Ladyshipe had writt 
to him aboute, and amongst Which you had writt and accquainted him, that you coud 
not gett the Rents Raised, by Reason of the badness of the times and that Sr Johns 
answere was, he was much Surprised at it, for tho the Tennants are now hard Enough put 
to it att the time this was proposed it was otherwise, this your Ladyships obserues is truth, 
but those Tennants that was Raised by the h ight of the South Sea Cannot be able to hold 
them at those Rents they were aduanced to, for Trade being Soe much Sunke and decayed 
in two yeares last past, by the fall of South Sea, and want of money and want of Trade, 
that put the Case that the Tennants that were aduanced had Signd there Leases and then 
could not afterward be able to pay there Rents, I thinke it was all one whether they were 
to be Ruined with Leases or without Leases, and as to what is Laid to my Charge aboute 
not getting the Leases Signd in time, I am cleare of that fault and Imputation, for after 
the agreements was made with the Tennants by me, I Imediately gaue the agreements to 


mr. John Aynsley attorney at Law who drew the Leases and I pressd him from time to time 
to gett them done with all hast, and when he had done them and Sent them to me, I 
Imediately Sent them to mr. Rodbourne to be sent to your Ladyshipe to be signd, and as 
Soon as I Receiued them againe from mr. Rodbourne, I carried them to mr. Aynsley and 
pressed him very hard to Send for the Tennants to Execute theire Leases, and most or all 
of them that were high aduanced Refused to Signe, Saying they coud neuer pay Such a large 
aduance Rent, for they woud all be beggers in a yeare or two, and giueing for Reason the 
want of Trade and want of money, and as to what Sr John obserues of a saying of an accquaint- 
ance of his, that had been the last yeare in the north, that the Estate was vnder a very ill 
management which he said had noe Influence vpon him and that he made answere he 
thought this coud not well be, Since the Estate was Raised Considerably, but that finding 
it otherwise after Repeated assureances from my agents of its being Effected he coud not 
but wauer in his oppinion , and feare there is too much ground for the Report, now as to this 
part of your Ladyships letter I make answere, that the Estate as yett is very litle abated 
of what it was aduanced to, and I appeale to any body of Reason and that is not partiall, 
that the times Gouerns euery thing, and if times are good and a good trade and plenty of 
money, then Estates will hold vp, but when times are bad as they are now, and noe Trade 
and noe money, Surely Estates must be Effected, and your Ladyshipe has a true notion of 
the affaire, that what Signifyes it to Raise Rents when the Tennants Cannot pay them, 
then by doeing of that, you breake your Tennants and Spoyles your farms, I know the man 
that has made those Remarks and false malitious Informations, and I name him to your 
Ladyshipe, and it is mr. George Errington and noe other person, who Runs aboute the 
Kingdome and to Insenuate him Selfe into euery bodyes Bussines and theire fauours if he can, 
but Realy he is now Soe well Knowne in these parts that noe body will beleaue him or Imploy 
him, all I haue to say to your Ladyshipe is, that I begg you will order any honest Judicall 
man to come downe into the north and Inspect the affaires that is Complained of, and that 
Such a person as is Sent downe to Inspect, may be a man of Sense and noe malice to others 
and be Impartiall, and lett him make a Report of what he Shall find amiss in mismanagement, 
then I shall be very well pleased to be Censerd, I know all this Informers malace proceeds 
from the affaire in Aldston moore aboute the Lead mynes there, that I opposed him there 
from bringing in one Loraine his Seruant to be concernd, there as moore master, and op- 
poseing him in the getting into the House att wood hall were Cuthbert Browns widdow Liues 
and there he woud haue keept an Alehouse, he has giuen it out in Seuerall Speeches that his 
master mr. Geo: Errington was Soe much in fauour with Sr John webb, that he did not doubt 
but to gett me turnd out, I can assure your Ladyshipe this mr. Errington neuer did good to 
any body he was concernd for nor to him selfe, and I can make it appeare he has been 
20000J: loss to my Lords familly, and I am Sure I have accquainted your Ladyshipe with this 
Some time Since, I am Sure theire is very few or none of the Tennants but if times doe mend 
but what will Execute theire Leases, I am Sure it is a most Sadd thing to Hue by the 
oppression of Tennants or any others in their power to Ruine, your Ladyshipe need to be 
in no paine for the prsent Tennants Rents that are not Raised, and I know of noe Lands 
that are Rauadged or not well husbanded but Dilston is the worst, and that occassioned by 
the great floods which has taken away the Lime and manure nay Euen apart of the Soile 
it Selfe, mr. ffenwicks and waters haue Returnd mr. Rodbourne all the money I haue paid 
them and theire account agrees to a farthing I must owne the Dilston Tennants will be able 
to pay what they owe your Ladyshipe, but Cannot Continue theire farmes any longer then 
mayday next vnless they haue an abatement of the Rents they now pay, as to mr. Thorntons 
Tennants I know not much of theire farms, but I am Satisfyed they will be vnder the Same 
misfortune as others in Generall are in this County, for I know that Sr wm. midleton Doctor 
Ogle and Some others am forced to make an abatement of theire Rents that were aduanced 
by the South Sea, I can assure your Ladyshipe it is a very great trouble to me that your 
Ladyshipe shoud be soe troubled and mortifyed with Such Complaints of my mismanage- 
ment of your affaires, and wheneuer your Ladyshipe shall thinke fitt to discharge me I shall 
obey it, vpon affaire and Setled account, I haue on the other side sent you a Copy of a letter 
I had from Mr. Thomas Waters partner with mesers ffenwicks aboute the Returne of your 
Ladysps money to mr. Rodbourne which are as followes, Newcastle may 11: 1723 as to my 


Lady Darwentwaters money wee are willing to take it as vseuall and Returne it to mr. 
Rodbourne to whome wee allwayes Send Such bills as can confide in and tho it may happen 
bills are at Some time Scarser then other yett your money is Generall Returnd in three 
Months time and Some times in Sumer when bills may be more Easye gott then wee Returne 
great part of it Imediately and if your occassions be pressing wee can Returne you 2000/: 
in part of what you by you in a months time or less wee are allwayes Ready to accomadate 
you in any thing Soe wee thinke theres the less Reason to press any thing that may be 
prejudicall to vs for Shoud wee Chance to be two forward in takeing any bills but what wee 
can confide in and any misfortune shoud hapen by our Endorsement wee become lyable 
to the loss which would be a vexation to vs as wee haue litle Consideration for trouble, 

if you designe to bring in any money pray lett vs know that wee may be prouideing for you, 
I am &c. Sr your humble Serut T: Waters, I hope my Deare good Lord will be Exempt from 
the Tax vpon papists for I see it in the votes that all papists or Reputed Soe to bee will not 
be Taxed in that Tax till they are 18 yeares of age, I wish it may be Soe, all I haue to add is 
to tell your Ladyshipe as I haue often done, that I hartily wish your Ladyshipe my Lord 
and young Lady all health and happyness, I pray God for giue my Enimyes, and that I may 
Intirely Submitt in euery thing in this world to Gods holly will and pleasure, all this familly 
are well and giues theire humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and familly, and I am may it 
please your Ladyshipe, Yor Ladyshipes most obedient 

faithfull true and Seniore Seruant, 

I have writt to mr. Rodbourne to whome Tho: Errington. 

I haue desired he would write me and giue 
me his direction to carry in the 2000J: to 
messers ffenwicks and waters, I haue 
more then that Sume in my hand, but shall 
Carry in that Sume vpon his notice to me. 

The hedge wee builded between Thornbrough and newton Stands Still and I hope that 
affaire is now Easye. 

[Addressed : ' A rnadame | Madam La Counesse de Darwentwater | 
Dans La Rue Haute Proche de La Chappell j a Bruxellse <p ostend 
vie Londree | post paid to Londone 4d:.'] 

May it please your Ladyshipe. Capheaton July the 4: 1723. 

I haue wrtt foure letters to your Ladyshipe Since I haue had one from you, I haue not 
much at prsent to accquaint your Ladyshipe with, but here came a gentleman to me one 
mr. Clarke, and would haue had me to haue paid him forty Shillings and said it was by 
your Ladyshipe order, for his goeing into Aldston moore to doe what mr. Loraine did there, 
I told this mr. Clarke I had noe order from your Ladyshipe to pay this money, but would 
write to your Ladyshipe aboute it, and as Soon as I had your order I would Readily pay it 
him, he was very angary that I woud not pay him and Seemd, to be in a Hectoreing Humor, 
please to lett me know what I must doe in this matter, wee haue very dry droughty wether, 
all the meadows and the pastures are very much Burnt vp, and that Causes noe Sale for Catle 
or Sheep, and there has been two ffaires the one on whitson Eue, and the other on mid Sumer 
day both at Stagshaw banke two miles onely from Dilston, and euer Since I can Remember, 
I neuer See two worse faires, and the Complaints is as much in the South as in these parts, 
the Estates late Coll: Radclyffes is to be Sett vp to Sale by the Comissionrs of Inquirey the 
9th Instant, Sr. John webb knowes it as alsoe mr. Rodbourne, and mr. Busby told me that 
your Ladyshipe alsoe knew it, Admarell Delaval was killed by a fall from his horse within 
Two Hundred yards of his owne house att Seaton delaval, the 22d of June last, he has left 
a very great Substance, he was neuer maryed, all this familly are very well and giues theire 
humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and familly, and, I am, 

Yor Ladyships most obedient Seruant, Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' A madam | Madam La Countis de Darwentwater | 
Dans La Rue Haute Proche de | La Chappell a Bruxells $ | ostend 
by way of | London. | pt. pd. to Londree 4d.'] 



The following are the notes by Mr. W. W. Tomlinson read at the 
meeting on 28th July 1915 (see p. 67) : 

" Among the books and papers which were transferred some years 
ago from the Hartley bottle works to the lumber room of this society 
is a nearly complete set of the fortnightly pay-bills of old Hartley 
colliery, from 1774 to 1808. 

They contain particulars of the working expenses of the colliery 
and salt works, under a number of heads, and show what quantities 
of coals and salt were consumed and sold locally, and what quantities 
were shipped from the little harbour of Seaton Sluice. 

Glancing through these old colliery accounts I recognized that they 
were capable of yielding a good deal of useful and even interesting 
information. They have, in the first place, enabled me to compile a list 
of all the pits sunk in the Hartley district during half a century, showing 
when they commenced and when they ceased working. I am not 
aware of the existence of a similar list. It shows that, in the case of 
ten of these pits, the average duration was only four years, and, in 
the case of ten others, ten years. The explanation why so many pits 
were sunk is this : that the workings could not be carried beyond 
a certain distance on account of the difficulty of ventilating them 
and of the increased cost of conveyance underground, and when the 
limit was reached it became necessary to sink another shaft. 

In 1774 when the series of pay-bills begins the following pits 
were either working or were being used for working others, viz. : 
Fox [sunk in 1759] ; Duration [sunk in 1759] ; Success [sunk in 
1761] ; Good Intent [sunk in 1761] ; Corn ; Goodspeed ; Hedge ; 
Lark ; Lane ; Prosperous. 

The following is a list of the pits sunk subsequently : 


Friendship ... * 1776 

Fame ... 1777 ... 1777-1780 

Fortune ... 1777 ... 1777-1784 

Farewell ... 1777-1778 ... 1778-1779 

Good Luck ... 1779 ... 1779-1783 

Spring ... 1778-1781 ... 1781-1785 

Tryal ... ... 1781-1792 

Thistle ... ... 1782-1792 

Delight ... 1781-1784 ... 1784-1792 

Chatham ... 3 1784-1785 ... 1786-1788 

Fortitude ... 1784-1785 ... 1785-1788 

Content ... 1787 ... 1787-1792 

Expedition ... 1787-1788 ... - 1788-1790 

June ... 1787-1788 ... 1788-1796 

Park ... 1789-1790 ... 1790-1796 

Dispatch ... 1791-1792 ... 1792-1798 

Bloom ... 1791-1792 ... 1792-1797 

Speedwell ... 1790-1792 ... 1792-1805 

Moss ... 1792-1793 

Swallow ... 1793-1794 ... 1794-1797 

New Engine ... 1794-1795 

1 Probably the same pit as the ' Fortune.' On a plan dated 1778 it is called the 
' Brierdon ' pit. 2 To bottom of yard coal seam. 

\Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 1 1 



NOTE. The name ' Farewell,' below pit S.E, of ' Corn ' pit, has been omitted from 
the above plan, 



Phoenix ... 1795-1796 ... 1796-1799 

Nightingale ... 3 1797 [ 

4 1797-1798) 

Chatham ... 5 1800-1802 ... 1802-1811 

Between 1759 and 1781 there had been three ' winnings ' in different 
parts of the Hartley coal-field, viz., near the Crow hall farmhouse, near 
the Briardene farmhouse, near the Hartley west farmhouse. These 
winnings were effected as described in the following document. 


[1759] Making a winning at the west boundary near the Crowhall stables ; s. d. 

the same consisted in the erection of a fire-engine, sinking, drifting, 
laying a waggonway, &c.,and continuing the engine at work for eighteen 
months. Estimated, after allowing for the engine's materials which 
have since been appropriated to other purposes ... ... 1456 12 11 

[1770] Winning a colliery on the south side of a twenty-fathom dyke, 
which dyke runs in a south-westerly direction through the estate 
near Brierdon in the manor of Hartley, and which winning was effected 
by a stone drift drove water level from the bottom of the Larke Pit 
southwards uutil it cross-cut the said dyke at the distance of 490 
yards from the said Larke Pit, which drift, together with timber, &c., 
and sinking a pit and staples for effecting the said winning, exclusive 
of the pits working coals 
Estimated ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1405 4J 

[1778] Continuing the aforesaid drift 289 yards to the westward and 
putting down a bore-hole upon the said drift at ye west extremity, 
the whole length of ye drift clead with deals, &c., on both sides, top 
and bottom ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 749 3 11 

[1778-9] Making a bridge cross the Gill at Brierdon ... ... 149 9 

(;3) 3760 6 7J 

[1780] Winning the colliery on the north side of an eight-fathom dyke s. d. 
which crosses the estate in a north-westerly direction from Hartley 
Bates and runs by the Dairy House in the manor of Seaton Delaval, 
which winning has been made by drifting from the Lane Pit ... 592 14 3 
Erecting a new engine-house west of the old engine ... 150 
Driving an off-take drift from the said engine shaft ... 40 15 

783 9 3 

I supplement the chronological list by an alphabetical one in which 
I have included the names of a few pits sunk before 1759. 



Bloom ... 1791-1792 ... 1792-1797 

Chatham "... 1785 ... 1786-1788 

Chatham tI 5g l 1 8gS ) to 1800-1802 1802-1811 

8 To bottom of yard coal seam. 4 From yard to main coal seam. 

* From yard to main coal seam. 





















We find references in these accounts to bore-holes, staples, drifts 
and heapsteads connected with the pits. In 1782, for example, there 
is an item for clearing a bore-hole in the ' Delight ' pit, in 1790 another 
for sinking a staple in the ' Bloom ' pit, in 1797 a third for making 
a heapstead at the ' Nightingale ' pit, and a fourth for making a 
water level drift under the ' Phcenix ' pit. 

1 Filling up the ' Dispatch ' pit, October, 1800. 

2 Filling up and taking timber of the ' Expedition ' pit shaft, Oct. 22 Nov. 5, 1800. 

3 Filling up the ' Farewell ' pit, December, 1780. 

4 Drawing water in the ' Fox ' pit, December, 1779 January, 1780. 

5 See note 1 on page 73. 

6 The ' Good Speed ' pit shaft was repaired and cleaned out in 1796 and again in 1800. 

7 This pit was afterwards sunk from the yard to the main coal seam. It was working 
in 1818. 






before 1774 



Dispatch 1 



before 1774 

Expedition 2 




Farewell 3 






Fox 4 


Friendship 5 


Good Intent 

before 1761 

Good Luck 


Good Speed 6 

before 1774 


before 1774 


before 1774 


before 1745 

June 7 



before 1774 


before 1774 



New Engine 


Nightingale f^tdsS 

oof 1797 

Do. (Fr c ai a seam? ] 

[ain 1797-1798 

Old Engine 

before 1761 






before 1744 


before 1773 






before 176] 







before 1759 







In 1774 the waggonway extended from Seaton Sluice to the 
' Corn ' pit, a short distance from Brierdene farmhouse in one 
direction, and to the ' Fox ' pit near Crow Hall farmhouse in another. 
It was of wood, and there are frequent entries in the colliery accounts 
for sleepers, beech, oak, and fir rails, and pins for the rails. 8 In 
1778-9 the waggonway was carried south of the Brierdene burn, the 
bridge over which, we have seen, cost ^149 9s. 4|d. ' Cuts ' and 
'Batteries ' were also being made at Brierdene in 1778. 

In 1784 the ' Chatham ' pit being about to be sunk, it became 
necessary to carry a branch of the waggonway across the Seaton burn in 
a westerly direction, and the following report was made to Lord 
Delaval on the subject : 

1784, Mch. 6, Seaton Sluice. 

Having in company with the rest of your lordship's agents viewed and levelled every 
likely place or situation for making a bridge across Hartley Burn in order to form a waggon- 
way, the most convenient spot of ground seems to be in the Hungry Banks at or about the 
middle distance between the old engine quarry and the plantations at the south end of the 
glass-men's gardens, for there the banks close in with the burn in. a more sloping direction 
than anywhere else, which makes a considerable saving in the length of timber that will 
be wanted if the same is to be done. And in the next place it gives an opportunity of 
joining the designed way with the present one exactly at the gateway at the head of the 
bank or entrance into what is called the North Field, where the glass-house branch com- 
mences, which situation also commands the coal staith and the other works without the 
smallest alteration. 9 

In 1785 a timber bridge was made at the point suggested, and the 
waggonway carried to the new winning. In 1797 this branch was 
extended to the ' Nightingale ' pit near the Dairy house. It 
subsequently became the Dairy house branch of the Blyth and Tyne 
railway, on which passengers used to be carried in 1850 and 1851. 
Items appear in the accounts for ' laying the way ' to the ' Spring ' 
pit in 1781, to the ' Park ' pit in 1790, to the ' Bloom ' pit in 1791-2, 
to the ' Speedwell ' and ' Dispatch ' pits in 1792, to the ' Swallow ' 
pit in 1793-4, to the ' New Engine ' pit in 1794 and 1795, to the 
'Phoenix' pit in 1796, to the 'Nightingale ' pit in 1797 and to the 
' Chatham ' pit in 1801-3. Under the head of ' Expenses for waggons 
and waggonways,' we find regular entries for ' creasing ' or clearing 
the rails for the free passage of the flanges of the wheels and for 
cleaning the gutters on each side. 

An item like ' rubbishing 73| rodds of waggonway/ in 1778, is 
noticeable for the use of a term of measurement which is not met with 
again in the accounts. There were ' foot-gangs ' on these old 
waggonways which required to be made-up and mended from time 
to time. 


The earliest of these accounts contains items for ' Expenses attend- 
ing the machine for drawing coals ' at the ' Good Speed ' pit, no 
doubt the engine set up in 1765 and seen by Watt in 1768. Most 
of the work of drawing coals from the pit was done, however, by means 

8 Beech rails in 1777 cost 5d. a yard, oak rails 7d. and fir rails 4d., sleepers cost 8d. each. 

9 Report on proposed waggoiiway in the possession of Mr. T. E. Forster. 


of a coal gin an apparatus consisting of a drum fixed upon a vertical 
shaft to which was attached a long lever called a ' start ' ; a horse 
yoked to the end of the lever and moving in a circular track caused 
the drum to revolve and to wind or unwind a rope working over a 
pulley into the pit. 1 One of the first entries is for a Norway 
baulk, for making a ' start ' for the ' Lark ' pit gin (Jan. 7, 1774). 
Gins were set up at the ' June ' pit in 1788, at the ' Speedwell ' 
pit in 1790, at the ' Dispatch ' pit in 1791, and at the ' New Engine ' 
pit in 1794. Every fortnight expenses appeared under the head of 
' Repairing Gins, Sleds, Trams, &c.' 


The practice of screening coals at the pits had commenced at Hartley 
before 1774, for one of the heads of expenses was for ' Banking out 
and screening coals.' 

Items for gunpowder appear in the accounts as early as 1777, but 
it was probably only used for blasting stone. 


The coals were brought from the working places to the flats in 
sleds provided with shoes, drawn along barrow-ways, and conveyed 
to the bottom of the shaft in ' trams ' 2 drawn by galloways. The 
pitmen worked by the light of candles, which represented a heavy 
item of expense, amounts of 100 and even 150 frequently appearing 
in the fortnightly pay-bills ' on account of candles.' There is no 
reference to the steel mills which are known to have been used at 
Wallsend and other places. The lamps which were set up in the 
' Lark ' and ' Good Speed ' pits, in 1779, were probably fire-lamps, 
which were used for the artificial ventilation of the mine. In 1785 
one of the items of expense at the ' Delight ' pit was for ' attending 
the fire-lamp underground.' 


Horses were used on the waggonways, at the gins, and in the pits. 
Pit ponies cost from 2 to 5. The price paid for a yellow 
galloway in 1778 was 3 15s. Od. ; for a black galloway in 1779, 
2 12s. (>d. ; and for three grey galloways in 1779, ,13 15s. Od. 
In 1792 three waggon horses were purchased for 68 8s. 9|d., which 
included ' expenses at Durham Fair.' Many of the items suggest 
that the horses were well looked after, and that their ailments received 
kindly attention. The following will serve as examples : s. d. 

1778, Mch. 25 8 April Mustard, &c., for a horse ... ... ... 15 

1787, 5 19 Dec. Port wine for a sick horse ... ... ... ... 20 

1788, 12 20 Mch. Treacle, &c., for horse drink ... ... ... ... 29 

1788, 17 June 1 July Sope, &c., for a lam'd horse ... ... ... 10J 

1790, 24 Mch. 7 April Ale for horses drinks ... ... ... ... 14 

1790, Sep. 28 Oct. 12 Ointment, &c., for a horse ... ... ... 50 

1804, 10 30 May Ale for galloways for drinks ... ... ... ... 13 

The farrier's fee for doctoring a waggon horse in 1794 was 10s. 6d., 
and for 'bleeding and two drinks to black horses' 10s. 6d. 

1 " Glossary of Terms used in the Coal Trade," by W. E. Nicholson. 

2 1777, Oct. 22. To GO common deals for tramways. Dec. 17. To a quantity of tram 
and rolley sides for the use of the pits. 



There are many references to the practice of binding the colliers 
and other workmen. These occasions appear to have been celebrated 
by copious libations at the expense of the colliery, judging by the 
number of entries for ' ale drunk by the colliers when binding ' and 
the amount of the sums paid ; in one instance (1802) 127 10s. Id. 
and in another (1804) ,38 12s. 6d. There are two entries in 1802 
for ingrossing pitmen's bonds. Other entries show that these bonds 
were not always kept. 

'1795, May 13 27. Constable for taking the boys who absented 

themselves from the colliery. 
'1796, Aug. 31 Sep. 14. Warrants for apprehending colliers who 

had absented themselves from the colliery, 8s. 2d. 
'1800, Mch. 12 26. Paid a constable for apprehending Henry 

Carr, a collier, Is. 
'1805, July 24 Aug. 7. Expenses per Mr. Townson and others 

looking after run-away colliers, 6 17s. 4J,d. 

In 1778 there is a significant item, ' Hand-shackles, 8s.' 

Hewers in 1777 were paid at the rate of 3s. 4d. per score for round 
coals and 2s. 3d. for small coals ; putters at the rate of Is. 3d. per score. 
The score at most of the pits of Hartley colliery consisted of 20 sixteen 
peck corves 3 and weighed If chaldrons or 88J cwts. The hewers 
who produced on an average about 12 J corves or 55 cwts. of coals 
per day were thus paid 9d. per ton for round coals and 6d. per ton 
for small coals. For purposes of comparison we may take 2s. or 
2s. 3d. as the price now paid, under modern conditions, for hewing 
a similar quantity of coals. In the accounts there were 
usually deductions for rye sold to the colliers. Several classes of 
workmen were paid by the day ; off-putters at Is. 8d. ; creasers of 
the ways at Is. 8d. ; screeners at Is. 2d. ; carpenters at Is. 4d. and 
Is. 2d. ; drivers of galloways at Is. ; drivers of gin horses at lOd. ; 
wailers or boys who picked out the ' brasses ' from the coals, 5d. 
[6d. in 1778]. The waggonmen were paid 3d. 'per gate or journey, 
the gate-keepers Is.- 6d. per week. Overmen were paid at the rate 
of 10s. per week. Items appear in the accounts in 1777 and 1785 
for ' forthering the work.' These were at the rate of 2d. per day. 
Drivers ' farthings ' at the ' Tryal ' pit in 1785 were extra payments 
to the drivers of underground galloways on the basis of Jd. per score. 
2d. a day was paid to the pitmen in 1785 as ' a consideration for 
wet working.' 

Several items suggest that the colliers were treated with consideration. 
'1798, Dec. 5 19. Paid to the colliers in ' Phoenix ' pit for 

being laid idle by the machine being wrong .2 17s. 9d. 
'1793, July 10 24. Ale and bread to colliers when working on 

the Pay-Saturday, 10s. 10|d. 
'1797, May 10 24. Entertainment to people when taking a 

valuation of the engines, 5 7s. 3d. 
'1802, Dec. 29 1803, Jan. 12. Entertainment to waggonmen 

when the coal heaps were grounded, 5 15s. Od. 
'1807, Nov. 25 Dec. 9. Ale to colliers when choosing the 

Mayor, &c., 2 14s. 9d. 

8 Eighteen-peck corves were used at the ' Lark ' pit in 1774, ten-peck corves at the 
' Duration ' pit in 1776 and twenty-peck corves at the ' Chatham ' pit in 1803, which made 
the scores at these pits respectively, dropping the fractions, 99 cwts., 55 cwts., and 110 cwts. 


The item ' allowed to colliers for accidents ' is of frequent occurrence. 
Money appears to have been lent very lavishly to the workmen at the 
colliery, in sums of 5s., 10s. 6d., and 1 Is. Od. In one instance (1807) 
20 was lent to Thomas Grey, a banksman. 

The hospitable traditions of Seaton Delaval are not merely reflected 
in the entertainment given to the work-people, but in that given to 
the custom-house officers who came to measure the waggons in 
accordance with the statute. In 1778 it took the form of 'meat and 
drink,' in 1786 of 'dinners and drinks,' and in 1787 of 'dinners, 6-c.' 


The various rates which the colliery was called upon to pay were 
the following : 

Poor and Bridge Cess (1774) ; Baggage Cess (1790) ; County Cess (1791) ; Vagrant 
Cess (1792); Assessment for raising men for the Navy (1795); Cess for Militia 
(1795) ; Cess for Militiamen's wives (1795). 


Under this head I sweep in a few items which possess a general 

1774, Oct. 13. Sold for the use of Hartley Box 1 12 half deals. 
1776, Apl. 24 May 8. A six-hours glass, 5s. 

Assistance at sea with a boat to save a keel, 5s. 

1778, Dec. 216. Postage of a letter, 9s. 6d. 

1779, Nov. 317. Numbering the Colliers' doors, 1 5s. 6d. 
1779, Nov. 17 Dec. 1. Leading ware from the seaside, 3s. 4d. 

1784, Oct. 27 Nov. 10. A gift to George Grozer by Lord Delaval, 10s. 6d. 

1785, Feb. 216. Leading rubbish to the cart-road leading to Brierdon, 3s. 2d. 

1790, April 7 21. Looking after and preventing trespassers in the North Field, 10s. 6d. 

1791, Feb. 12. Carpenters' work at Sterling Castle, &c. 2 

1792, Nov. 28 Dec. 12. Making a cart road to the ' Speedwell ' pit. 
1794, July 23 Aug. 6. Set of bore-rods, 19 Os. lid. 

1797, Oct. 25 Nov. 8. Making flannel shirts for the sinkers, 6s. 6d. 

1798, Dec. 19 Jan. 21. A fine for a cart going to Newcastle not having Lord Delaval's 
name thereon, 12s. 6d. 

1799, Feb. 27 March 13. Raising a new dyke leading from waggonway bridge to 
' Phoenix ' pit, 2 9s. 6d. 

1799, Oct. 923. Making a cart road and dyke at the Dairy House. 

1800, Feb. 26 Mar. 12. Casting up and rubbishing a new road at the Dairy House. 

1801, Mch. 25 Apl. 8. Assisting in warping a raft of timber from the Bates to Seaton 
Sluice, 1 2s. Od. 

1801, May 6 20. Engraving a plate &c., for Hartley coals, 1 8s. Id. 

1803, Dec. 1428. Comitions to officers belonging the pioneers, 7 16s. 6d. 

1806, February 19 Mch. 5. Paid for collecting silver at Newcastle, 5 Is. Od. 

1806, May 1428. Making a set of pit clothes, 4s. 6d. 

1806, May 28 June 11. A present to pitmen to drink, 10s. 6d. 

1808, Feb. 317. Thomas Bewick, printing Invoices and Certificates, 1 16s. 2$d. 

1 Presumably a club. There is a head in one of the old ledgers, ' Box Society at King's 
Arms, Seaton Sluice,' and the balance standing to the credit of the society was 160* On 
May llth, 1811, James Cook gave a receipt for 8 received from Lady DelavaJ, per Mr. 
John Bryers, being interest on 160 due to the Box Society at Seaton Sluice the 3rd Feb- 
ruary, 1811. 

a Sterling, or as it was called in 1774 ' Starling Castle,' is the curious little building, 
now in ruins, on the west side of the burn, near the Swallow dene, a quarter of a mile 
from Seaton Lodge. 



Many of the terms employed in these accounts have an old-world 
flavour about them. There is the word ' brattish ' which appears 
again and again in connexion with the pits, also the word ' grathing ' 
in conjunction with shovels. It is evident from the accounts that 
the now obsolete word ' farrying,' as applied to horses, was in use 
in the north from 1777 to 1805. The ' mothergate/ for propping 
which there were expenses in 1777, was the rolley-way extended into 
the workings. ' Fearnought for colliery use ' which appears in the 
accounts in January, 1799, was an old term for a stout kind of woollen 


From 1774 to 1795 there are entries for expenses in connexion with 
the making of salt. There were at first four salters employed and 
ttiese were finally reduced to one. They were evidently paid according 
to the amount of salt manufactured. One man in 1785 made 6 


\go by Land - Carriage to 
* ^~j*~ wif 

of which Entry it made at 
the Salt-O 

Proprietor of Salt. 

Witnefs my Hand and 
Seal, this 9^ JS 
Day of 9^ ^ 178*" 


[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 



tons and was paid at the rate of 4s. per ton ; another 9 tons, and a 
third 4| tons. From the wages of each there were deductions for meal 
supplied. As the wages of the third man were 17s. and the deductions 
16s. 6d. for meal and 6d. for money lent, he had nothing to receive. 

In conclusion I will briefly tell the history of the colliery subsequent 
to 1808. Lord Delaval died in 1808, and soon afterwards his suc- 
cessor demised the coal mines to Messrs. Ridley, Jobling & Co., who 
in 1811 or 1812 sank the Delaval pit which was worked until 1830. 
They must have relaid part of the old waggonway with stone sleepers 
and cast-iron rails. Some of the blocks which were recently unearthed 
by the contractors for the Seaton Sluice branch of the North Eastern 
Railway averaged 14 inches by 12 inches by 8 inches, and are of 
an early type. In 1830-1 Messrs. Jobling & Co. sank the ' Mill ' pit 
near Seaton Sluice, and in 1845-6 Messrs. Carr & Co. sank the ill- 
fated ' Hester ' pit, which was closed in 1862." 



The following letter is from the collection of the Rev. T. Stephens 
(continued from page 72) : 
May it please your Ladyships. Capheaton July 29: 1723 . 

I haue not had the Honnr; of a letter from your Ladyshipe Since ye 29 of may last, and 
I haue writt Six to your Ladyshipe Since that time, I haue paid messers ffenwicks and waters 
marchants in Newcastle vpon Tine, Three Thousand Two Hundred pounds Since the 27 
of may last, to be Returnd to mr. Rodbourne for your Ladyships vse, as I haue aduised 
mr. Rodbourne of the same, I make noe doubt of it but your Ladyshipe has heard the mallan- 
colly newes of the Sale of the Reuersions of my Lady mary Radclyffes Estate, my Lords 
Reuersion, and mr. Charles Annuity, wee haue noe Sale for Catle or Sheep, and very litle 
Trade, and very litle money, and your Ladyshipe may be assured, that farmes must in 
Course fall of the Rents they are now lett for, all this familly here are well, and giues there 
humble Seruice to your Ladyshipe and familly, and I am, 

Your Ladyships most obedient Seruant, Tho: Errington. 

[Addressed : ' A madame | Madame La Countis De | Darwent- 
water Dans La Rue | Haut Proche La Chapel 1 a | Bruxells $ ostend 
by via Londree. | p st p (l to Londree 4d.'] 

The following local documents are from Dr. Burman's collection 
(continued from p. 67) : 


Nathaniel, bishop of Durham, to king William in. Request for the arrest of Lancelot 
Newton, of Stocksfield Hall, gent., who is under sentence of excommunication for non- 
payment of 35 shillings adjudged against him, in a suit for subtraction of tithes brought 
against him by John Ritschel, clerk, vicar of Bywell St. Andrew, co. Northumberland, by 
John Brookbank, doctor of laws, vicar-general of the bishop of Durham as well as of 5 
costs and 3s. lOd. fee for monitory letters. 12th October, 1700. 


Ubomas, by Divine providence Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of all England and 
Metropolitan, 2>o by these presents make known to all men that it hath been alledged before 
the Worshipfull Arthur Collier, Doctor of Laws, Surrogate of the Right Honourable Sir George 
Lee, knight, also Doctor of Laws, Master Keeper or Commissary of Our Prerogative Court 
of Canterbury lawfully constituted on the part and behalf of Elizabeth Elmsall (Wife of 
the Reverend Henry Elmsall, clerk) and Mary Bethiah Woolin formerly Scott (Wife of the 
Reverend John Woollin, clerk), the Nieces and Executrixes named in the last Will and 
Testament of Ann Willcocks formerly Seward (Wife of John Willcocks, late of the city of 
Durham deceased that by Indenture Quadripartite dated the twenty fifth day of June, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and twenty-five and made between the 


said John Willcocks of the first part, the said Ann Willcocks (by her then name & addition 
of Ann Seward of Kensington, in the county of Middlesex, spinster) of the second part, 
John Millart of London, Gentleman, and Edward Haulsey of Staple Inn, London, Gentleman, 
of the third part, and Mary Lawrence of Kensington, aforesaid, spinster, servant of the said 
Ann Seward, of the fourth part ; it appeareth and is (among other things) therein recited 
that in consideration of a marriage then intended to be had between the said John Willcocks 
and Ann Seward, and for other considerations in the said Indenture mentioned the sum of 
five hundred pounds South Sea Stock and the sum of three hundred pounds South Sea 
Annuities of her the said Ann Seward, were by her Transferred and assigned to the said 
John Millart and Edward Haulsey (with the privity consent and approbation of the said John 
Willcocks) upon the Trusts and to and for the intents and purposes therein mentioned and 
among others since determined that it should and might be lawfull to and for the said Ann 
Seward, at any time after the solemnization of the said intended marriage (during her cover- 
ture), by any Deed or Writing attested by two or more credible witnesses or by her last Will 
and Testament testifyed as aforesaid to declare limit and appoint (notwithstanding her 
Coverture) to what person or persons the said three hundred pounds South Sea Annuities 
and five hundred pounds South Sea Stock should (after the Death of her said intended 
husband) be transferred by the said John Millart and Edward Haulsey, or the survivor 
of them or the executors or administrators of such survivor (subject to the payment of a 
certain Annuity of ten pounds to the said Mary Lawrence, spinster, therein mentioned for 
her life) in such manner and proportion as she the said Ann Seward should settle and 
appoint as in and by the said Indenture Quadripartite (shown to the said surrogate) fully 
appears Hnb wbcteas it was further alledged that the said Intended Marriage was after 
wards had and solemnized between the said John Willcocks and Ann Seward, and that the 
said Ann Willcocks (during her coverture) duly made and executed her last Will and 
Testament in Writing in the presence of three Credible Witnesses and did thereby give 
bequeath, declare and appoint the said principal sums of five hundred pounds South Sea 
Stock and three hundred pounds South Sea Annuities to such person and persons and in 
such shares and proportions as therein mentioned and of her said Will appointed them the 
said Elizabeth Elmsall and Mary Bethiah Woollin, formerly Scott, executrixes, and after- 
wards dyed without Issue, leaving behind her the said John Willcocks her Husband, who 
is since also deceased, and that the said Mary Lawrence the annuitant dyed in the lifetime 
of the said Ann Willcocks, formerly Seward. Bl^ WC further make known that on the 
24th day of November in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and fifty five, 
at London, before Our Master Keeper or Commissiary aforesaid the said last Will and 
Testament of the said Ann Willcocks, formerly Seward, deceased (hereunto annexed) was 
proved approved and registered the said deceased having whilst living and at the time of 
her death, Goods, Chattels or Credits in divers Dioceses or Jurisdictions by reason whereof 
the proving and Registring of the said Will and granting Administration of the Goods, 
Chattels and Credits of the said deceased, and also the auditing, allowing and final dis- 
charging the Accompt thereof are well known to appertain only and wholly to us and not 
to any inferior Judge and that Admins tration of the Goods, Chattels and Credits of the 
[said] Ann Willcocks, formerly Seward, deceased, so far as concerns the said principal sums 
of five hundred pounds South Sea Stock and three hundred pounds South Sea Annuities, 
and all Interest, dividends and profits grown due for the same since the Death of the said 
John Willcocks, but no further or otherwise was granted to the said Elizabeth Elmsall and 
Mary Bethiah Woollin, formerly Scott, the Nieces of the said deceased and Executrixes 
named in the said Will, they having been already sworn by commission well and faithfully 
to administer the same and to make a true and perfect Inventory of the Goods, Chattels 
and Credits of the said Ann Willcocks, formerly Seward, deceased, so far as concerns the 
said principal sums of five hundred pounds South Sea Stock and three hundred pounds 
South Sea Annuities and all Interest, Dividends and profits grown due for the same since 
the death of the said John Willcocks and to exhibit the same into the Registry of Our said 
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, in or before the last day of May next ensuing, and also 
to render a just and true Accompt thereof. iveu at lottbOtl the sixth day of November 
aforesaid, and in the eighth yea,r of Our Translation. 

Win. Legard, Pet: St. Eloy, Hen: Stevens, Deputy Registers. 



Anne, by the Grace of God, of Great Britaine, &c., Queen, Defender, &C., to our trusty 
Welbeloved John Rudd and William houghton, Esquires, Jabez Collier, John fflowerdew 
and Robert Hilton, gent., greeting. Whereas Wee are informed that John Wakinshae, 
alias Wakinshaw, of Stockton vpon Tease, in the county palittine of Durham, linnen 
draper, vseing and exerciseing the trade of merchandise by way of bargaineing, exchange, 
bartering and chevisance, seeking his trade of liveing by buying and selling about since 

did become Bank't within the several! statutes made ag't Bank'ts to the intent to defraud 
and hinder John Moore, citizen and haberdasher, of London, and John Dickson of the city 
of Yorke, linnen draper, and others his creditors, of their just debts and duties to them due 
and oweing ILICC minding the due execucon As Well of the statute touching Orders for 
Bank't made in the parliament begun and holden att Westminster the second day of Aprill, 
in the thirteenth year of the reigne of Elizabeth, late Queen of England made and p'vided 
He of the Statute made in the parliam't begun and holden att Westm afores'd, the nineteenth 
day of March in the ffirst year of the reigne of the late King James the ffirst of England, 
ffrance and Ireland and of Scotland the seven and thirtieth, Intituled an Act for the better 
releile of the creditors ag't such as shall become Bank't Bn6 alsoe of the Statute made in 
the parliam't begun and holden att Westm afores'd, the nineteenth day of ffebruary in 
the one and twentieth yeare of the reigne of the s'd late king James the ffirst of England. 
&c., and of Scotland the seven and thirtieth Intituled an Act for the further descipcon 
of a Bank't, releife of creditors ag't such as shall become Bank't Bttb for inflicting corporall 
punishment vpon the Bank't in some Speciall Cases Bnfc alsoe of the Statute made in the 
parliam't begun and holden att Westm afores'd, the ffourteenth day of June in the fourth 
year of our reigne Intituled an Act to p'vent ffraud ffrequently comitted by Bank's Hn& 
alsoe of an Act made in the second session of the same parliam't intituled an Act to ex- 
plaine and amend an Act of the last Session of parliam't for p'venting fraud ffrequently 
comitted by Bank'ts. Upon trust of the Wisdome fidelity, diligence and provident circum- 
spection which Wee have conceived in you doe by these p'sents name, assigne, appoint, 
constitute and ordaine you our speciall Comissioners, giveing full power and Authority vnto 
you, foure and three of you Whereof you the s'd John Rudd and William houghton to 
be one to proceed according to the s'd Statutes and every or any of them not onely concerning 
the said Bank't, his body, land, tenements ffreehold customary goods, debts, and other 
things whatsoever, But alsoe concerning all other p'sons who by concealem't, claime or 
otherwise doe or shall offend touching the p'misses or any act thereof contrary to the true 
intents and meaning of the s'd Statutes or any of them or doe and execute all and every" 
thing and things whatsoever As well for and towards sattisfaccon and payment of the s'd 
Creditors as towards and for all other intents and purposes according to the ordinances and 
provision of the same Statutes UGlilling and comanding you four or three of you whereof 
you the s'd John Rudd and William houghton to be one to proceed to the execucon and 
accomplishment of this our Comission according to the true intent and meaning of the same 
Statutes with all diligence and effect Witnesse our selfe att Westm the twenty sixth day 
of ffebruary in the eleventh year of onr reigne. Bridgeman. 


By Indenture of 15 Charles n, by the Grace of God of England, &c., king, defender of the 
faith, made between (1) Thomas Emerson of Sunderland in Weardale, yeoman, and (2) John 
Emerson of the same, yeoman, after reciting a lease of John, bishop of Durham, of 6 April 
then last past to the said Thomas Emerson of ' the moietie or one halfe of a messuage 
or tenem't called Sunderland Scituate and being within the parrish of Stanhope with all 
and singular houses, lands,' &c. in the occupation of the said Thomas Emerson for 21 years 
at a yearly rent of 33s. 4d. it was witnessed that the said Thomas Emerson for good and 
valuable considerations and especially of a competent sum of lawful English money paid by 
the said John Emerson did assign his interest of and in ' one parcell of medow Ground called 
Northyate ffaw, one moiety of all his estate in one pasture commonly called Sunderland 
pasture with one Beastgate in a parcell of Ground called the Clough, and the one moiety 
of all ffellgates TEo bolb the same for the unexpired term. John Emerson to repair walls, 
&c., to pay .rent, &c. [Seal gone.j 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 7 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, on Wednesday, 25th August 1915, at 7 o'clock 
in the evening, Mr. Nicholas Temperley, a member of the council, 
being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

Mrs. Willans thanked the society for presenting her with the 
volumes of transactions (see p. 66). 

The following BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the Rev. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A. : Murray's Hand-book to the 
Eastern Counties, 1870 ; and Hand-book to Durham and North- 
umberland, 1870. 
From the Cambridge University Library : Report of the Library 

Syndicate for 1914. 
From Mr. A. M. Oliver, town clerk : A number of recruiting posters 

and local documents connected with the war. 
From Mr. Parker Brewis : Another collection of the same. 
From R. Blair : The Antiquary, n.s., xn, 8. 
Exchanges : 

From the Royal Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, 

4 ser., no. 58. 
From the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland : Journal, 

6 ser., v, ii. 

From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal, xxi, ii. 
From the Berwickshire Naturalists Club : Proceedings, xxu, ii. 
Purchases : The Museums Journal, xv, 2 ; and Notes and Queries 
for August. 


Mr. Edward Wooler, F.S.A., reported the discovery of several 
pieces of bright red gritstone ' apparently from the neighbourhood 
of Carlisle,' and of a piece of pink marble 1| inches by 2| inches by 
inch, which had been sawn ' for the purpose of making cubes for 
mosaic.' At Aldborough (Isurium) several beautiful mosaic floors 
have been discovered and are to be seen there, but none has been 
found hitherto north of that place. Sandstone cubes of about an 
inch square have occasionally turned up in Roman forts in the north 
of England. 


The following abstracts are made from deeds, which, except the 
last which is the property of Mr. R. J. Dent, 20 Coronation Avenue, 
Harrogate, belong to the Rev. J. M. Walton, Langton rectory, North- 
allerton. The society is indebted to the courtesy of these two 
[Proc. 3 Ser. viij 13 


gentlemen that these abstracts have been made by Mr. William 
Brown, F.S.A., the secretary of the Surtees Society : 

1. April 15, 1315, 8 Edward n. Grant by Richard Todde of Briscough l to Lawrence de 
Dunelmo, burgess of the town of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, of a toft with a croft in Briscough, 
called Gerard's croft which lay between Holleburne and the way out of the 
town (exitum ville), at a yearly rent of a rose on St. John the baptist's day if demanded. 
Witnesses, Sir Henry son of Hugh knight, Sir John de Denton, rector of Romaldkirk 
(ecclesie sancti Rumbaldi), Hugh Toller, Nigel son of Alan, Henry Freman. 2 

2. Oct. 6, 15 Henry vi (1436). Grant by John Graston, chaplain, to Roger Baynbrige, 
of four burgages in Barnardcastle (villa castri Bernardi), lying in the street (vico) of Galow- 
gate between the burgage of the abbot of Egliston on the east and the burgage of Thomas 
Wrightson on the west. Witnesses, Thomas Fulthrope, the receiver of Barnard Castle, 
Nicholas Spence, Robert Herwod, William Stanys. Barnardcastle. 

3. Dec. 14, 1456. Grant by Henry Mikkylton, chaplain, son of John de Mikkylton, to 

Thomas Mikkylton of Barnard Castell, his brother, of a tenement and nine acres of land 
in the vill and fields of Bryscowgh, and of an annual rent of 18d. .from a toft and the 
moiety of three bovates of land in the same, in which three bovates of land together with 
two tofts William Bryscowh (sic) formerly enfeoffed his eldest daughter Emma, that 
is, of that toft and of the whole moiety which were on the south. Witnesses, John Hodyl- 
ston, Richard Pryour, Robert Harwod, John Tyndell. B'nard Castell. 

4. May 12, 1466, 6 Edward iv. After a recital that Robert Elstob, late of Little Staynton, 
by a deed dated Dec. 16, 1454, had granted to John Chepman a messuage and 36 acres 
of land in the vill of Foxden, 3 formerly belonging to Walter de Beaulieu, and a messuage 
and 24 acres of land in the same vill formerly belonging to Thomas Dycon, which Robert 
had had by grant from John Elstob of Foxden, his father ; and that afterwards the said 
John Chepman and William Elstob of Foxden ' gentilman ' had agreed on Jan. 29, 1465-6, 
under a penalty of 10ft. to stand to the arbitrament of William Cusson chaplain and 
Thomas Wyndelston, their relatives, as to their claims to the said messuages and lands. 
The arbitrators decided that John Chepman should have the messuages and lands in 
tail, and that William Elstob should hand over a deed by which John Elstob had lately 
acquired them of Walter Beaulieu. Remainder in tail to William Elstob. Durham. 

Endorsement : ' Irrotulatur in dorso rotuli claus' cancellarie Dunelm' de anno ponti- 
ficatus domini Lawrencii episcopi Dunelm' nono.' 

5. March 10, 8 James i (1610-11). Bargain and sale by Thomas Parkin of Barnard - 
castell, ' yoman,' to James Freere of Barnardcastell, cordiner, for 17W., of a burgage 
and garden, the greater part being in ruins, in Barnardcastell on the west side of the 
street (vici) called Thornegate, between the burgage and lands of the said Thomas Parkin 
on the north and the burgage and lands of Arthur Morgan on the south. Signed Thomas 

Witnesses to signature : Mich. Walker, Will'm Walker, Will'm Parkin, Henry Jacksone, 
Nynian Bynck' (mark) ; and to the livery of seisin by Thomas Perkin ' in propria 
persona ' on Oct. 7, 1611, Mich. Walker, Will'm Walker, Will'm Perkin, Henry Jacksone, 
Nynian Bynck' (mark), John Rayner, Henrye Apply by, Thomas Dowthwait, Robert 

1 East and West Briscoe, in Baldersdale, in the township of Cotherstone and parish of 

8 Seal, circular, diameter 1^ inches. A flower with seven petals, s' RICARDVZ TOD. 
Endorsed, xiij. 

8 Foxton in the parish of Sedgefield, near Stockton. There is a pedigree of Elstob of 
Foxton in the Durham Visitations and Pedigrees, p. 113, but it affords no help in identifying 
the persons mentioned above. On the inquisition taken March 6, 1451-2, after the death 
of William Osborn, who died seised of lands and tenements in Stockton, one of his heirs was 
his sister Emma, aged 59, late wife of William Elstob (44 Dep. Keeper of Public Records 
Reports, p. 478). 


6. Exemplification of a fine dated the octave of St. Michael, 38 Elizabeth (1596), 
between Giles Rayner, plaintiff, and Anthony Newby and Jane his wife, deforciants, 
about 2 messuages, 2 tofts, 2 gardens, 16 acres of land, 11 acres of meadow, 15 acres of 
pasture and I8d. rent in Briscowe. 

7. June 20, 31 Charles ii (1679). A common recovery suffered at Durham before Sir 
Robert Eden bart. and William Blakiston and Ralph Davison esquires, justices itinerant, 
about 3 messuages, 5 gardens, 100 acres of land, 100 acres of meadow, 200 acres of pasture, 
40 acres of wood, 500 acres of furze and heath (jampnorum et bruete), 100 acres of moor, 
common of pasture for all kinds of beasts, and coal mines in Cockfield, in which Lancelot 
Hilton and Cuthbert Hilton gentlemen were the demandants, Simon Gilpin junior 
clerk, and Abraham Hilton, gentleman, tenants to the prcecifie, and Thomas Watson and 
Christopher Tobhall, gentlemen, vouchees. 

8. -^Friday in Easter week, 4 Edward n (Apr'l 16, 1311). Grant by Geoffrey de Tesdall 
to Sir Robert de Stretford, chaplain, of a burgage in Barnard Castle (villa castri Bernardi), 
lying in Market street (in vico fori) between the burgage of the lord of the town on the 
north and the messuage of William Draulace on the south, which the grantor had had 
by the grant of Alexander, son and heir of Robert le Messager of Barnard Castle, who 
had had it by the grant of Sir Alexander de Balliol, 4 lately lord of Barnard Castle, to hold 
by the services due by and by doing 5 to the borough of Barnard Castle, as the other burgesses 
should do by law for their burgages as was fitting. Witnesses, . . . . de Smitheton, 
Henry the tailor (cissore), William le Rous, William de Scargill, William de Houeden, 
Peter son of John . . . William Spro (sic), Peter Tagg. Barnard Castle. 
Mr. Brown was thanked. 


Mr. John Oxberry read the following paper on the ' Centenary of 
the Safety Lamp : Local Helpers of Sir Humphrey Davy.' : 

" The centenary of the invention of the Davy lamp is approaching, 
and ought, especially here in the north of England, to be recognized 
as an event that is worthy of commemoration. Whoever else neglects 
to show appreciation of the invention, the people of this great coal 
producing district ought not to be silent. For it was in this district 
that the first organized effort was made to induce scientific men to 
turn their attention to the discovery of a remedy for the chief and 
most distressing of the dangers that beset the life of the coal-miner : 
it was here that Sir Humphrey Davy began the investigations and ex- 
periments which culminated in the introduction of the lamp that bears 
his name, and it was within a few miles of the place where we are at 
present assembled that the first Davy lamp ever made was put to the 
practical test which demonstrated its efficacy. 

And the members of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries have a 
special reason of their own for directing their attention to the coming 
centenary. In the first place, two of the original members of our 
society the Rev. John Hodgson and Mr. John Buddie were co- 
partners in the labours which led to the invention, and for that reason 
are deserving of our grateful remembrance ; and, in the second place, 
to honour the memory of the inventor will be to act in accordance 
with the example set by the early members of our society, who were 

Alexander Baliol was lord of Barnardcastle after the death of his brother Hugh, from 
about 1271 till his own death in 1278, when he was succeeded by his brother John, after- 
wards king of Scotland. See the excellent history and pedigree of the Baliol family in the 
sixth volume of the New History of Northumberland. 

8 Faciendo burgo castri Bernardi sicut alii burgenses pro burgagiis suis de jure faciant, 
prout decet. 


so impressed by the utility and beneficial character of Sir Humphrey 
Davy's achievement, that, at their May meeting in 1816, they made 
him an honorary member. The secretary's letter announcing the 
election, and Sir Humphrey's reply will be found in Raine's Memoir 
of the Rev. John Hodgson (vol. i, pp. 187-88). I need only quote 
one sentence from the letter, a sentence which says that the members 
had taken the liberty of adding Sir Humphrey's name to the society's 
roll, because of the important service he had rendered the people of 
the district, and because of their ' strong sensation of gratitude for 
the humanity, and admiration of the talents which elicited the great 

The coal trade is our leading industry to-day, and it was our leading 
industry prior to the invention of the safety lamp. But its progress 
then was hampered by the greater perils which accompanied its 
operations. 1 Mining experts believed they had exhausted their 
resources in their endeavours to overcome the risk of explosion. John 
Buddie was of opinion that to look for further aid from mechanical 
agencies in preventing explosions in coal mines was futile. All that 
skill could do to ventilate the workings, he thought, had already been 
done. ' It is,' he said, ' to scientific men that we must look for 
assistance in providing a cheap and effectual remedy.' Fortunately 
the world had not long to wait for an answer to the earnest appeal 
that went forth. 

Readers of Mr. Hodgson's biography will remember that Dr. Raine 
alludes to a collection of letters and other documents, bearing on the 
invention of the safety lamp, which Mr. Hodgson had carefully pre- 
served. From this collection his biographer reprinted a few letters, 
but the great bulk of them were left untouched. The volume con- 
taining this store of unedited and unpublished material has been placed 
at my disposal, and whatever it contains that will serve to illustrate 
my subject I have been granted the privilege of laying before you 
by our fellow member, Mr. John George Hodgson, who owns the 
volume, and who is, as I suppose we are all aware, a grandson of the 
county historian. 

On the 25th of May, 1812, an explosion occurred at Felling colliery. 
The destruction of human life was without a parallel in the memory 
of any living individual. Ninety-two men and boys lost their lives 
by the catastrophe, and in consequence of the mine taking fire 
immediately after the explosion, the sad task of searching for the bodies 
of the dead dragged slowly on for nearly four months. The extent 
of the calamity, and its attendant misery and desolation of hearth 
and home, attracted the attention of all humane persons, and the 
publication of a narrative of the accident from the pen of the Rev. 
John Hodgson, at that time vicar of Heworth in which parish the 
colliery was situated, roused the public still more thoroughly, as it 
was intended to do, to the pressing need that existed for some attempt 
being made to obviate, as far as ever possible, the repetition of acci- 
dents of so distressing a character. The sights he witnessed made 
an agitator of Mr. Hodgson in so far as this subject was concerned. 
In season and out of season, by letters to the newspapers whenever 
an accident occurred in a coal mine, and by any other opportunity 

1 In the coal mines of the Tyne and Wear, six hundred men and boys were destroyed 
by the explosions of inflammable air, in the years 1812 and 1813. Mackenzie's History 
of Northumberland, vol. i, p. 92. 


that came his way, he strove to keep alive in the public mind the 
paramount need for remedial measures. He incurred the hostility 
of some of the coal owners by his persistence, but the horrors of the 
Felling calamity had burned themselves into his brain, and when the 
suggestion was made for the formation of a Society for the Prevention 
of Accidents in Coal Mines, he was one of the first to be approached 
to support the scheme, and promptly became one of the most ardent 
and energetic workers on behalf of the movement. The honour of 
proposing the establishment of the Society belongs to Mr. J. J. 
Wilkinson, a barrister practising in London, but belonging to a Durham 
family. While on a visit to his native county in the year 1813, Mr. 
Wilkinson issued a circular calling attention to the frequently occurring 
accidents in coal mines, and proposing the institution of a society whose 
aim should be their prevention. His circular was issued on September 
1st, 1813, and on the same day he wrote the following letter to the 
vicar of Heworth to accompany the printed proposal. 

Ryhope, Sunderland, 1st Sept., 1813. 

SIR, I send you a plan I propose for a society the object of which is most important 
to the real interests of the North. 

I shall feel obliged by your telling me what you think of it, and how it can be best 
carried into execution. Sir R. Milbanke, Dr. Fenwick and the Rev. Mr. Nesfield, &c., 
&c., highly approve of the plan. 

I am happy in saying how much you are esteemed by all to whom I have mentioned 
the subject, for your humanity and ability in the unfortunate business at Felling. 

I am Sir, Your very Obt. Servant, J. J. WILKINSON. 

This letter shows that if Mr. Hodgson had been frowned upon for 
his efforts by some, he had won the esteem of others, and it also 
furnishes us with a glimpse at the origin of a society which was to play 
a very important part in bringing about the invention of the Davy- 
safety lamp. Both Mr. Hodgson and Mr. Buddie were elected to 
the committee. For the society's first ' Appeal to the Public,' Mr. 
Hodgson was chiefly responsible, though when it appeared in the 
newspapers it was ' Signed at the Request, and in behalf of the Meeting 
of the Provisional Committee,' by Sir Ralph Milbanke. In his pam- 
phlet on the Felling explosion Mr. Hodgson had invited scientific 
men to come to their aid. The only sentence I shall quote from the 
' Appeal ' is one that emphasises the conviction he had given utterance 
to then, that it was to science they must look to find the remedy for 
which they were in search. The ' Appeal ' says : 

The Main Object of this Society is to invite the Attention of the scientific World to 
the Evils which the present System of Ventilation is inadequate to remedy, to induce 
the Chemist through Motives of Humanity, and by Offers of honourable Reward, to in- 
vestigate the Origin, and obviate the destructive Consequences of the Fire Damp. 

The Rev. Robert Gray, at that time rector of Bishopwearmouth , 
and subsequently bishop of Bristol, had, from its commencement, 
been a supporter of the society, and in the summer of 1815 he was 
inspired with the idea of inviting Sir Humphrey Davy to come to their 
assistance. Sir Humphrey, who had been spending a holiday in 
Scotland, readily complied with Dr. Gray's request, and agreed to break 
his journey at Newcastle on his way southward. Dr. Gray im- 
mediately arranged with Mr. Hodgson to call upon Sir Humphrey on 
his arrival in Newcastle, and also wrote to Mr. Buddie, requesting 
his co-operation in the matter. The interview between Mr. Hodgson 


and Sir Humphrey took place on the 24th of August, 1815, 1 at the 
Turk's head in the Bigg market, the same inn, be it noted, where a 
little over two and a half years earlier the Newcastle Society of 
Antiquaries began its career of usefulness. There is, of course, no 
connexion between the two events, except that the Rev. John Hodgson 
played a leading part on each occasion. Still, I think, it is inter- 
esting enough to be worthy of passing mention, that within the walls 
of the same building in the Bigg market that saw the birth of our 
society, Sir Humphrey Davy began an enquiry which did not terminate 
until he had placed an instrument in the hands of the miner that 
revolutionised the coal trade. 

On the 24th and 25th of August, Sir Humphrey Davy who had 
stayed at Hebburn hall on the night of the 24th as the guest of Cuthbert 
Ellison, M.P. pursued on Tyneside and at Sunderland the enquiries 
he began over the breakfast table at the Turk's head, and it is this 
coincidence of date with our present meeting that first suggested the 
appropriateness of introducing the subject to your notice to-night. 
A hundred years have passed since Sir Humphrey came here in response 
to the appeal that was sent out by men whose hearts had been made 
to bleed by the grim coal mining tragedies they had witnessed. It 
is well, I think, that we should mark an occasion which we can recog- 
nize now, as the first faint gleam of a brighter day for everyone con- 
nected with the coal producing areas of the country. 

Mr. Hodgson has himself furnished us with an account of the visit of 
Sir Humphrey in his History of Northumberland, and as this account is 
quoted by Dr. Raine in the Memoir (vol. I, pp. 173-5) I need make no 
further allusion to it here. The letters from Sir Humphrey to Mr. 
Hodgson following upon the interview number about forty. I shall, 
however, only deal with those which relate to the experiments leading 
up to the invention. 

Sir Humphrey's first letter, dated September 27th, 1815, is from 
Harewood house, in Yorkshire. His holiday was nearing its close, 
and he writes to Mr. Hodgson reminding him of his offer to help, and 
adding : 

I am now on my way to London where I am going expressly for the purpose of 
making experiments on the subject [of colliery explosions]. Will you have the kindness 
to get sent to me some quart bottles, five or six (common black glass) filled with the fire 
damp from the blower in your neighbourhood : the best way of filling them will be, I 
conceive, by emptying them close to the blower when full of water. Mr. Dunn offered 
to assist on this occasion. I have thought a good deal on the prevention of explosions 
from the fire-damp, and I entertain strong hopes of being able to effect something satis- 
factory on the subject. 

A few complimentary words, a request to be remembered to Mr. 
and Mrs. Ellison, and directions as to the method of packing and 
sending the bottles concluded the letter. 

Mr. Hodgson has kept the draft copy of his reply. It is a long 
letter, for the most part taken up with the writer's own personal 
observations and theories regarding the formation of fire-damp. One 
or two sentences are all we need to quote, though to print the whole 
would afford additional proof of Mr. Hodgson's anxiety to forward 

1 Dr. Raine gives the date of the interview as the 23rd of August, but a letter of Mr. 
Mathias Dunn's, the viewer at Hebburn colliery containing an extract from his diary, defi- 
nitely states that Sir Humphrey visited Hebburn on the 25th of August and we know he 
went to this colliery the day after the interview at the Turk's head. 


the cause they were working for, and would show how carefully and 
thoroughly he had studied the matter in all its bearings. He wrote 
on October 3rd, 1815, to Sir Humphrey : 

I saw Messrs. Buddie and Dunn yesterday morning at Hebburn Colliery, and they 
very willingly undertook to collect the gas, and send it to London according to your 
directions. It will be given either to the Lord Wellington or the True Briton coach this 

On the 15th of October, Sir Humphrey wrote acknowledging the 
receipt of the bottles of fire-damp. He adds : 

My experiments are going on successfully, and I hope in a few days to send you an 

account of them. I am going to be fortunate far beyond my expectations. 

Four days later he wrote again, and in view of the importance of 
the facts he had to communicate, his letter I shall quote in full. 

DEAR SIR, 23, Grosvenor Street, 19th October, 1815. 

I am going through a set of experiments on mine damp, and have already discovered 
that explosive mixtures will not pass through small apertures or tubes, and that if a lamp 
or lantern be made air tight on the sides, and furnished with apertures to admit the air 
it will not communicate flame to the outward atmosphere. 

My experiments have also furnished me with several other interesting views of the 
subject which I hope to be able to turn to advantage, and which I will communicate to 
you as soon as I can procure models of lamps to be sent to the North. 

I do not wish this notice to be communicated to the public till I have mentioned it 
to some of my scientific friends in town ; but I will in a short time draw up an account 
of my researches in the form of a sketch. I will send it to you before it be read at length 
before the Royal Society. 

I find the fire-damp to be a hydro-carbonate, which by chemical analysis it has 
always been supposed to be. 

The experiments on the fire-damp with tubes in a vessel air-tight on the sides are 
very interesting, and I have no doubt of the lamps furnished with them being perfectly 
safe, and of Mr. Buddie and Mr. Dunn approving them. 

I am, Dear Sir, Very sincerely yours, H. DAVY. 

The significance of this letter will be apparent to all who are 
acquainted, however slightly, with the construction of the safety 
lamp. The crowning triumph of Sir Humphrey's efforts was yet to 
come, but this letter reveals that he had discovered the root principle 
of the matter and was on the high road to success. 

On the 30th of October he wrote again to Mr. Hodgson, enclosing a 
long account of the various lamps he had designed, and on the 19th 
of November, enclosed under frank from Cuthbert Ellison, M.P., 
came another letter announcing further progress. He wrote again, 
on the 9th of December, in sanguine tones about further experiments, 
and a week later, on December 16th, revealed the result of these 
experiments in a letter where every sentence showed how important 
he deemed his latest discovery to be. Here is an extract from it : 

I spoke of my improved lamps and lanterns in the last note I wrote to you. I have 
pushed my enquiries and experiments upon safety apertures to a most fortunate end 
which I cannot refrain from mentioning 


forms an explosion sieve and separates flame from air ; and yet emits more light than 
horn. I can make all lamps and lanterns perfectly secure, and my means are demon- 
strably certain .... You will I am sure rejoice at a success which will not be questioned 
when the lamps are inspected. 


The importance Sir Humphrey attached to the peculiar quality 
possessed by wire gauze which his experiments had elicited, is disclosed 
by the prominence he gave the three words in his letter. We have 
no need to dwell upon its importance now, for his example in employ- 
ing it in the construction of his safety lamp has been followed ever 
since, and though many modifications and improvements have been 
adopted, what he called the explosion sieve that is the wire gauze 
still forms the element of safety in the miners' safety lamp. 

Dr. Raine speaks of Davy having by this discovery fettered ' in a 
thin web of wire gauze the destructive enemy which had annihilated 
its thousands ' ; and in a letter dated December 29th, 1815, Sir 
Humphrey tells Mr. Hodgson that he had succeeded in confining the 
destructive element, flame, ' like a bird in a cage.' Sir Humphrey's 
metaphor is scarcely so happy as Dr. Raine's, but they both attempt 
to convey the same idea, that the fire-damp which the miner en- 
countered in the colliery workings flared up and burned within the 
gauze cylinder of the lamp, and did not set fire to the explosive mixture 
by which it was surrounded. 

In his letter of 29th December, Sir Humphrey promised to send 
Mr. Hodgson models of his lamps, and in a rough sketch showed what 
he termed ' the last, the most simple, and the most perfect.' This 
model, which in all essentials is the same as the Davy lamp of to-day, 
arrived at Heworth vicarage on Monday, the 8th January, 1816, and 
on the following day, in the workings of Hebburn colliery, it emerged 
triumphantly from the severe tests to which it was subjected under 
the directions of Mr. Hodgson, and the viewer of the colliery, Mr. 
Matthias Dunn. In a letter to Sir Humphrey Davy, Mr. Hodgson 
gives a vivid description of the trials which demonstrated the value 
of the invention, but as that letter is printed in full in Dr. Raine's 
Memoir (vol. I, pp. 178-82) nothing further than a reference to its 
existence need be said about it here. 

I have not had much to tell about the part that Mr. Buddie played 
in all these enquiries and experiments. This is because Mr. Hodgson 
did most of the correspondence in connexion with the subject. But 
the collection of letters which has been laid under contribution for 
this paper contains abundance of proof of the warm friendship that 
existed between the great mining expert and the vicar of Heworth, 
and of their complete trust in each other, and cordial co-operation 
in every step that was taken to attain the end they aimed at. 

And now that we have traced the process of discovery from the 
appeal which was made to science, down to the answer which science 
gave, and incidently shown that Sir Humphrey Davy received local 
assistance in his researches, the value of which he was never slow to 
acknowledge, we may leave the subject for others to deal with when 
in January, 1916, we reach the centenary of the introduction of the 
Davy lamp into the coal mines of the country. Whatever the out- 
come, whether the centenary is recalled or disregarded, the Newcastle 
Society of Antiquaries may, at least, claim after to-night that, as 
in 1815 some of its members helped in the work of making the Davy 
lamp a success, so, in 1915 the society has not neglected to revive 
the memory of their services. 

I have dealt in this paper with a single episode in the story of the 
invention of the safety lamp. But it does not seem fitting, especially 
in the North of England, that the question should be treated even in 
a cursory and incomplete manner, without a reference being made 


to, at least, two local inventors Dr. Clanny and George Stephenson 
who share with Sir Humphrey Davy the honour of having applied 
their talents to the attempt to find a remedy for the dangers of fire- 
damp. That Dr. Clanny was first in the field is indisputable, and that 
Sir Humphrey Davy saw and examined Dr. Clanny's lamp when he 
visited the north in August, 1815, is well-known. But the lamp 
invented by the Sunderland doctor was clumsy and expensive, and 
had nothing in common with the type of lamp introduced by either 
Davy or Stephenson. 

When we come to Stephenson's lamp, however, we find that the 
principle underlying its construction was identical with that which 
gave Sir Humphrey Davy such hopes of success at the very commence- 
ment of his researches the principle that small tubes or apertures 
would not permit the internal flame in the lamp to set fire to an ex- 
plosive gas surrounding it. That both Davy and Stephenson, working 
at the same problem, discovered this principle independent of each 
other, and without either having any knowledge of what the other 
was doing, there seems to be no reason to doubt. In the history of 
inventions the same thing has occurred before. But at the time of 
the introduction of the safety lamp many bitter words were spoken 
by the respective champions of Davy and Stephenson to show that 
there had been a filching of ideas or a priority of inspiration. It is 
better that the old dispute should be allowed to rest, and that the hard 
things uttered should be forgotten. The collection of data relating 
to the safety lamp preserved by the Rev. John Hodgson contains a 
large amount of matter touching on the controversy. I have read 
a good deal of it, much of it contained in private letters that, one is 
glad to think, have remained private. After reading some of the angry 
words that were bandied about, I will only say that I have learned 
from them that in the heat of the moment even a philosopher may 
forget his philosophy, and utter things about a rival for which he 
must, if his utterances ever recurred to him when the passion had 
passed, have been heartily ashamed. And there was one of 
Stephenson's supporters who frequently forgot the courtesy of ex- 
pression that is expected from a gentleman. But .the ashes of the 
burning controversy that raged around the question of priority are 
cold and dead. We may well leave them undisturbed, and only 
remember that both Davy and Stephenson did their best for humanity, 
and for the efforts they made are both deserving of our gratitude." 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Oxberry by acclamation. 

THE NORTHERN STAGE (Arch. A el. 3 ser. xi, p. 31) 

Miss Dodds communicates the following note : 

" There is one play, ' The Assumption of the Virgin,' which has been added in a later hand." 
this is the statement of Halliwell-Phillipps, in his edition of the plays for the Shakespeare 
Society, but W. W. Greg, who is editing them for the Early English Text Society, states 
that on a careful examination of the manuscript he found that the ' Assumption ' play, 
though written in a different hand and on different paper, had been corrected and rubri- 
cated by the scribe who copied the rest of the cycle ; consequently this play must be con- 
temporary with the others. [Athenaeum, 13th Sept., 1913.] 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 14 



The following letters from Henry Rodbourne, the agent, to Sir J. 
Webb and Lady Webb, are from the Rev. T. Stephen's collection 
(continued from page 82) : 
Honoured Sir London 23d Decemb'r 1723. 

By mine of the 20th I presumed to acquainte you I had (that moment) the honour of 
yours of the 17th & 22th, N.S. as also one inclosed from my honoured Lady, wherein her 
La'pp, seemes to take the most proper method for Stateing an acco't ever Since the death 
of my late Lord, and I am certeine, will be the most effectuall meanes to State and distinguish 
my late Ladyes Separate acco'ts Since itt dos not appeare so inteligible as I was in hopes 
itt might haue done but as I was never acquainted or lett into her La'pps private acco'ts 
I know nothing further than the paym't of Bills of Exch'e & her La'pps other ord'rs to 
particular persons and w'ch were placed to my gener'll acco't of Cash, & abstracts of the 
S'd Cash acco't w'th the Stewardes, Sent to her La'pp once or twice ayear, as I presume 
you finde among the papers ; and therefore the moneyes p'd from time to time, yearly betwixt 
Christmas & Christmas is the most certeine & ready way to finde out the truth & w'ch 
my Lady may expect Shall be punctually done w'th all the Speed your other affaires will 
permitt me & w'ch w'th my humblest duty I request her La'pp may know. I alwayes did 
believe her La'pps Joynture would best appeare by quarterly paym'ts out of my Cash 
acco't as also for my Lord's & Serv'ts boarde, & pockett money, Lady Ann's Interest money, 
Law charges and casuall expences : because mine is the acco't must appeare (if called for) 
in Chancery. Then a particular acco't ought to be kept of Lady Ann's money, and my late 
Ladyes proper acco't ought to have been kept distinct & separate from all the rest, but 
nothing of the beforemenconed appeares in my acco'ts or the Stewards. I am moreover 
humbly of opinion that something of ye method proposed, will also make your acco'ts 
more inteligible & less burthensome for the future, 'tho' in the interim I shall observe your 
comands concerning the Sums menconed, and will not faile to pay the persons & Anuityes 
as directed, the Lady Mary's interest I believe is p'd pursuant to my ord'r Some time Since, 
and ye Merch'ts tell me by their last letter, Mr: E hath p'd them 2000 (w'ch he foolishly 
told them was the W. acco't) & w'ch hath made me uneasy after ye precaucons I haue taken 
in yt anaire. I believe you'll easily understand my late ironicall letter, that gentlem'n 
& I stand well, So wee must keep faire but not be over hasty. Att present I haue a dispute 
w'th the purchaser of Whenby ab't paym't of his proporcon of Mr Rookes & Lady Dowagers 
rentcharge, & w'ch hath putt a full stopp to the Report to the Comm'rs I was gett'g for 
that & Some arreares due to my Lord on Whenby acco't. I haue Sent him a very Sharp letter 
upon that affaire w'ch I hope will haue a good effect, if not Mr Rooke is resolved to Levy 
the whole upon Whenby : then I hope he'll thinke itt his interest to comply, alfo Mr Elstob 
the Comm'rs late Agent haveing refused to repay the money he wrongfully rec'd I haue 
given ord'rs to Sue those ten'ts who then paid him in oposicon to my late Ladyes request 
& promise of indemnity. Doct'r ffarelly hath not drawne any bill upon me, So that I will 
not faile to obey yo'r comands in remitting the Sum as directed, neither do I heare any 
thing of your 150 bill formerly menconed, I hope the orders I haue given & menconed above 
will haue yo'r approbacon and am with all Duty & Submission, 

Hono'rd Sr: 

wee have a strong report Yo'r most faithfull & most 

that his Maj'ty will remitt obedient Servant, 

halfe the new tax. pj R 

[Addressed : ' A Monsieur | Mons r Le Chevalier Webb.'] 

Madam London the 3d of Janry 1723 O.S. 

I haue the honour of yo'r La'pps Abstract w'th Sr: John's Letter of the 29th, and will not 
faile to observe all ord'rs & direcions, & assoone as possible will examine particulars : but 
as to the Probat & enrollment of Wills, itt is not required in our case ; only reall Estates 
Devised by Will, there indeed the Lands Shall not pass without itt. & this is by the ex- 
planatory Act to that of the Registring Act in 1717 w'ch is Mr: Pigot's opinion alfo, So 


your La'pp may depend upon itt, that wee haue no occasion to do any thing of that kinde. 
as to CR: or any other matter nothing can be done as yett, but in Some Short time I hope 
Something may be done, before I pay the Glasier menconed I humbly desire to know 
his name if itt be Scriven whose debt is ab't 80 his case is hard never haveing rec'd one 
peny of my Lords money in his life time, he has often made complaints to me, & I believe 
my late Deare Lady did intend him ye first paym't of my late Lords debts, there is a bond 
my late Lady gave Mr Eyre for 1000, of w'ch I p'd 300 in part by her La'pp's direccon. 
I finde if the rem'dr of the principell could be p'd w'th the interest, itt would do him avery 
great kindness, att this time, being much press'd (as he tells me) for moneyes due from his 
late Brother. I hope your La'pp, Sr: John and all your deare family are in perfect health, 
wishing many happy new Yeares, and am w'th intire Duty & Submifsion 
Madam Yo'r La'pps most faithfull & most obed't Servant 

Hen: Rodbourne. 

On Tuesday next the Duke of Norfolkes Brother Mr Phill: Howard is to be married to 
Mr: Stonors eldest Daughter. 

I haue returned 50 to Mr ffarelly att ... 1590 Liv'es tournois. 

Assoone as I can putt acco'ts &c: into a little ord'r I intend an Abstract of all moneyes, 
Since my last, to the time of my late Lady's Decease, and alfo Since that time upon Sr: 
John's acco't as Guardian to my Young Lord. Mr: Errington hath lately paid the 
Merchants 2000 att Newcastle to be returned as oppertunity offers. . 

Itt often fretts me to thinke I had not a power to haue purchased the Anuity & the 
Reversion, next tuesday ye 7th inst: is the last day the Comm'rs Sitt as a Boarde, So I 
am in a hurry to gett our Report, then they breake up their housekeeping I hope forever. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Hono'rble the Lady Webb att | Brussells.'] 

Madam London the 20th of Janry 1723 

Pursuant to yo'r La'pps comands I haue here inclosed Extracts from mine, and the 
Stewards acco'ts of all the particulars of moneys p'd & returned to my late Dear Ladys 
order and use, but how and upon what acco't applyed, I am wholly ignorant : however 
I hope these particulars may be Some help towards the due examinacon and adjust'g the 
private Anuall acco't your La'pp menconed, for if the Severall extraordinary Sums applyed 
to the use of my Deare Lord & Lady Ann be fully & truely entered, I humbly conceive, 
'twill not be difficult to adjust the proper Anuall allowances for their boarde, Servants &c: 
those Anuall gross Sums (I alwayes thought) might haue appeared more properly in my 
Cash acco't belonging to my Lord, and So transferr'd to her La'pps particular acco't from 
whence the paym'ts & remittances from time to time, might haue issued, as her La'pps 
occasions had required, and I believe may yett w'th Some addiconall care & trouble, be 
put into the method I proposed as above, by Setting off these Sev'all payments, in part of 
my Ladyes Joynture, Anuall allowance for my Lord, Lady Ann's interest &c: w'ch last 
to be kept in a separate acco't as particularized & menconed in yo'r La'pp's last, and I 
humbly propose itt as the most proper & ready method for Sr: John's future acco't of those 
affaires. I meane, that my Lords Anuall allowance for boarde, Servants, expences, &c: 
be paid quarterly to Sr: John's owne acco't, and all remittances be made from itt only, & 
not from my Lords acco't as formerly. If I do not explaine my Selfe so fully as I ought, 
I humbly request your La'pp will be pleased to lett me know. Your La'pp will finde in the 
inclosed particular a Sum of money paid to the late Lady Gascoine & 50 to Mrs: fforstcr 
by my late Ladyes particular ord'rs in writeing : but whether in repaym't of moneys bor- 
rowed is not express'd. the new tax is not fix'd as yett in many parts of this Kingdom, 
but I do not finde L'd Gage's news proves true, or that any part will be remitted of this 
Yeare : 'tho' they assure us itt will never be imposed againe. and only 2s $ the Land tax 
for the ensueing yeare. I haue this moment the honour of a Letter from Sr: John dated 
the 12th of this month N.S. w'th a Note upon Mr: Wright for 200 w'ch Shall be placed to 
Sr: Johns acco't & haue p'd both bills for 150 & 200. my two last of the 3d & 10th of this 
mo. O.S. I hope are since arrived ; & therefore Shall not rcpeate the contents, only ye 
Comm'res haveing altered their resolucon Sitt generally once a weeke, W'ch obliges me to 


be very cautious. I am forced to attend them, till I haue their Answer to my Memoriall, 
'tho' I am convinced they'll never part w'th 2d of the money they haue wrongfully rec'd 
from the Estate. I also haue been obliged to complaine of the purchaser of Whenby, who 
refuses to pay his Share of the rentcharge apportioned to Mr Rooke & Lady Dowager 
unlefs they will give him Separate acquittances, and the said rentcharge being vested in 
Trustees, renders the method almost impracticable ; besides Mr: Rooke Stormes & Sweares 
he'll not receive itt in parcells, but in one intire Sum quarterly by my hand as heretofore, 
and thereupon hath ordered an Attorney to make a distress on the Ten'ts of Whenby forth- 
with, So that wee are like to haue Some delay in the payment of Lady Dowag'r w'ch I feare 
for circumstances will not admitt of 'till matters are Setled or that I haue Sir John's 
direccon ; therefore in order to keep that Lady quiet, I'll venture to pay the next Quarter, 
w'ch becomes due the 1st of ffebruary next, humbly desireing direccon therein as Speedily 
as possible. I beseech God Almighty to grant Sr: John your La'pp & all your dearest 
family perfect health & am with intire Duty & Submifsion 

Madam I Yo'r La'pps most faithfull & most obedient I Servant 

Hen: Rodbourne. 

The 17th I -had a Letter from Tichborne & all are well there. 

I request this may present my humble duty to Sr: John. 

As I am writeing haue receiv'd a parcell of Lace in a pacquett from the Secretary's Office 
& am Sending itt to Mr: Talbot as ordered. 

[Addressed : ' For I The Hono rble the Lady Webb I att I 

Madam London 3d of ffebruary 1723. 

I have the honour of yr La'pps of the 29 ultim' and also from Sr: John of the 9th inst 
X.S. & will take due care of the 100 bill when pr'sented, & in the interim attend yo'r 
La'pps further instructions as menconed in Sir John's last Letter. Wee are much Surprised 
att the miscarriage of the Box of writeings, Since they arrived Safe att Bridges as appeares 
by the inclosed from Mr Hunter to me ; and therefore if not arrived, 'twill be proper for 
Mrs Hill to enquire of Mr: Joseph Ververs att Brussells. in my former to Sr: John, I pre- 
sumed to mencon the paym't of the two last bills of Exch'e, Mr: Lacey's bill & the 15, for 
putting out a boy apprentice, that I had reserved 15 for a Son of Mr Gough in the 
Country, whose name Mr: Webb believes Sr: John mistakes for Mr Corfe, who sent a letter 
to Brussells, w'ch wee both humbly desire may be explained. & that I haue p'd Mr: Webb 
the remaining 20 in full of interest due att Mich'mas last, & w'ch he said amounted to ab't 
70 in his hands in Banke. if I might be permitted to recomend one whose Parents by great 
losses are become very poore, and the youth very deserveing, and an object of Charity, is 
willing to accept of any trade, who I dare undertake, will answer the intencon of yo'r 
bounty, when Sir John will be pleased to give orders for an enquiry. I shall accept itt as 
a bounty to my Selfe, and as itt's from a motive of Charity I hope to obteine Sr: John's 
& your La'pps pardon for this presumpcon, 'tho' att a time when I am very Sensible, both 
Sr: John & your La'pp are involved in a crowd of intricate business, in my former I also 
menconed the pacquett of lace Safely delivered to Mrs: Talbots hand. and will not faile 
to pay Mr: Prichard's Note when due & place it to acco't as directed. That our good god 
will be pleased to preserve Sr: John your La'pp & dearest family in perfect health, is the 
daily prayer of 

I have p'd the Glasier his bill Madam 

81 : 7 : & enjoyned him Secrecy Yo'r La'pps most faithfull & 

who presents his most humble most obe dient Serv't 

thanks for your goodness to him. Hen: Rodbourne. 

I request this may present my most humble Duty to Sir John. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Hono rble the Lady Webb I att I 
Brusselles.'l y 







3 SER., VOL. VII. 



The ordinary monthly meeting of the Society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, 29th September 1915, 
at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. R. Oliver Heslop, F.S.A., a vice- 
president, being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

1. Thomas Walter Coning, 9 Haldane Terrace, Newcastle. 

2. R. W. Martin, Rhondda House, Benton, Newcastle. 
The following BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., president : A Con- 
ference of Pleaure, composed for some festive occasion about the 
year 1592, by Francis Bacon ; edited from a MS. belonging to 
the noble donor, by James Spedding. [Mr. P. Brewis said : A 
Conference of Pleasure is a title given by Spedding, and also 
used by the Historical Manuscripts Commission, to describe a 
document otherwise known as 'The Northumberland Manuscript,' 
but which as a whole has no title. It is a small foolscap folio, 
originally lOf by 7 \ inches, on the cover of which has been a table 
of contents, wherein this particular device presented by the Duke 
has the title : ' Mr. ffnncis Bacon | Of Tribute, or Giving what is 
Due/ followed by four subordinate titles 'The Praise of the 
Worthiest Virtue/ ' The Praise of the Worthiest Affection/ ' The 
Praise of the Worthiest Power/ and ' The Praise of the Worthiest 
Person/ The subject of these four praises are respectively virtue, 
love, knowledge, and lastly the queen, Elizabeth, and the whole is 
a device written by Bacon with the object of reconciling the queen 
to Essex after one of their numerous quarrels. The manuscript 
is not in Bacon's own handwriting, but has been identified with a 
high degree of probability as the writing of John Davies of Hereford, 
(1561-1618), one of Bacon's scribes, and also employed as teacher 
of writing to the children of Henry Percy, ninth earl of Northum- 
berland. The manuscript was discovered in 1867, with other 
papers, in a box in Northumberland house. It contains many 
things besides the praises, and the cover has some highly interest- 
ing scribbling upon it.] 

From the Rev. E. J. Taylor, F.S.A. : A Thousand Years of the 
Church in Chester-le- Street, by the Rev. Canon Blunt, M.A. 

From Mrs. Willans : The Truth about German Atrocities (Parlia- 
mentary Recruiting Committee). 

From Robert Blair : The Antiquary, xi, 9 (Sep. 1915). 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 15 


Exchanges : 

From the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeo- 
logical Society : Transactions, n.s., xv. 
From the Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A. : Bulletin, 

no. 46. 
From the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

Transactions, 4 ser. v, i. 

Purchases : North Country Diaries, n (124 Surt. Soc. publ.) ; 
The Museums Journal, xi, no. 3 ; Pedigree Register, in, 34 ; and 
Notes and Queries for September. 

The following were announced and thanks voted to the donor : 
From Mr. W. H. Cullen : The following coins and medals : 
Silver Coronation medal, Edward vn and Alexandra ; of queen 
Victoria, sixpence and threepence of 1901 ; 12 annas of 1862 ; 
of president Kruger, a shilling of 1896. Copper, of queen 
Victoria, pennies of 1854 and 1901, a farthing of 1901, and a quarter 
anna of 1862 ; of Albert, king of the Belgians, a 2 cent piece of 

By Mrs. Clayton of the Chesters : A bronze measure of Roman 

date, in shape like a truncated cone, found in June near the Roman 

fort of Caervoran (Magnd). It is about 10 J inches high, 7| inches 

diameter at top, and 11 inches at bottom, and weighs 25 Ibs. 12 ozs., 

its capacity being 20 pints or thereabouts. On its side is inscribed 

in letters of the best period IMP ... CAESARE | AVG GERMANICO 

xv cos | EXACTVS AD / xviis | HABET p xxxnx, which are 

thus Englished by prof. Haverfield : ' In the year when Domitian 

was consul for the fifteenth time this measure was tested to a 

capacity of 17^ sextarii ; its weight is 38 pounds.' The name of 

the emperor (Domitian) has been carefully erased. The words 

are divided by triangular stops. (See opposite plate.) 

Mr. Blair (secretary), in the absence of the writer, read a learned 

paper on the object and on Roman weights and measures in general, 

by professor Haverfield, F.S.A., a vice-president, illustrated by lantern 

slides. It will probably be printed in the next volume of Archaeologia 

Aeliana (3 ser., xin) in extenso with illustrations. 

Thanks were voted by acclamation to prof. Haverfield for the notes, 
on the motion of prof. Duff, and to Mrs. Clayton for the exhibit, on 
the motion of the chairman, who stated that one of their members, 
Mr. Otto Levin, was the first to notice the object in the course of a 
journey along the Roman Wall. 

Mr. R. Coltman Clephan, F.S.A., a vice-president, read a long and 
elaborate paper, fully illustrated by lantern slides, ' On Armour with 
an Account of the Tournament.' 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Clephan by acclamation. 



The Rev. M. Culley of Coupland Castle has kindly sent the following, 
which he contributed to the Berwick Journal last July : 

" Among the numerous bodies of military that were called into 
existence in Northumberland in the latter part of the 18th century 


> en 

3 ^ 
' ^ 





in consequence of the Napoleonic wars and threatened invasion of 
England, the corps known as the Coquetdale Rangers is of considerable 
interest to those living in the northern parts of the county, for this 
body was largely recruited within the district extending from North 
Coquetdale Ward to Tillside and Bowmont-water in Glendale. 

A certain amount of interest has been revived in the history of these 
old, and in most cases, defunct corps, in view of the somewhat similar 
circumstances prevailing amongst us at the present time. 

There appears to be some uncertainty as to the exact date of enrol- 
ment of the Coquetdale yeomanry cavalry through the earliest muster 
rolls not being forthcoming ; but at any rate the corps had been 
recruited previous to the 31st January 1804, for they are known 
to have mustered at Glanton, with the other local bodies of militia 
on that night of alarm, when the beacons answering one another along 
the whole line of the Cheviots, announced (though as it turned out 
falsely) the invasion of the kingdom. In 1805 and 1806 the corps 
was under the command of Captain Thomas Selby, of Biddleston, 
while amongst those serving under him occur the old local names of 
Mills, Morrison, Moody, etc. 

On the 26th April, 1806, Lieut.-Col. Rawdon inspected the Coquet- 
dale Rangers, and reported favourably of them. Their uniform, 
which appears to have been new for the occasion, was scarlet, with 
white breeches, brass helmet with black horse-hair plume, and scarlet 
cloak. Captain Selby died at an early age in 1818, and was succeeded, 
either immediately or shortly after, in the command of the corps by 
Captain John Collingwood Tarleton, of Collingwood house. In 
1805, the corps numbered 55, while by 1821 (Captain Tarleton com- 
manding) the number of troopers had increased to 183. 

A few years later, Captain Kerr seems to have been in command ; 
he was succeeded by Captain Matthew Culley, of Coupland castle, 
whose commission bears date 8th July, 1827, just 88 years ago. There 
is preserved at Coupland castle a muster roll of Captain Kerr's troop 
when the command was taken over by Captain Culley in 1827. It 
comprised 56 effectives. No apology is made here for printing the 
roll of names. It is instructive as showing the patriotic spirit which 
animated our ancestors ; while many of those, from the same district 
of Northumberland, now serving in the army, cannot fail to be inter- 
ested in recognising the names perchance of grandfather or great- 
grandfather, or other kinsmen. 

' Captain Culley 's Troop ' ; (arranged as in the original, alpha- 
betically) Thos. Allen, Trumpeter, Wooler ; Samuel Allen, Wooler ; 
John Bolton, Sergeant, Ewart ; Thos. Bolam, Netherton ; Thos. 
Brown, Howtel ; Robt. Brown, Wooler ; Oswald Baird ; William 
Bell ; William Black ; Robt. Chisholme, Sergt., St. Margrets ; Alexr. 
Chandler ; James Caisley ; Thos. Duncan, Qr. Master, Humbleton ; 
Thos. Dickinson ; Thos. Dickson, Wooler ; Richd. Elliott, Wooler ; 
Wm. Fairnington, Wooler ; Robt. Gardner, Wooler ; Andrew Gowans, 
Wooler ; Jno. Greg, Wooler ; Jno. Glaister, Wooler ; Thos. Henderson, 
Chatton ; Ralph Herbertson, Bamborough ; William Herbertson, 
ditto ; Jas. Hall, Fenham ; Jas. Hall, Wooler ; Jos. Hall, Wooler ; 
Jno. Hall, ditto ; Robt. Jameson, Newmoore House ; Jno. Jobson, 
Alnwick ; Geo. Kinghorn, Wooier ; Jno. Lilly ; Jno. Lumsdon, Aln- 
wick ; Peter McLarin, Wooler ; Samuel Mills ; Wm. Moffatt, Whit- 
tin gham ; Jno. Nevins, Marledown ; Robt. Ormiston, Wooler ; Robt. 
Oliver, Alnwick ; Jas. Percy, Flodon Edge ; Geo Philips, Lowick ; 


Jno. Pringle, Alnwick ; Chas. Rogers, Corporal, Wooler ; Jno. Rogers, 
Chatton ; Saml. Redpeth, Alnwick ; Jno. Smith, Sergeant, Low 
Haughhead ; Isaac Steel, Brankston Hill ; David Scott ; Joseph 
Scott; James Smart, Alnwick ; James Skelly, Alnwick ; Jno. Turnbull, 
Wooler ; Jno. Taylor, Wooler ; Jas. Weightman, Wooler ; Jno. 
Watson ; Thomas Young, Wooler. 

Under dates 18th March and 9th August, 1827, the roll shows the 
signatures of nearly all the members of the corps, as well as a list of 
the accoutrements of each. Amongst the latter occur pistols, sword 
and sling, sword belt, helmet and feather, breastplate, pouch and 
belt, holster, and spurs." 


The following letters, re Lady Derwentwater's rent charge of ^1000 
per annum, and opinion of counsel from Henry Rodbourne, the agent, 
to Sir J. Webb and Lady Webb, are from the Rev. T. Stephens's 
collection (continued from page 96) : 

Honoured Sir London 7 Jim' 1725. 

I haue the honour of yo'rs of the 9th N.S. and will take punctuall care of yo'r bills, when 
pr'sented, as alfo of your tryall att the Assizes, haveing already given direccons in order 
to itt. I had lately a letter from Hatherope and my Lady with all the family there are 
in perfect health, and the Young Lady goes on very well, and am extremely glad to hear 
that you & your deare family are well, w'ch I beseech God to continue. A fewe days since, 
a Gentleman arrived here from Mr Constable with the Probat of Lady M R's. Will, and 
4 other papers w'ch after wee had read, & considered, att Mr Stricklands Chambers, they 
delivered me Copyes of em, ye 1st dated 20 ffebry 1722/3 ye 2nd 28th of ffebry 1722/3, the 
first called instrucions to Mr C , is Signed, the other call'd her Verball Will is unsigned, 
therein are divers limitacons and bequests and among the rest, a writeing box to my Lord, 
the 3d dated the 2d of March, 1724, is call'd a Codicill unsigned, and the 4th dated the 

Same day is call'd her instrucions to Mr C unsigned, but they Say she declared her 

intencon to Signe them the next day w'ch proved to be the day of her death, in these two 
last papers Shee leaves Nafferton, a Moiety of Redheugh, and the tythes of Norham to my 
L'd chargeable w'th the paym't of 0010 Secured on the said tythes. also to my L'd all 
her Lead Mynes or Shares in Lead mynes, Subject to the paym't of the Colls debts, three 
of these papers, are the hand writeing of the good man, but are Such a jumble of incoherences 
& contradiccons as I haue not mett w'th before. I haue inquired into the value of the Estates 

menconed & I finde ye Anuall rents are as follows Viz Nafferton 218:0:0 

A Moiety of Redheugh . 192 : : 
And Norham Tythes . 438 : : 

The tythes are held by Lease for 21 yeares of the B'pp of Durham, renewable every 7 
Yeares att 300 fine and 60 $ Ann' reserved rent. Redheugh I finde was left by her 
brother Mr: Franc' R, w'th a particular recomendacon of his Godson & nephew, Mr. C. R. 
who is not So much as named in these papers, and is oddly express'd to my Lord, as follows, 
I Icaue halfe of Redheugh to my litle L'd D in case halfe of itt be thought to belong to him 
by the best & ablest Councill, and not otherwise, indeed the whole Seemes to be a confused 
disposicon of things, as you'll finde when you read the papers w'ch I presume my Lady 
will take care to convey safe to your hand : because I humbly thinke they require ye 
utmost Secrecy, nor can one guess how those contradictions will be reconciled till there 
is a conference betwixt my Lady and Mr C w'ch I hope will be att her La'pps returne hether. 
Doct'r Chamberlen haveing assigned the 2000 mortgage upon the marriage of his Daughter 
to Mr: Hopkins of Warwickshire, hath prevented the paym't of itt according to notice, 
and w'ch Mr Hopkins desired to continue att 4 $ C't ; therefore the last weeke I attended 
him, and lett him know the money had been ready ever Since the 28th of May, and from 


that day you expected the interest to cease, and as you had no occasion to continue the 
money, I desired the mortgage might be assigned, w'ch he promised should be done forth- 
with. So as I hope that affaire will soone be dispatch'ed. I am with intire Duty and 
Submifsion. Honoured Sir 

Mr. Errington tells me the Yo'r most faithfull & most 

double tax is taken off my Lords obedient Servant, 

estate, but not by Mr Ledgard tho' you Hen: Rodbourne. 

haue been so generous & kinde to him. 

I forgot to acquainte you, that some discourse happening att our meeteing to read the 
papers concerning the Coil's Will whereby her La'pp was only ten't for life, y't the whole 
ought to haue come to my L'd charged only w'th the residue of his debts, w'ch the personall 
Estate was not Sufficient to pay. the Gentleman answered me that her La'pp haveing 
bought itt of the Comm'rs Shee thought herselfe Sole & absolute Mistress & might charge 
or give itt, to whom, or to what uses Shee pleased, to w'ch I replyed, that by Law Shee 
might do, as he said : but as Shee Sold two of the Mann'rs call'd Plessy & Newsham the 
first being of ye Anuall value of 458 : 5 : the other of 438 : 15 : for 16200, being 7000 
more than the purchase money, I humbly conceived the Surplus w'th the other parts of the 
Estate in equity & good conscience, ought to haue been left to my L'd in order to discharge 

the S'd residue of ye debts, and what other incumbrances might affect it w'th 

Submission & respect, and he seemingly acq ... I said, one thing I could not omitt 
observeing, . . . last, my L'd had nothing left him but the old w . . . box. 'tho' the will 
was made the 22d of November 1722, [there] are Severall reversions left, but I do not finde 
more than 100 in present, left to Mr C 

[Addressed : ' A Monsieur | Monsieur Le Chevalier Webb | Proche 
Berlemont | A | Bruxelles.'J 

Honoured Sir London 3, Apr' 1727 O.S. 

I haue the honour of yo'rs of the 22th March & this afternoon another of the 8th curr't 
N.S. & also of the 5th & will not faile to performe all yo'r comands & payments therein 
menconed. but first I must crave leave to pr'sent my humble thankes for your generous 
bounty, and hope & Sincerely wish, I may haue Some opportunity in yo'r affaires to deserve 
itt, I do assure you non shall be more ready in yo'r Service, and will use my best endeavours 
in renewing the Lease w'th Christ hospitall. they now propose to grant 21 Yeares after 
3 in being, so I intend to bidd 750, net money without repaires, and will endeavour to put 
those or the greatest part upon the Tenants. The Duplicate of your last acco't Sent by 
Mr: Thorold, I inclosed in my letter for your perusall before her arriveall, as I did also to my 
honoured Lady, of her La'pps particular acco't but if those miscarried, upon notice I will 
not faile to Send others. herewith I present a Copy of the Case touching Lady Darw'r 
rentcharge (wh'ch I stated att the request of Mr: Rooke) with Mr Pigots opinion thereupon, 
intirely for Mr Rooke, & who is likewise entituled, to the plate & other personall Estate, 
for want of adisposicon in writeing. I finde Mr Pigots opinion is grounded upon a late 
resolucon in the Court of Chancery. I'll acquaint L'd Harcourt that you haue complyed 
w'th his request, and am w'th intire Duty & Submission, Yo'r most faithfull & most 

You haue all paym'ts to Mr: Thompson Hono'ed Sir obed't Servant, 

in my acco'ts w'ch agrees I believe w'th the time Hen: Rodbourne. 

therefore I conclude the mistake is in him & 
the Lady, he sent ye last mo: to demand 3 qu'rs before it was due. 

The Case concerning the late Lady 

Darwentwaters rentcharge. 

By the Deed of Separacon dated the 6th of ffebruary 1700 made between A & the Trustees 
of B, his wife, the s'd A agreed w'th the s'd Trustees that they should raise & pay to B, his s'd 
vife the Sum of 1000 $ ann' tax free, in lieu of 400 $ ann' Separate mainteinance & Joyn- 
tire & Setled ye Rents & profits of divers Baronyes, Mann'rs, Lands &c: for the terme of 99 
Yares In Trust to pay the s'd B 1000 $ Ann' thereout for her life att 4 paym'ts Vidlt. the 


1st of May the 1st of August the 1st of November and the 1st of ffebruary, by even & equall 
porcons, and to pay the overplus to the S'd A, his heires & Assignes. w'ch s'd Sum of 1000 
was rec'd by the S'd B. for Sev'ell yeares accordingly. 

B, dyed on the quarter day the 1st of November 1726 about ten of the Clock att night. 

Qu: Whether the Exec'rs &c: of the S'd B, the wife or the heir att Law of A, be intituled 

to the quarterly Sum of 250, She dyeing on the S'd day att the hour above menconed. 

The currant opinion has been that if the Grantee of a rent dye on ye day itt is due before 
Midnight that the heir att Law Shall haue the rent, not the Exec'rs, &c: But in naturall 
Equity I think itt belongs to Execut'rs for the renf was due on the 1st of November & ought 
to be demanded before Sun Sett ; if therefore itt was due, the act of God did not divest that 
duty, & in conscience & equity I thinke the Execut'rs ought to haue itt, and I am informed 
itt has been so resolved in equity. Nath Pigott, 27 March 1727. 

[Addressed : ' A Monsieur | Monsieur Le Chevalier Webb | Proche 
Berlemont | A | Bruxelles | By | Ostend.'] 

Honoured Sir, London 5' Maij 1727. 

I herewith pr'sent, Mr: Mead's opinion concerning the late Lady Darwentwaters rent- 
charge, to whom I put a 2d quer', in ord'r to your indemnity, and you will observe he advises 
the direccon of the Court of Chancery before you pay the money, and accordingly I intend 
to give Mr Rooke notice thereof, being now in Towne, pressing earnestly to haue itt, w'ch 
was the reason, together w'th your sentiments of the 19th past, of my takeing this 2d 
opinion, and if Mr Petre pleases he may haue an oppertunity of proposeing to the Court 
his claime in behalfe of his Lady & all others concerned, and an amieable Decree may be had 
for their Satisfaccon as also for your indempnity. 

I haue attended the Committee of Governors of Christ Church hospitall, who seemed un- 
prepared for a treaty, & adjourned itt therefore to a further time, Sine die, & promis'd notice 
when they expected my attendance, and 'tho' I have made a considerable interest w'th 
Some of their members yett I almost despaire of Success, Since I am Sensible they give 
roome for other bidders by this adjournm't. 

I haue rec'd the Deed of Conveyance by Mr Hunter w'th my vouchers, & a Duplicate of 
my honoured Ladys acco't but not the Duplicate of your owne acco'ts w'ch I sent inclosed 
in a letter for your perusall a litle before his departure from hence ab't the time Mr: Thorold 
tooke charge of 'em, if itt be mislaid or miscarried I will send another upon notice. 

This moment I haue the honour of yo'rs of the 7th, and am extremely glad that Mr: Tho: 
Webb is in so faire away of recovery, I beseech God to give him & continue you my honoured 
Lady and all your deare family in perfect health, and will not faile to take due care of your 
bill when pr'sented. 

I expect Mr: Rowl'd Belasyse this night and that to morrow he will execute the Deeds, 
and I doubt not but the money will then be paid : but as Ind' Comp'es Bonds are advanced 
to 52 $ C't prem' I Humbly request your further direccon before I buy, because wee continue 
very uncertaine whether peace or warr, and one wou.d not lose halfe a Yeares interest or run 
the risque of itt if possible, but as you are in amore certaine way of intelligence than wee 
are here, I hope to haue the honour of yo'r Speedy commands being w'th all Duty & Submiss'n 

Hono'rd Sir 

Mr Pigot Mr Gyles the Proct'r Yo'r most faithfull & 

& I haue taken true paines most obedient Serv't 

for Mad'm Steinghen, & att this Hen: Rodbourne. 

time I am labouring hard for an 

accommodacon w'ch I hope to effect. t 

Mr Mead's opinion. 

By Deed of Separacon dated 6th of ffebruary 1700 made Between A & the Trustees of 
B his wife the s'd A agreed w'th the s'd Trustees, that they should raise & pay to B hi 
s'd wife the sum of 1000 $ ann' tax free in lieu of 400 $ Ann* Separate maintenance/ 
Joynture. And Sctled the rents & profitts of divers Baronyes, Mann'rs, Lands &c: 


the term of 99 yeares, In Trust, to pay the s'd B 1000 $ ami' thereout, for the terme 
of her life, att 4 paym'ts Viz: the 1st of May the 1st of August the 1st of November and the 
1st of ffebruary by even and equall porcons, and to pay the overplus to the said A his 
heires and Assignes, and w'ch s'd Sum of 1000 was rec'd by the s'd B for Severall yeares 

B dyed on the quarter day the 1st of Novemb'r 1726 ab't 10 of the Clock att night. 
1 Quer. Whether the Adm'r of the s'd B the wife, or the heir att Law of A be intituled 
to the Quarterly Sum of 250. She dyeing on the saide day att the hour above 

This case as it is here Stated Seemes to me to be different from ye case of a rent reserved 
or pay'ble by a ten't out of land : for in that case ye Law has Setled the time att w'ch 
the rent is due, Viz: att midnight, and itt has been resolved, even in equity, that if a 
ten't for life dyes on Mich'ms day, on w'ch the rent was pay'ble that ye Joyntrefs or 
next in rem'dr Shall be intituled to the rent, w'ch grew due on Mich'mas day, pr'ferably 
to the Execut'r or Adm'r of ye Ten't for life ; 'tho' even ye case hath since been rendred 
doubtfull, by another resolucon. But this Case arises on a Trust, & the Trustees have- 
ing a legall Estate in them, whatever rent issues out of the lands, itt in point of Law 
belongs to them, & how they Shall dispose of itt, on ye foot of or in execucon of this 
Trust, is the proper question, had the Trustees p'd ye 250 to B on ye morning of 
ye 1st of November, on ye evening of w'ch s'd day She dyed, I apprehend itt could not 
haue been said to have been a breach of trust, and I am inclined to thinke since A 
was only to haue ye overplus, after the 4 quarterly paym'ts were made, on ye 4 
dayes of paym't, yt ye Adm'r of B will be intituled to the 250 w'ch was to haue 
been paid, on ye day on w'ch B dyed. 2 Quer. 

If the Adm'r of B be intituled to the s'd arreare and the heir of A being an Infant, 
under the tuition of C his Guardian. 
2 Quer. Whether itt will be Safe for C to pay the s'd Sum of 250, without direccon ol 

the Court of Chancery. 

I am far from thinking the Case So cleare, as that the Guardian of the Infant Should on 
a Single opinion, conclude himselfe Safe in ye paym't of the 250. & Since 'tis the concerne 
of an Infant, I apprehend that itt may be very proper, that the Representative of B 
should Exhibit a bill ag'st the Trustees of the 99 Yeares terme, and the Infant heir of A 
to haue Satisfaccon of this 250 out of the Trust Estate. Sam: Mead, 

29 Apr' 1727. 

Mr. J. C. Hodgson has kindly sent the following extracts from the 
Newcastle Journal (continued from Proc. vi, p. 274) : 

To be sold a freehold estate at Broom-house parish of Holy Island, 170 acres, let at the 
yearly rent of 140. Also Thompson's Walls, parish of Kirknewton, 620 acres. Mr. James 
Wilkie of Broomhouse will show that estate ; and Mr. Edmiston of Mindrum will show 
Thompson's Walls. All persons indebted to the estate of James Grey, esq., lately deceased, 
are required to pay the same to John Grey, jun., of Alnwick, esq. Journal, 29 Aug., 1772. 

To be sold, houses and lands in the township of Hacckwell in the parish of Stamfordham 

of the yearly value of 200. Also the farm of Loudside in the township of Whitchester, 

parish of Heddon on the Wall, let for 140 per annum. All which estates were late the 

. estate of Mr. Robert Newton, deceased. Apply to Mr. Lowes of Hexham or to Mr. Newton, 

attorney, at Morpeth. Ibid., 29 August, 1772. 

To be sold a copyhold estate at Whitburn of about 100 acres. Apply to Mr. Edward 
Maxwell of Whitburn. Ibid., 5 Sept., 1772. 

To be sold by auction, Witton hall, three miles from Bishop Auckland. Apply to 
Charles Joseph Douglas, esq., the owner, at Witton Hall., Ibid., 12 September, 1772. 

To be sold by Decree of Court, the Manor of Harte, co. Durham, the impropriate rectory 
of Harte and lands, comprising 3,445 acres of the yearly rent of 2373, also three 
fourth parts of the manor of Barmston let at the yearly rent of 314. Ibid, 


To be sold a freehold estate near Rothbury called Harehaugh, the property of Dr. 
Clifford Handasyd, containing 200 acres. Apply to Mr. Meggison at Whalton, near 

Tobe sold, Whisker-shield in the parish of Elsdon, comprising 543 acres. Apply to Mr. 
Robert Richardson of Alnwick, attorney, who is properly authorised by the owner Mr. 
Robert Potts, of Hudspeth, near Morpeth, to treat. Ibid., 17 October, 1772. 

To be sold the stock in trade of John Grey, jun., of Alnwick, comprising woollen and 
linen Cloths of all colours. He thanks his friends for past favours and hopes for a con- 
tinuance of them in the wine and spirit way. Courant, 24 October, 1772. 

To be let, a stock farm at Thorleshope parish of Castleton in Liddesdale, 1,533 acres, 
Enquire of Mr. Charles Hall of Overacres, Mr. Robert Vazie at Hexham or Mr. William 
Walker in Leeds. Ibid - 

To be sold, Monksend farm at Croft, late the estate of Mr. James Mewburn, dec'd. Ibid. 

To be sold the freehold estate of Fellingsby near South Shields, 364 acres, let at 160 
per annum. Ibid " ^ October, 1772. 

To be sold, a freehold estate at Bell Shield, parish of Elsdon, now in the occupation of 
Mr. William Anderson, the owner. Journal, 21 November, 1772. 

To be sold, Hole-house or Holbeck farm in the parish of Wolsingham, good mansion 
house and 127 acres of land, water corn mill, &c. Courant, 9 January, 1773. 

To be let, a farm in Shilbottle, commonly called the Moor-farm, belonging to and in 
the occupation of Mr. George Selby of Hunting-hall, 100 acres, &c. Enquire of Mr. Selby 
of Alnwick. Ibid -> 16 January, 1773. 

To be sold, a copyhold estate in Cockerton. Enquire of Mr. Ralph Tuns tall, Darlington. 


To be let, an extensive tract of land at Ryal in the parish of Stamfordham, belonging 
to Benjamin Stead, esq., and now in his occupation, containing near 1000 acres of land, 
good mansion house, &c. Enquire of Mr. Henry Atkinson of Newcastle. Ibid. 

To be sold, a freehold estate at Bell Shield in the parish of Elsdon. Enquire of the owner, 
Mr. William Anderson at Shittleheugh, or Mr. Jasper Gibson, Hexham. Ibid. 

To be let, several large granaries at Budle, near Belford, well situate for the port of 
Warn. Apply to William Younghusband, esq., of Budle. Ibid. 

The creditors of Thomas Story of Sleekburn New Key, cornfactor, are desired to meet 
at White Swan, Alnwick, on Saturday, 6 February. Account of demands to be trans- 
mitted to Mr. Lawson, attorney, at Morpeth. Ibid., 23 January, 1773. 

Whereas there is an agreement in writing subsisting, drawn by Mr. George Cook, betwixt 
Edward Cook, esq., and his brother, Mr. John Cook, for his estate at Blakemoor to farm 
for the term of 12 years, and as Mr. John Cook understands he is about disposing of it to 
other people, this is therefore to warn all persons from treating about the same, as Mr. 
John Cook intends immediately to proceed against Edward Cook, esq., according to law 
for possession of the same. Ibid., 6 February, 1773. 

To be sold, a freehold estate of 55 acres at Sherraton Grange, co. Durham. Enquire 
of Mr. John Maling at Sunderland. Ibid., 20 March, 1773. 

To be sold, an estate at Plausworth, partly freehold, partly copyhold. Enquire of 
Mr. Christopher Johnson, attorney at law, Durham. Ibid. 

To be sold, a freehold estate called Settlingstone, parish of Warden, 338 acres. Enquire 
of Rev. Mr. Peile or Mr. Ord, surgeon, both of Hexham. Also the house at Hexham 
wherein the late Mrs. Lazenby lived. Ibid. 

To be peremptorily sold by auction in one lot, on Thursday the 20th day of May next 
at the Crown and Rolls tavern, in Chancery Lane, London (unless sooner disposed of / 
by private contract), a freehold estate in the county of Northumberland, consisting of / 
two farms adjoining together called Copland and Yeavcring, situated near Wooler, and 
let on lease to a very substantial tenant at 300 a year. For further particulars apply 
to Collingwood Forster, esq., at Alnwick, or to Mr. Swale, No. 5, Lincoln's Inn New 
Square, London. Journal, 24 April, 1773 

Proc. Sac. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 105. 



From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis, F.S.A. 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1915. NO. 9 

An outdoor meeting of the Society, being the only one arranged 
this year, on account of the war, was held in conjunction with the 
Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumber- 
land, on Tuesday, 5th October 1915, at 


At 10-30 the party, numbering about seventy, assembled at 

which was described by Mr. W. H. Wood, F.R.I.B.A., as follows : 

"The ancient parish church of St. Nicholas has for the last thirty- 
three years served as the cathedral for the diocese of Newcastle, and 
although not to be compared with ancient cathedral churches such 
as Durham and York or even the more modest structure of Hexham, 
it is not unworthy of its position. It is a great town church and as 
such built on different lines from a monastic or collegiate church. 
The predominating characteristic of St. Nicholas is spaciousness, 
largely obtained by the use of arches of wide span ; those of the 
nave being 17 feet 6 inches, those of the transept 20 feet 8 inches, 
and those of the choir 23 feet, with a height of 24 feet 7 inches. The 
only dimension wanting is height, but this could not be obtained 
owing to the conditions under which it was built. The late Norman 
church gave the scale of all that followed. With the church in con- 
tinual use it was not possible to pull down the old building and erect 
a new one. This meant that the arches of the nave were pierced through 
the old walls and were thus limited by their height, and the transepts 
and choir followed in harmony with the nave. It was only when 
they came to the tower that it was possible to build without any 
restrictions, and here, in the desire to augment the dignity and beauty 
of the church, they totally disregarded the question of proportioning 
the addition to the existing building. 

It is said that a church was founded on this site by Osmund, bishop of 
Salisbury, in 1091. (He died in 1099 [Ellison]). There is no doubt this is 
correct, as Longstaffe remarks had the site not been occupied thus early 
by a church it would have been built over by the houses of the rising 
town, and could not afterwards have been acquired. This early church 
serving the small community gathering round the castle was probably 
small, and the increasing population requiring more room it was super- 
seded by a new structure of late Norman date, though probably the 
early Norman chancel was allowed to remain. The few carved and 
moulded stones still in existence show that this second church was 
contemporary with the keep of the castle and is thus between 1172 
and 1178 and would be built by the same masons. The old stones 
referred to are three corbel stones, two of which are built into the 
wall over the north arcade of the nave to take the aisle roof. They 

1 See Sir Stephen Glynne's notes on St. Nicholas's & All Saints' Churches, Proc. 3 Ser. in, 
274, 275. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. VH] 16 

Plan of soffit 

Outer order of doorway arch. 

t^M*.** ai-S., 
& . ' ^5- - " 

Window cap. 



are ornamented with a bold chevron roll with balls in the triangular 
spaces. There is also in the churchyard the cap of a nook shaft, it 
is of the voluted water-leaf type with square abacus, evidently from 

a doorway ; there is one arch stone ornamented with chevron mouldings 
and a carved leaf probably a stone of the outer order. My own feel- 
ing is that they are from the west door of the Norman tower. The 
neighbouring church of All Hallows had a west doorway of this kind. 
There is another cap of the same kind but rather larger and coarser 






Scale of 

in execution, and from its form has apparently been the cap of the 
centre shaft of a window, possibly the belfry window of the tower. 

The walls above the nave arches up to the beginning of the clear- 
storey are the nave walls of this late Norman church. 


The next date we get is that of 1216 when the church was burned 
(Ellison). Apparently it was the eastern portion which was damaged. 
If this was, as I imagine, the early Norman chancel, it would probably 
be considered inadequate and the opportunity taken to replace it by 
something better. They seem to have commenced immediately with 
the rebuilding. In the north west pier of the crossing is embedded a 
very early pier of this date. Its plan is a square with keel shaped 
shafts on each face (p. 107). (There are piers of this plan in St. Hilda's, 
Hartlepool). The bell of the cap projects in a way reminiscent of the 
late Norman caps described. The arch mould is of early section, 
but with an ogee arris on the roll moulding. The arch spanned from 
east to west and has on its lowest stone the mark of the headbeam 
of a screen, suggesting that there was an Early English crossing. 

Ccip of Early English respond 

In the churchyard is the cap of a semicircular respond of the same 
date, having the figure of a fiddler on it. This may have been the 
respond of this arch. It is said that there is a pillar of circular form 
in the north east pier of the crossing and this might be the shaft of 
this respond. There is preserved a stone which appears to be the 
springing stone of two arches of an early 13th century sedilia, and 
this would suggest that the chancel was rebuilt at this date. This 
Early English chancel was not so long as the present one, its east wall 
being on the line of the first pillars from the present east end. 

About the year 1310 the enlargement of the nave was commenced. 
This date is indicated by the section of the base moulds of the piers, 
the head-dress of the hood-mould terminations, and the form of the 
tracery of the two unaltered windows on the south. The arches were 
inserted in the Norman walls of the nave, the north side being done 
first. When they did the south arcade they got the bases about 
9 inches higher. This arcade is without caps, an unusual treatment 
at this date, although it is found in 13th century work at Finchale 
priory. It has the effect of giving height and is economical ; once 


started the fashion was followed in the rest of the work, and was copied 
at St. John's, Newcastle, and St. Mary's, Gateshead. 

You will notice in the north aisle four corbels inserted over the 
arcade to carry the aisle roof, two of these are Norman and the other 
two Early English. The aisle walls are built of Norman stones and in 
. the wall of the south aisle is a series of arched recesses for the tombs 
of founders. 

The Norman church ended where the east walls of the - present 
porches stand, as the hood of the western tomb arch stops short of 
this wall. As there are no doors in the side walls, the entrance must 
have been by the western door of the Norman tower, still standing at 
that time. One peculiarity of the church is the way the floor of the 
nave falls from west to east, the difference being -16 inches. 

The next work undertaken was the erection of the transepts, this 
work went on slowly extending from about 1340 to 1350. Again 
the work was begun first at the north side. The north respond of the 
north-west pier of the crossing is clearly older than the rest as it is 
more out of plumb than the rest of the pier, which must therefore have 
been built later. It was evidently necessary for some structural reason 
to retain the Early English pillar and build the later work round 
This has not added to the strength of the pier, interfering as it 


does with the bond of its masonry. There was no clearstorey at 
this time to give weight, and the pier being unable to withstand the 
thrust of the wide arches has gone over considerably to the south 
and east. The transepts were built for the accommodation of altars, 
and the western aisles were for convenience of access. That to the 
north transept is shorter than the transept itself by the width of the 
crypt. 2 This latter is of the same date, but what its purpose was, I am 
unable to say. There is a painting by John Wilson, R.S.A. (1774-1855), 

2 See these Proceedings, 3 Ser. v, for an illustration of the crypt, facing p 66. 


showing the church from the north, and it shows a shallow porch just 
north of this short aisle. The aisle itself is shown lower than it is now, and 
has its end wall carried up as a sort of buttress against the clearstorey 
wall Upon this latter and partly supported by a double corbel 
course is a square turret rising to some height above the parapet. 
As all the clearstorey has been refaced and the aisle raised there is 
no trace of this remaining, but the adjacent clearstorey window is 
much nearer to the next one than the general spacing, on account of 
this turret. The work at the transepts went on slowly with changes 
of plan during its progress, as is shown by the way portions were 
added on, the smaller of the two arches on the east side of the north 
transept being formed and a chapel built in the angle between the 
transept and the Early English chancel, as shown by the diagonal 
buttress outside, but while this was still in hand the chapel known 
as St. George's porch was added. The windows of the transepts 
are very beautiful examples of flowing tracery, but you will notice 
that one on the north side of St. George's porch has been brought 
from the nave and reused here by the 14th century builders. 
Wilson's drawing shows that the large north window is a correct 
copy of the old one. That of the south transept was of similar char- 
acter, one of its tracery bars still remaining in the churchyard shows 
this. The present south window was inserted by Roger Thornton 
(1394-1429). There is a shield with the coat of arms of Nicholas 
Sabram, M.P. (1376 and 1379) for Newcastle, over an altered window 
on the east side of the south transept, indicating that the alteration 
was made by him. The clearstoreys of nave and transepts were all 
added at the same time, about 1340, and the present roofs are of that 
date, but have had bosses and coats of arms added at later periods. 
The tracery of the clearstorey is modern. The nave up to that time 
would probably retain its Norman roof. There was at one time a 
turret over the crossing as shown by an old engraving in the vestry, 
but whether this was for a sanctus bell I am unable to say, although 
its position would certainly suggest this use. 

There is not a long interval between the completion of the tran- 
septs and the commencement of the choir. The proceeding of the 
bishop and prior of Carlisle, who in 1368 sent their proctor to assert 
their authority over the new building, shows that the work was well 
advanced at that date, but this can only have applied to the wall of 
the aisles as the old chancel was still standing. The new chancel was 
carried one bay farther east as is shewn by its piers and responds 
being built upon old coffin lids which would at the time be in the church- 
yard. See the east pillar and respond on east side and the east re- 
spond on the south. The east pillar on the south side stands on a 
large Roman stone lying face up, upon what I conclude to have been 
the lower part of the Early English chancel wall. The floor of the 
eastern bay of the chancel is the only one at the original level. 

The tracery of the windows is not far removed from Decorated 
tracery, and is well adapted for the display of painted glass. On 
the exterior on the north side the jambs and arches of the two western 
windows are moulded and in the easternmost one a mould has been 
commenced, but not carried round. All the others have simple 
splayed jambs. The tracery of the clearstorey windows is modern 
and out of character, being the same as those of the nave and tran- 
septs. The east window is the third in this position. The first was 


of similar design to the others, the next is said to have been put in by 
Roger Thornton, who filled it with painted glass; this had a small 
circular window over it the same as the east transept. This is shown 
in an interior view in the vestry. The present window was inserted 
in 1860. The two old doorways in the south aisle led to the vestries, 
these were low buildings and are shown in an engraving in the vestry. 
The present vestry was built by Sir Walter Blackett in 1735. 

At the east end of the south aisle may be seen the original choir 
stalls. They have had misericords, but they have all been removed. 

The chapel on the south side of the nave was the chantry of St. 
Margaret and was added in 1394. It contains the effigy of Peter le 
Marshal, swordbearer to Edward I, who was buried in this church in 
1322. This was formerly in the cusped arch in south wall of transept, 
though this cannot have been its original position. The present stone 
in this recess was formerly in one of the tomb recesses in the nave. 
It has a very beautiful raised floriated cross of Early English period. 
Other grave slabs in this chapel are very interesting, as is also the 
panel from the altar tomb of George Carr and his wife, formerly in 
the chancel, now terribly defaced and fixed against the west wall 
of the south aisle ; the subject, the Crucifixion with the figures of our 
Lady and St. John and attendant angels, can still be made out, and 
a portion of the inscription on the cornice still remains. Other 
monuments worth notice are the Maddison monument in the south 
transept, 1634, and the Hall monument in south aisle of choir, 1631, 
both evidently by the same designer. 

The rood screen was standing in 1635 and the door giving access 
to the loft can still be seen ; above at the springing of the chancel 
arch are two corbels to carry the rood beam. 

The last great work undertaken was the tower built by Robert 
Rhodes (1427-1474), probably about 1430. There was an interval 
between the erection of the tower and that of the lantern. This is 
shown by the fact that the tower settled on the south side causing 
it to be lOf inches out of plumb, but the spire is vertical. 

The western responds of the 14th century nave arcade are incorpor- 
ated with the great piers of the tower. These piers and arches with 
the beautiful lierne vault are the finest part of the church. The 
arms of Rhodes are carved four times at the intersection of the main 
ribs of the vaulting with the octagonal bell hole round which is inscribed 
' Orate pro anima Roberti de Rhodes/ The aisles were continued 
westward, and porches added. The present porches and the arches 
at the west end of the aisle are modern. The walls of the south porch 
are of great thickness and built with inclined courses to act as buttresses 
to the tower. Externally the tower is most successful. It is well 
proportioned and skilfully divided into stages by strongly marked 
stringcourses, but the crowning glory of the whole is the lantern. On 
the cornice of the tower stand four great angle pinnacles with their 
own cornices, battlement and spires, most beautifully proportioned 
and supported by the four angle buttresses of the tower, which are 
brought up to half their height where they terminate in octagonal 
pedestals, each surmounted by a statue ; that at the north-west 
angle representing Adam, that at the north-east Eve, at the south- 
east David, and at the south-west Aaron. From the angle pinnacles 
spring two large arches intersecting each other and supporting a 
square lantern having a window on each face, and a pinnacle at 
each angle, against which the upper order of the large arches is 


West Elevation of Tower. 


[Pr oc. 3 Ser. vn) 





brought up by an ogee curve to half the height of the lantern as a 
buttress. The lantern has its own parapet within which rises the 
spire. The sides of this are only 4 inches thick. The great arches 
carrying the lantern are four centred, the larger curve being at the 
haunch, so as to reduce the thrust as much as possible. These arches 
were tied in from their erection by strong oak beams and iron bolts 
(still existing) but superseded by the very ugly lattice ties which so 
much interfere with the beauty of the building. Mr. H. T. Newbigin, 
consulting engineer, kindly calculated the stability of the structure for 
me, and he found that could it have been protected from wind pressure 
and earth movement it would stand without any tie. From the beauti- 
ful proportion and outline of the lantern from all points of view I feel 
quite certain that it was built by the aid of a model. Formerly a 
light was suspended in it to guide travellers across the moor. The 
account for wax for this purpose is still extant. The height of the 
tower from the ground to the top of the parapet is 120 feet, and to the 
top of the centre vane 203 feet. By an ancient agreement the cost 
of repair of the tower is borne by the corporation, who have the 
privilege of ringing the bells. The same arrangement obtains at 
Antwerp, where the corporation keep the north-west tower in repair. 

Under the tower stands the marble font probably presented to the 
church by Rhodes's niece, and surmounted by a fine oak cover of early 
16th century date. The centre boss of the vaulting of its lower stage 
contains a carving of the coronation of the Virgin Mary. 8 This and 
the brass eagle lectern are the only ancient furniture remaining 
in use. Perhaps I ought to include the organ case. The upper centre 
portion facing into the transept is the case of the organ built by 
Renatus Harris in 1676. The 16 feet flanking towers, the small 
organ below and the substructure are modern. The case on the side 
towards St. George's porch is about 70 years later than Harris's case. 
The original case is well designed with good vigorous carving." 

The party then proceeded to the vestry where Mr. A. J. Robinson, 
one of the churchwardens, and Mr. R. Thompson, senior verger, dis- 
played the church plate, registers, the ' Hexham bible/ and other 
objects of interest. The portraits and drawings hanging on the walls 
of the vestries attracted much attention. The communion plate is des- 
cribed in these Proceedings, 2 ser. in, p. 359, and the bells at p. 39 of the 
same volume. Since the bells were examined in 1887, several changes 
have taken place amongst them, the bell of 1658 with its curious 
inscription, made by John Hodson, has been sold, and is now on the 
top of Langley castle, having been acquired by the late Mr. C. J. 
Bates. Three new bells were added in 1914. 

Members then perambulated the church, and, about noon, proceeded 
to the keep of the castle which was entered by the original doorway 
on the ground level, thus giving the party direct access to the chapel, 
iere Mr. W. Parker Brewis, F.S.A., took the party under his guidance. 


Assembling in the chapel, Mr. Brewis explained that our first definite 
knowledge of a castle on this site is of post-conquest times, when in 

.e year 1080, William sent his son, Robert, on an expedition against 

the Scots, and Robert, on his return from the said journey founded 

a castle on the present site, and this, as Speed has it, laid the founda- 

)f a castle whereby the town of Newcastle did afterwards both 

take her beginning and her name.' 

3 See illustration in these Proceedings, 3 sei. v. 8. 

Proc. .S'oc. Antiq. Neivc., '6 ser. vii. 

To face page; 110. 

This block lent by the Durham and Northumberland Architectural and Archaeological Society. 


In the reign of the Conqueror stone castles were exceptional in 
England, and the castle built by Robert appears to have been of the 
usual mound-and-bailey type, i.e. an artificial mound with a flat 
top upon which stood a wooden keep, having a courtyard or bailey 
enclosed by a wooden palisade attached, and the whole surrounded by 
a ditch. The mound was the most enduring portion of such a castle, 
and the last vestige of it disappeared with the laying out of Castle 
street in 1811. 

The present structure is the work of Henry n ; begun in 1172 and 
finished in 1177 at a cost of about 1000/. in money of that time, but 
equal to a much greater sum at the present day. The reason of this 
expenditure was that in the previous reign the counties of Northumber- 
land, Cumberland and Westmorland had been ceded to the Scots. 
Henry re-annexed them, an act which naturally caused him to antici- 
pate resentment on the part of the Scots, and with this the necessity 
for increasing the frontier defences of his kingdom. His anticipations 
were realized before the present keep was half completed ; Henry's 
son being in rebellion called on the Scots for assistance, and William 
the Lion invaded England and attacked Newcastle. The outer 
defences of the castle seem to have been then so far advanced that he 
thought it impossible to take it without a long siege and the assistance 
of powerful military engines. He therefore abandoned the attack; 
and was himself shortly afterwards captured near Alnwick. 

Built by the first Plantagenet, Henry's keep, almost square on plan, 
consists of a main apartment on each floor surrounded by immensely 
thick walls which are honeycombed by subsidiary apartments, stairs, 
and passages, and on the east side is a fore building carrying a stair- 
case to the main entrance which is on the second floor. Under this 
staircase is the chapel, and you have entered it by the original doorway 
on the ground floor ; but this doorway was formerly defended by a 
tower, now demolished, which stood at the foot of the main staircase, 
and there was originally no direct communication between the chapel 
and the main tower. The chapel consists of a chancel with a window 
on its north side and another at its east end, under which was placed 
the altar, with a piscina, now cut away, on the south wall, and an 
aumbry on the north. In the centre of the south wall is an arch into 
the ante-chapel, which has its main axis north and south, and thus 
at right angles to that of the chancel. Both have groined vaults, with 
moulded and enriched ribs. The wall arcading has columns with 
upturned volutes 4 to the capitals, like the contemporary capitals in 
the Galilee at Durham, and those recently excavated of Newminster 
cloister arcade. The vaulting is very irregularly set out, some of the 
diagonal ribs nearly missing the corbels intended to support them ; 
yet the whole produces a rich and satisfactory result ; indeed, this 
very want of symmetry constitutes to some minds its greatest charm, 
and taken as a whole the chapel is one of the finest pieces of military 
architecture in Great Britain. Various local relics are preserved 

From the chapel the party proceeded to the ground floor chamber, 
which is remarkable for its fine vault. This room was once used as 
a gaol, and in 1777 the philanthropist, John Howard, visited it and 
gave a harrowing account of the miserable condition of prisoners chained 
to the walls and exhibited on Assize Sunday at a charge of 6d. admission. 

* See page 106 foi examples from St. Nicholas's church. 


Members and friends then ascended to the first floor apartment, which 
is now used as the meeting room of the Society of Antiquaries. It was 
explained that the horse-shoe table was made of oak from the River 
Tvne and the president's chair from a portion of a tree found under 
the footing of the Roman Wall near Port Carlisle. 

In the great hall, Mr. Brewis explained that the unduly lofty ap- 
pearance was due to the dis-proportionate height of the present brick 
vault which was not erected until 1810, the crown of which is over 
40 feet from the floor. The original ceiling was lower, and did not 
include the upper tier of windows. Under the vault are the banners 
of great families of the north, some of them connected with the feudal 
ward of the castle. The fireplace is modern, and the fine overmantel 
was removed from the Bee Hive Inn, Sandhill. The central panel 
is probably the apotheosis of king James i. On the south side of the 
great hall, in the thickness of the wall, is a light, comparatively cheerful, 
room, generally known as ' the Kings Chamber.' It is skilfully con- 
trived under two southern windows of the great hall, so that both it 
and the great hall may receive the mid-day sun ; it contains an original 
fireplace, though the flue is, in its upper portion, modern. There 
is an inner door from this room leading to a garde-robe. 

In the north wall of the great hall is a door leading into the well 
room. Here, as at Dover, (designed by the same architect) the well 
shaft has been brought up to the second floor. 

The visitors then ascended to the flat roof of the keep, which has been 
closed to the public since the outbreak of war but was by special per- 
mission of the authorities thrown open for this occasion and the view 
from the summit was seen under favourable weather conditions. The 
whole of the roof, battlements, and flag tower are modern, and do not 
reproduce the original work. In the centre of the roof is a sundial 
from Carville hall, Wallsend ; on the higher portion of the upper 
surface is the motto ' Time tide doth waste, therefore make haste, 
we shall,' an incomplete sentence to be finished by adding the word 
' dial.' 

Members then descended to the warden's lodge, after which a visit 
was paid to the south postern (see plate facing this page), which is the 
only remaining gateway in the curtain wall, here pierced by a barrel 
vault which has been thickened both internally and externally, probably 
to carry a tower above for defence. 

After this, the party visited the ' Heron Pit ' annexe adjoining the 
Blackgate, 6 and proceeding to the east end examined a fragment of what 
is presumably the twelfth century outer bailey wall of the castle. 
Abutting against it, but not bonded into it, is the south curtain wall, 
added in 1247 to connect the Blackgate with the older wall. The 
Heron Pit, occupies the centre of the annexe, and measures ten feet 
long, eight feet wide, and twelve feet deep, forming a cell, or prison, 
entirely underground, to which access of light or air was only obtained 
by a trap-door in the floor above. This pit was named after William 
Heron, of Ford, sheriff of Northumberland, 1247-57, and as such 
governor of Newcastle castle. The visitors inspected a number of 
centurial stones from the Roman Wall, and a large Roman altar which 
from a remote period served as the base of the town cross in the 
Market Place of Corbridge. The deep rectangular recess cut in its focus 
was made to carry the shaft of the cross, which now stands near the 
south porch of the Roman Catholic cathedral, Clayton Street West. 

6 The first illustration on the plate facing this page shews the archway from the Castle 
garth before the shops were removed from the site of*the annexe. 


About forty members and friends, being those who had given previous 
intimation of their intention to attend, lunched together in the 
handsome ' Arbitration Room ' of the Central Station Hotel, the 
guests of Mr. Joseph Oswald, one of the secretaries of both societies. 
Mr. Oswald was in the chair, supported right and left by Dr. Greenwell 
and Mrs. Oswald. 

Mr. Greenwell very suitably thanked Mr. Oswald for his kindness 
and hospitality to which the latter briefly responded. 

At 2-15 the entire party re-assembled at 

where they were met by the vicar, the Rev. Canon O. C. Carr, who 
produced the registers and handsome communion plate, including 
two fine Elizabethan cups of 1570, for inspection. The plate is fully 
described in Proceedings, 2 ser., in, p. 268, and the bells at p. 189 of 
the same volume. 

Here again, Mr. W. H. Wood read a few notes on the church, and 
its predecessor on the site, as follows : 

"The present church was built by David Stephenson, 6 a Newcastle 
architect, in 1796, at a cost of ,27,000. The tower is very beautiful 
and decidedly the most successful part of the design. 

The plan is fortunately unusual and consists of an ellipse having 
its major axis north and south and having segmental apses on the 
east ad west sides ; that on the east contains the altar and the other, 
behind the organ, has the stairs leading to the gallery and also a second- 
ary entrance. The main entrance, protected by a portico, is in the 
tower which stands on the south side. The lower stage of the tower 
is a circular domed apartment which forms a baptistery, and also gives 
access on the east side to the vestry, and on the west to the Lady chapel 
in which is preserved the Thornton brass, now framed and glazed 
and placed on the wall. From the circular hall there is a winding 
stair to the belfry. All the woodwork is of mahogany. The arrange- 
ment of the seating is that of a lecture theatre, with a gallery round 
three-quarters of the building, supported on mahogany pillars. Canon 
Carr, the vicar, has done all that could be done to make it look like a 
church, but one cannot help feeling what a painful contrast the present 
building is with the beautiful old church of All Hallows, wantonly 
destroyed to make way for it. 

Nothing is known definitely of the early history of the church of 
All Hallows, but there is little doubt that there was an early church 
here, probably late Norman. In the picture by Ralph Waters, showing 
the demolition of the old church in 1786, now in the vestry, the west 
doorway of the tower is Norman. 

The chancel was rebuilt apparently in the fourteenth century, and 
had clustered piers of quatrefoil section with moulded caps and bases 
carrying arches of three chamfered orders with hoodmoulds on both 
sides. There was a chapel on the south side of the chancel ; this, and 
apparently the whole of the aisles of the church were Perpendicular. 
It is known that Roger Thornton rebuilt the south aisle, making it 
wider. The church had flat pitched lead roofs and no clearstorey. 
Under the chancel was a large square vault with a pillar in the centre 
supporting eight large stone arches and having walled up windows, 
showing that at some period it had been at least partly above ground. 
The entrance was from the churchyard on the north of this vault, but 
no trace remains. 

6 One of the original members of our Society, and of its first council. 


Although the lower part of the tower was Norman, it had had 
considerable additions made to it by Robert Rhodes who built the 
towers of St. Nicholas's and St. John's- and that of Sedgefield. The 
centre boss of the vaulting of the lower stage is preserved in the present 
church, 7 and is exactly the same as that in St. John's, having a shield 
with the arms of Rhodes (three annulets, two and one, and in chief a 
greyhound courant], and round it the inscription ' Orate pro anima 
Roberti Rhodes.' Both vaults at All Hallows and St. John's must 
have been done by the same man, the vaulting ribs in both cases are 
the same section and the vault in All Hallows sprang from corbels, 
the same as that at St. John's. A large west window of four lights, 
inserted above the Norman doorway, is of the same date as the vault. 
Waters's drawing shows a three light belfry window on the south, 
but those on the east and west were of two lights. The tower had a 
battlement and from the centre rose a square wooden turret and spire 
having a gilt vane. The roof was the same arched principal type 
as at St. Nicholas's. 

There were seven chantries in the old church, of St. Thomas, St. Mary 
the Virgin, St. John the Evangelist, St. Peter (founded by Roger 
Thornton), St. Catherine, St. Loy and St. John the Baptist. 

There were many monuments and the rood-screen was still standing 
in 1639. Access to this was by a stair in the pier on the north side, 
entered from the chancel. . The font of Frosterley marbje, after 
many vicissitudes, is now the font of the church at Kirkharle (see 
plate of it facing this page), but an exact replica now stands under the 
tower. It is a concave octagon with shields on each face : (1) Arg. a 
fesse gu. between 3 popinjays vert membered and collared of the 2nd. for 
LUMLEY, impaling Sa. a chevron and chief dancette arg. for THORNTON. 
(2) A chevron sa. between three water bougets gu. (3) Gu. three oak trees 
eradicated arg. for ANDERSON of Newcastle and Bradley. (4) Arg. an 
orle gu. in chief three martlets of the second, a mullet for difference for 
RUTHERFORD of Middleton hall. (5) A merchant's mark. (6) Arg. on 
a bend azure three lozenges ermine for DENT of Newcastle. (7) A chevron 
sa. between three pellets ; and (8) Gu. on a bend ermine three cinquefoils 
sa. in sinister chief an annulet arg. for RODDAM of Northumberland. 

Two Newcastle citizens of importance who lived in the parish and 
were benefactors to the church were Robert Rhodes, M.P. for Newcastle 
in 1427, 1428, 1432, 1441, died in 1445 ; and Roger Thornton, first 
mentioned in 1394, died 1429. 

Except the boss of the tower vaulting, 7 two pieces of window 
tracery, and a carved oak panel now in the vestry, the only memorial 
of the old church remaining is the brass of Roger Thornton. 8 This 
is of Flemish workmanship, and was originally on a canopied altar 
tomb standing on the south side of the old church. The inscription, 
in black letter, is ' -f- hie jacet domicella agnes quondam vxor roegeri 
thornton que obiit in vigilia sancte katrine anno domini m-cccc-xi 
propicietur deus amen -f hie jacet rogerus thornton m'cator noui castri 
super tinam qui obiit anno d'ni millesimo cccc-xxix Et iii. die janvarii." 
It will be noticed that the words ' xxix Et iii die janvarii ' are very 
inferior in the engraving, and the prayer for the repose of his soul has 
never been filled in. The brass, in accordance with the frequent custom 
of the time, would be engraved during Thornton's life and the date of 
death added afterwards. The brass is one of the largest in England, 

7 See plate facing this page. 

8 See Arch. A el, 2 ser. xv, p. 78, for illustration and the late Mr. J. G. Waller's description 

Prcc. S'ot-. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vu. 

To face pagf 120 




and represents Thornton and his wife, who was Agnes Wanton, full 
length ; his feet rest on a dog gnawing a bone. Below the figure of 
Thornton are their seven sons, and below his wife their seven daughters. 
At the four corners, are the symbols of the evangelists in quatrefoils, 
and in similar quatrefoils on the four sides are shields with coats of arms. 
Owi ng to a mistake of the engraver, who probably worked from a seal 
the arms are reversed. Thornton's arms, Sa. a chevron and chief dancette 
arg., being placed on the sinister and those of Wanton, arg. a chevron, and 
in base an annulet sa. being on the dexter. The shields at the top 
and bottom show the two coats impaled in the same reversed position. 
Above each figure is a representation of the soul being carried up by 
angels, and above that again, the soul in Abraham's bosom. In the 
niches are shown figures of apostles, saints and prophets." 

The party then walked down the Dog bank and along the Broad 
chare to 


where they were welcomed by the secretary to the master and brethren, 
Mr. Haddon T. Henzell. The vestibule, the hall, and the board room, 
with their interesting pictures, models and curiosities, were seen, and 
also the quaint chapel. 

Mr. Wood's notes thereon, are as follows : 

" The date of the foundation of the Trinity house is unknown, but 
the present site was acquired in 1505. The first charter was granted 
in 1534, and a new one by James I in 1606. In 1633 Charles I, on 
his way to Scotland, stayed in Newcastle and sailed down the river 
to Tynemouth with the brethren. In 1644, on 19th October, New- 
castle was taken by the Scottish army and the Trinity house plundered. 

After the battle of Dunbar, 3rd September, 1650, Scotch prisoners 
were confined here, and there is an account of five shillings for cleaning 
the rooms occupied by them. The brethren in 1656 stated that 
they always had under their charge twelve poor persons at least, 
either seamen or their widows, besides giving lodging to maimed or 
needy seafaring men. On 21st October, 1663, Charles n granted a 
new charter. On 1st July, 1688, James n granted the last. 

Fortunately nearly all the buildings are dated by tablets. The 
present hall was built in 1721 and originally had windows on both 
sides ; there would be a view of the river from those on the south. 
They are now walled up owing to other buildings being erected on that 
side. The trust deed of 1505 provides for the maintenance of a chapel 
and a priest within the precincts of the house. The present chapel 
has been much altered and partly rebuilt. The east gable was rebuilt 
in 1651, when the then existing steeple and bell were taken down. 
It was again partly rebuilt in 1794. The very beautiful interior fittings 
are of 1634, unfortunately they are covered with coats of black varnish 
which quite spoils them. They consist of pews with very good 
carving, a pulpit and reading desk, and a very beautiful screen dividing 
the chapel from the vestibule. The walls have an oak panelled dado 
and above this has been fixed, at some recent date, very common soft 
wood panelling, very ugly and quite out of character with everything 
else in the chapel, while to make matters worse, the names of masters 
are painted on without any regularity of arrangement or design. 

The fine oak roof continuous with that of the vestibule is painted 
white. That in the vestibule is covered with black varnish. The 
west front was rebuilt in 1800. In addition to their own chapel, the 
brethren supported the Trinity altar in All Hallows; this altar was 
afterwards removed to the Trinity House." 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 18 


Leaving the Trinity house by way of Trinity chare, and passing 
its old-world almshouses and other buildings, the Quayside was 
reached, and then 


The ' Town Chamber,' with its pictured panels and ornamental ceiling 
of modelled plaster, attracted much attention. The Merchants' 
Court, at the east end of the Guildhall,, was thrown open for inspection, 
and Mr. Collingwood Forster Jackson, secretary of the Merchant 
Adventurers' Company, met the party and showed them the three 
fine silver gilt cups belonging to the company. For an account of 
the last visit of members to the Guildhall on 16 June, 1888, see these 
Proceedings, 2 ser. in, p. 323, including on p. 324 a description of the 
three remarkably fine domed-topped silver gilt cups made in 1649, 
with a drawing, on page 325, by the late Mr. W. S. Hicks. 

The wall panelling, elaborate fireplace (with carvings representing 
the ' Judgment of Solomon ' and the ' Miraculous Draught of Fishes ') 
and the modelled plaster ceiling, were much admired. 

On leaving the Guildhall, Councillor A. M. Sutherland met the 
party and invited them to see the room in his property at No. 38 
Sandhill, which has fine oak panelling and fireplace, dated 1658. 
(See plate facing this page) . These have been recently carefully cleaned 
and repaired by Mr. Sutherland. The window in the adjoining house 
on the Sandhill, whence Miss Surtees eloped with John Scott, the 
future Lord Chancellor Eldon, was pointed out to the visitors. 

The last stage in the day's proceedings was reached at 


where Mr. Parker Brewis resumed the guidance of the party, to whom 
he showed the guard-rooms on both sides of the gateway, and the 
two floors above them, containing the greater part of the society's 
museum collections, which Mr. Brewis described in considerable 
detail. Here also the Rev. Arthur Watts, rector of Witton Gilbert, 
presented to the Society a fine polished stone axe of the neolithic 
period, found about two years ago in his parish, and was cordially 
thanked for the gift. Mr. Watts undertook to prepare and read 
some notes on the implement at a future meeting of the Society. 

The library on the top floor of the Blackgate was then visited, where 
tea was served, for which Mr. Oswald was thanked. Other votes of 
thanks were passed to all those who had assisted in the conduct of the 
meeting. Then members dispersed, well satisfied with all they had 
seen and heard. 

The weather throughout the day was brilliantly fine for the time of 
year, and the somewhat sombre interiors of the cathedral and castle 
were seen to great advantage. 

The presence throughout the entire day of the venerable president 
of the Durham Society and one of our own vice-presidents, Dr. William 
Green well, now well advanced in his ninety-sixth year, added great 
charm to the gathering, which included the following members of 
both societies and friends, in addition to Dr. Green well : Rev. Canon 
Cruikshank, Messrs. G. A. Carpenter, J. F. Hobson, J. P. Freeman, 
Mr. and Mrs. J. G. Gradon, Rev. F. Thomas and Miss Coates, all of 
Durham ; Coroner Graham, Sacriston ; Mr. and Mrs. Liddell, Kimbles- 
worth ; the Rev. J. Haworth, South Hetton ; Rev. A. Watts, Witton 
Gilbert; Rev. A de Moleyns, Chester-le-Street ; Messrs. J. J. Burton, 
Nunthorpe ; W. Clarke, Stockton ; Rev. C. F. B. Haslewood, Pelton ; Mr. 
and Mrs. Robert Blair, of Harton ; the Rev. H. Robeson and 


Dr. R. B. Hepple of South Shields ; Mr. J. A. Irving, and Miss Miller, of 
Corbridge ; Mr. W. I. Armstrong of Hexham ; Miss E. Cruddas and 
Mrs. Philipps of Haughton Castle ; Mr., Mrs. and Miss Tomlinson of 
Monkseaton ; Messrs. George Renwick. R. C. Oliver, and T. Matheson, 
of Morpeth ; Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Reed of Horton Grange, Dudley ; 
Mr. and Mrs. W. Richardson, of Willington-on-Tyne ; Miss Gibson, 
Mrs. Willans, and Mrs. Glanville Reah, of Gosforth ; Mr. N. Temperley 
of Low Fell ; Mrs. Sisson, Mr., Mrs. and Miss Cullen, Messrs. Alfred 
Brewis, W. P. Brewis, T. W. Coning, J. H. Youll, W. H. Wood, 
Gerald Stoney, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Oswald, Mrs. Stanley Gill, 
Messrs. Harold Oswald, C. F. Jackson, R. O. Heslop, H. S. Bird, 
H. S. Bird, junr., C. Walker, A. Grimwood, Dr. and Mrs. Arnison, Mr. 
and Misses Dotchin, Professor Wight Duff, the Misses Crawhall (2), 
and Miss Williams, all of Newcastle. 

It may be added that forty-one years have elapsed since the Durham 
Society last visited Newcastle. On that occasion the places seen 
were the Castle, which was described by the late Dr. Bruce, and the 
three ancient churches (St. Nicholas's, St. John's, and St. Andrew's), 
and also All Saints Church, which were described by the late Mr. 
R. J. Johnson, architect. 



Mr. Oswald has recently visited Acton and has copied the inscription 
on a monument in the park there, which he has kindly sent. It reads : 

' Acton Urban Dis- 
trict Council. | This 
Monument was design- 
ed as a Memorial of | 
James Radclyffe, Earl 
of Derwentwater. I One 
of the Leaders in the 
Rebellion of 1715, who 
was taken Prisoner at 
the Battle of Preston, ( 
tried in Westminster 
Hall and beheaded on 
Tower Hill, February 
24th, 1716. | It 
was erected by Lady 
Derwentwater in the 
grounds of the Mansion, 
Horn Lane, Acton, 
formerly General Skip- 
pon's, | and afterwards 
known as Derwent- 
water House, at which 
house she was at the 
time residing. | Messrs. 
F. A. and C. J. Kerven, 
the owners of Derwent- 
water House having 
given the monument 
"to the Council, | it was 
e removed and erected 
by them on this site in January, 1904.' 


The monument was, in 1912, scheduled by the Middlesex County 
Council as worthy of preservation. 

RADCLIFFE PAPERS (continued from p. 103). 

The following is a letter from Charles Busby, one of the agents to 
the countess of Derwentwater, concerning the property : 

Madam A P rm the 17th 1721 

Being att Capheaton two Days since, was y'n told by Mr. Errington of your Honors 
Intentions of allowing 3 Tun of Timber towards Repaire of the Smellting Mill att 
Woodhall, which being given oute by Mr. Larance, and comeing to the Tennants Ears 
of Woodhall ffarme, he came over to me this Day and desired me to write to your Lad'p 
to putt a Stop to the same ; Alleadgeing that when the Smellting Mill was going his ffather 
was then Tennant att Woodhall farme and reduced to meane Circumstances, by the great 
Losses, he yearely sustaind in his Corn, and Death of Cattle by the Infection of the Grass 
occasioned f'm the Sulpherus Smoake of those Mills. Since that tune his ff a ther- Dyeing 
and the Mills lyeing still, he tooke a Lease of the said ffarme of my late Lord for the Terme 
of 21 years, and by his Cear and Industry has brought that ffarme f'm being a verry bad 
one to be a good one ; Capable of Considerable advance, when the Lease is Runn oute, which 
neither he nor any one else can not Afford, or even pay the present Rent, should those Mills 
be sett on ffoot againe. What further he has to AUeadge against it is, the Killing the young 
Spring of Wood, which since the lyeing in of the Mill is now verry hopefull ; and the Damadge 
twill do the Corn Mills in the Summer by Takeing away one 3d of the Water so heerby those 
Mills will often be forced to lye still. 

To prevent all these Misfortunes, as well f'm my Lord as himselfe he proposes to your 
Honor y't if att Tuesday next when Lady Marys terme is expired, and those now concerned 
under her Lad'p have taken enoug Iron, and Lead in the Cuplos, to w'h latter they have 
no Manner of Right, he may have the putting downe of the remainder of those Mills, and 
the Liberty of Converting of the Wood and other things thereunto belonging, to his owne 
proper Use, he then in Six Months after, will pay your Honor One Hundred pounds for the 
same . and have a House standing in good and sufficient Repaire, for w'h he will f'm the 
time he enters on the Bargain pay forty Shillings p. an. and be oblidged to keep the same in 
Repaire till my Lord comes of Adge or for the term of 21 yeares. This is what he offers to 
your Honors Consideration as to which he desires your Lad'p answere unto. I am in 
all Humble Duty 

If your Honor thinks proper Madam, | Your Lad'ps Ever Most Obedient 

to Imbrace this proposall Mr. Humble Servant 

Errington will agree the Charles Busby 

man is Capable of 

[Addressed : ' For | The Rt Hon'ble the Countess of Darwentwater | 
att her House in Acton, j Middlesex '] 


Mr. William Brown, F.S.A., secretary of the Surtees Society, i 
kindly sent the following note of a local deed, from the original 
the possession of Mr. R. J. Dent, 20 Coronation Avenue, Harrogate, 
ie remarks on the occurrence of the female Christian name ' Gerendine,' 
which he had never seen before : 

18 Sept., 1655. Release by Gerendine Hinde of Barnard Castle 
within the county of Durham, single woman, to Ambrose Appelby, 
of all manner of actions, debts, etc. Signed with a mark. Witnesses 
Ambrose Rayne, Francis Hutchinson, Wm: Hutchinson. 





3 SER., VOL. VII. , 1915. NO. 10 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Society was held in the old 
library at the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 27th October 
1915, at seven o'clock in the evening, Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., a 
vice-president, being in the chair. 

Several accounts, recommended by the council for payment, were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBERS were proposed and declared 
duly elected : 

1. The Rev. Archibald W. Jackson, B.A., 11 Tamworth Road, Newc. 

2. Joseph Reed, Horton Grange, Dudley, Northumberland. 
The following BOOKS, etc., were placed upon the table : 

Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. M. Phillips, F.S.A., the author : 'Theobald's Park Wall ' 
(overprint from the Transactions of the East Herts Archaeological 
Soc., v, iii, 1915). 

From Armstrong College, Newcastle : Calendar, session 1915-16. 
From the Cardiff Naturalists Society : Transactions, XLVII, 1914. 
From Robert Blair : The Antiquary for October, 1915 (xi, 10). 
Exchanges : 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute : Archaeological Journal, 

no. 285. 

. From the Royal Irish Academy: Proceedings, sec. 'c, nos. 17-20. 
From the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland : The Journal, 

XLV, iii. 

Purchases : An Index Catalogue to the Transactions (2nd series) of 
the Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeo- 
logical Society ; The Museums Journal, xv, 4 ; The Pedigree 
Register, in, 34 ; Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archdo- 
logischen Instituts, xxx, i and ii ; The Scottish Historical Review, 
no. 49 : and Notes and Queries for the month. 


Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following letter to 
himself, dated 26th October 1915, from Mr. F. G. Simpson, recording 
recent discoveries made by him per lineam valli : 

" During a recent visit to Gilsland, I discovered four Roman 
temporary camps which have not hitherto been noticed. I shall 
be glad if you will kindly report their discovery at the meeting of 
the Society to-morrow evening, so that a preliminary record may be 
made in the Proceedings ; for in these days such a find might easily 
go unrecorded, and as yet none of the four sites has been accurately 

[Ptoc. 3 Ser. vn] 19 


Two of the four are of distinct interest. The first lies to the north 
of the Wall, but only 50 yards from the ditch of the Wall ; about 
500 yards east of Aesica, and 250 yards north-west of Burnhead 
(these measurements are to the nearest point of the rampart of the 

cam p i n each case) . Measured to the centre line of the ramparts (in 

each case), this camp is about 245 yards by 170 yards, giving an area 
of over 8| acres. It ' faces ' north, and has four entrances with 
straight traverses. So far this is the only temporary camp near the 
Wall on its north side, and it is by far the largest of those at present 
known (which average about one acre, or less). I located this camp on 
18th October. 

The other three are on the line of the Stanegate, and were located on 
21st October. The first of these, which is of special interest, occupies the 
whole summit of the hill west of Sunnyrigg farm, which is about 1 miles 
south-east of Magna and 2 miles west of Haltwhistle-burn fort. The 
Stanegate runs through the camp, practically forming the axis east and 
west. It measures about 375 yards east to west by 245 yards north 
to south, and thus contains fully 18|- acres. There is one entrance 
in the south front, with a straight traverse, and apparently another 
in the north front ; while, of course, where the Stanegate passes through 
the east and west fronts there must have been entrances too. 

The other camps are smaller. One is 150 yards north-east of Sunny- 
rigg farm and close to the Stanegate on the south side. It measures 
about 95 yards by 55 yards, and contains about one acre. It has 
four entrances with straight traverses. The last is on the west side 
of the Haltwhistle-burn, practically opposite the larger of the two 
temporary camps, on the east side of the burn, discovered in 1907. It 
has only one entrance with a straight traverse, in the middle of the 
south front. It measures about 139 yards (north to south) by 120 
yards, and contains about 3-|- acres." 

Mr. Simpson was thanked for his notes. 


Mr. BJair next read ' Three chapters on as many battered relics, 
monumental, ecclesiastical and heraldic, in the Tees Valley, co. Durham: 
(i) On a monumental female effigy in the collegiate church of St. 
Cuthbert, Darlington ; (n) The detached chantry chapel of the 
Blessed Catherine, at Hilton, near Ingleton, co. Durham ; and (in) on 
an inserted panel in the parish church of St. Margaret, Barnardcastle ' 
by the Rev. J. F. Hodgson, D.C.L. 

On the motion of Mr. J. S. Robson, special thanks were voted by 
acclamation to Mr. Hodgson. 

The ' chapters ' will be printed in extenso in Arch. Aeliana (3 ser., 

THE Proceedings. 

Mr. O. J. Charlton thought that the present mode of issuing the 
Proceedings of the Society in sheets month by month might be altered, 
as some members found a difficulty in preserving the loose sheets. He 
moved that the question be referred to the council for consideration. 

This, on being seconded by Mr. C. H. Blair, was put to the meeting, 
and lost by a large majority, three members only, including the mover 
and seconder, voting for it. 


Mr. George Renwick recently called the attention of Mr. Oswald, one 
iecretancs, to the remains of a camp situated on the ' Morpeth 


Common Farm,' belonging to the corporation of Morpeth. The camp is 
in a field on the south side of the road between Morpeth and Whalton, 
about two miles from Morpeth railway station and half a mile east 
of the Gubeon. Mr. Parker Brewis has since seen it and writes : 
' I found the outline of the earthworks easily traceable ; the camp 
is small, and in a somewhat unusual position. It is one of which I 
was not previously aware, and of which I know of no printed notice.' 

RADCLIFFE PAPERS (continued from p. 124). 

The following are letters from Charles Busby, one of the agents to 
the countess of Derwentwater, concerning the property : 
Madam July the 9th 1722. 

With uttmost concern I am to acquaint your Honor that yesterday aboute 7 in the 
morning the Divells water began to rise and aboute came up to that lenth that it ranne 
over the Bridge goeing into the Parke allmost as high as the Gates, the ffence I made 
made [sic] 3 years since stood firm as did the Bridge, save that ye Battlem't is drove of aboute 
8 or 10 yards. The Damme y't turns the water to the Mill, is entirely drove away timber 
and stones, which damadge I fear 40 will not make good, the Bridge att the Mill rec'ed 
no harme, but the worst Current of Water, broke down poor Math. Thompsons ffences, and 
tooke into his Corn w'h is now lyeinge flatt to the Ground halfe covered w'th sand wherever 
the drift of water came ; what adds to the misfortune was the Tine riseing att same time, 
which covered the wide haught intirely, and halfe of the other ffields growing w'th Corn, 
belonging to Math. ; and now Towne Tennem'ts qvits from Widehaugh beyond Cor- 
bridge. The water is now oute of the ffields, but a malancholly sight to see the Corn lyeing 
in the manner it does. The Warren Math, has been nurseing upwards of 3 yeares, and 
iust brought into order, is now in a Manner totally destroyed and the Widehaugh all over 
so covered with Sand and dirt that neither Sheep or Beast can live there. The Damadge 
in the Barrony is verry great but that falls for the most part amongst the 99 yeares Leasers 
y't are able to bear the Loss, w'h these others are not able to do . last Thursday I returned 
oute of ye North, and hopes I have so settled matters there, that your Honor will be no 
further a looser by the Tennant of Spindleston and Uttchester, then the lyeing oute of the 
Ren[ts for 6] or 7 months. My Wife ioyns in her most hum[ble] Duty to your Honor, my 
Lord, & Lady Anne. I am w'th uttmost Respect 

Madam | Your Honors ever most | obedient humble servant 

Char: Busby. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Right Honorable the Countess | of Dar- 
wentwater att her House | in Bruxells | Brabant. | p d 4'.] 

Madam 7br the 27th 1722. 

I have the honor of two letters from your Lad'p the first of the 9th the other of 
the 10th new Stile, to both which I differed owneing the receipt, that I might give, your 
Lad'p a more particular answere thereunto ; As to ffranke Simpson I wrotte 2 letters to a 
ffriend att Yorke y't 1 belived had some interest in the Goalei ; not mentioning any thing 
f "m y'r Honor but as f 'm my selfe, but the termes att present are to pay ye Coaler 26 3 * 6 
and his attorneys Bill 30 * 12 8 ' so shall have them to pause on the matter, till I have your 
Ladyshipps further pleasure herein. The Gen't that succeeds Mr. Loraine has been here, 
when I told him what your Honor had wrotte ; for w'h he returned his thankes and seems 
verry willing to comply w'th the Duty incumbent upon him. My Acc'ts frm July the 6th 
1721 to Aug't the 24th 1722 I sent Mr. Rodbourn some dayes since but have had no answere 
of the Receipt of y'm as yett. As to the Mill Damme I have consulted all sorts of people 
in y't matter and thinkes best to make no Agreem't att all, but have it don by day Taile 
worcke, since when att Home I have it constantly under my Eye to inspect att all times. 
As to the Ten't att Spindleston and Uttchester I have Mr. Errington to give your Honor 
an Account thereof he haveing been there this last weeke I being oblidged to go to Newcastle 
and Durham, w'th ye agent to Hon'ble, &c. who came f 'm London on L dy M ys affaires 
and to talke on several! matters w'th me relating to Rents, Notes, Dves &c. rec'ed by Mr. 


Elstob, for w'ch he has never accounted one farthing with his Masters, as also concerning 
the Yorkeshire Estate, w'h he sayes he can gett on same terms lately sold, which I take to 
be 3000 within the valve supposeing the Countess Dowger should live ten year, he is now 
on his Roade to London, and I expect to have a more particular account when he comes 
to Yorke where the p'son lives that made the purchase, which I shall send to your Lad'p 
bopeing your Honor will not pass y't matter over, which may turn to so great and [sic] 
advantadge to my Lord and be brought aboute in a manner with oute any trouble to your 
Honor or ffriends, for that the Estate will bare raiseing f'm 443 4 p. an. to 550, which 
advances when the taxes are reduced to be single, will in a manner bring the Estate to clear 
the Countess Dowerg's proportioned Rent Charge, interest money for the purchase, and 
Taxes even dureing her Lad'ps life time, when afterwards the Reversion will come in clear 
as well to my Lord as the purchaser. This Madam is w't I thought proper to lay before 
your Honor which when approoved of by your Lad'p, or otherwise disagreed to, as your 
Honor shall thinke best for my Lords advantadge I most humbly submitte to your La'ps 
determination being in all Humble Duty, 

Madam | Your Honors Ever Most ffaithfuU | Obedient Humble Servant 

Char: Busby. 

My Wife sends her most Humble Duty to your Honor, Lord, and Lady Anne. 
[Endorsed : ' For | The R* Hon'ble the Countess of Darw- | entwater 
aft her House in Bruxells | in I Brabant | p d 4 '] 
Madam 9br. the 4th 1722. 

I have the H'or of 2 letters from y'r Lad'p, as to my Acc'ts I made them to 
Bartholomew day 1722 w'h being the day I entered into your H'ors Service, I would have 
y'm stand annvally to yt day, but shall bring y'm on to any other time y'r Lad'p shall 
be pleased. As for wrighting or draweing oute any Accounts, 01 Rentalls I shall never 
refuse to do it, and am to go to Capheaton next weeke aboute some to be sent y'r Ho'r. 
Wee are perfectly happy in our good Gen't and I hear nothing to the contrary but his masters 
are contented also ; the other Gen't has begun in Aldston Moor, and I hope will do well, 
but if any thing should happen to the contrary y'r Lad'p may depend of knowing it : Not- 
withstanding this I can not say all greevances of this kind are redressed, Mr. Garlingtons 
behaviour has given scandall near 20 year, but much more publiqe within this Six Months ; 
the originall began from an Attache he tooke to one Mich' Bell and his Wife, the man a mean 
blockheaddy ffellow, and the Woman of no good Character. Howsoever have so deluded 
him as to spend 400 or 500 of his moneys, and w'n y't would not do to support their ex- 
travagances he has borrowed other considerable Summs upon his promiss to keep them 
harrneless y't either lent the Money, or became bound for it, but Mr. Garlington now being 
insolvent, these poor people are become great sufferers particulary one who had his goods 
taken in Execution the other day for 60 pounds, and is intirely ruined by ye same f'm these 
doeings arise ? of an othere ? w'h I shall pass over, and onely lett y'r Honor 
know y't before Xmas last Lady Mary entrusted Mr. Garlinton w'th 30 to bring to me to 
pay the poor and some other Charitys her Lad'p had ordered, w'h money he payed next day 
to Mr. Sanderson in part of Bells Rent, and never has not repayed my Lady one ffarthing of 
it save 5 pounds. Mr. Carnaby knows all these matters, and is for haveing him removed, 
as no qvestion but he would if your Honor was desirous of the same, for complaint is made 
by the Poor and on Man to my Lord B op ; I shall write to Yorke againe this Night aboute 
ffranke Simpson and if no satisfactory answere comes to it, I thinke (if y'r Lad'p be so pleased) 
the cheapest way will be to go over my selfe, and see how ffarre ready money will prevaile, 
for nothing will do w'th these Beggarly Cattle but to carry it with a high Hand, and alleadge, 
y't y'r Lad'p is no way bound in honor to do any thing towards his releasment. I am in 
all Humble Duty 

My wife sends her most Madam | Your Lad'p Ever most 

Humble Respects to your ffaithfull obedient Hum | ble Servant 

Honor, my Lord, and Lady Char: Busby. 


[Endorsed : ' For | The R* Hon'ble the Countess of Bar- j wentwater 
att her House in Brux | ells | Brabant | p d - 4.'] 


The following is the paper on 

By R. COLTMAN CLEPHAN, F.S.A., a vice-president, 

read at the meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle on 
29th September 1915 (see page 98) : 

To see body-armour at its best one should visit the comprehensive 
collections at Vienna, Madrid or Dresden, where a number of the suits can 
be directly ascribed to certain historic personages, and as being the work 
of certain great armour-smiths ; the enrichment haviug been designed by 
the most celebrated artists of their day. These collections thus convey 
far more to the student than do others where the examples have been 
casually brought together, and greatly by purchases through dealers. 
The personal element adds immensely to the interest appertaining to 
objects of antiquity in general, but armour, weapons and examples 
of civil costume appeal far more vividly to the imagination than do 
others in parading before us, so to speak, some prominent figures in 
the history of periods of special importance to us. But beyond any 
personal interest attaching to ancient armour it appeals to our sense 
of beauty, for beautiful and artistic are these creations of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries ; indeed, the work of the armour-smith and 
his coadjutors over these centuries affords a concrete picture of the 
rise, progress and decline of art during the period loosely termed 
the ' Renaissance,' which began in vigour of conception, with fine 
conscientious work and beauty of outline ; continued, in greater 
elaboration, with tasteful enrichment ; and closed with a redundency 
of often meaningless ornamentation, where the efficiency of the armour 
was often sacrificed in pandering to vanity and a love of display. 

Naturally the farther we go back the rarer are the examples re- 
maining, though it is truly marvellous that so much has been preserved 
when one considers the vicissitudes these remnants of by-gone ages 
have passed through. Beyond a few helmets and scraps of mail 
practically no medieval armour has come down to us of a date prior 
to the transition period, during which body-armour changed gradu- 
ally from chain-mail to plate. Even of that age but a few fragments 
have been preserved beyond some head-pieces, which owing to their 
massive character found their way into domestic use ; and others, 
hung up with a little body-armour over tombs in churches. Burial 
of the arms of a defunct in his sepulchre would seem to have prevailed 
in all ages, and we are greatly indebted to the custom for a knowledge 
of early weapons and much besides. 

As soon as the fashion in dress changed it was slavishly followed 
in steel ; and, indeed, it is not difficult to approximate the date of 
almost any suit of armour by comparing the form of the cuirass with 
the cut of the doublet of the civil costume that prevailed at the time ; 
and this copying is followed with extreme fidelity throughout the 
Renaissance period and after. With every radical change armour 
of the older style was greatly relegated to the lumber room, where it 
lay rusting for a while, eventually finding its way into the melting-pot 
or it was used up as ' jacks ' for the lower grades of the army and 
navy. Towards the end of the second quarter of the fifteenth century 
we reach the ' Gothic ' armour of the connoisseur, of which a limited 
number of harnesses have been preserved ; but it is rare to find a suit 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vu] 20 


of this kind without some pieces missing or that has not been exten- 
sively restored. This remark applies also, though naturally to a less 
extent, to somewhat later armour ; indeed, when making a critical 
examination of the armour comprised in the Wallace collection in Hert- 
ford house, London, at the request of the German Society, ' Der Verein 
fur Historische Waffenkunde,' dealing with this branch of archaeology, 1 
I was surprised to find how few of the suits in the collection had not 
been a good deal indebted to the restorer. An important and lucra- 
tive industry flourished in Germany and Austria during the nine- 
teenth century not only for the restoration of armour but also in the 
fabrication of forgeries, many of which have found their way into 
museums and private collections. This trade was carried on in some 
of the very towns and cities that had been great armour-making 
centres during the Renaissance ; and so it was in Italy though in a 
less degree. Quantities of Gothic armour were sent from the East to 
Europe as scrap-iron ; some of it was acquired by armour dealers, 
and set up in suits of odd pieces, sometimes combinations of the work 
of armour-smiths of different nationalities. 

It is a moot point, indeed, whether restoration beyond necessary 
repairs is admissible or not, but it is certainly desirable from an 
educational point of view. 

Our sources of information up to the reign of Stephen, 1135-1154, 
are mainly restricted to impressions on seals, miniatures, monuments 
and representations on tapestry ; but when effigies and brasses appear 
we have armour spread out before us in detail, as far at least as the 
presence of the surcote and later of the cyclas or jupon will permit. 

Many effigies are cross-legged and there is a popular belief that 
the persons they represent had either been Knights Templar or 
Crusaders, but this is not the case. 

Inventories, wills, illuminated MSS., carvings in ivory and the 
works of chroniclers have proved of great value in furnishing us with 
the nomenclature and sometimes the forms of the various pieces of 
armour of late medieval times, each of which had been successively 
evolved to meet some new departure in the way of improved weapons 
or in the forms of attack. 

It is at least doubtful if there was any chain-mail, a fabric of Eastern 
origin, consisting of forged interlinked rings, each ring usually linked 
together with four others, before the tenth or even the eleventh 
century.* Hauberks of this web may have been worn by some of the 
richer cavaliers of earlier periods, but the poorer among the men-at- 
arms would be unable to afford such a luxury, owing to the cost in- 
volved in the laborious nature of the manufacture ; for there was 
no wire-drawing then, and the portions for each separate ring had 
to be cut from long strips of wire hammered out from the solid, and 
beaten round a core ; the ends after interlinking being ri vetted, 
forged or butted together. There are several varieties. On that 
invaluable and nearly contemporaneous record the Bayeux tapestry, 
the armour shown is greatly represented by series of conventional 
dots or lines and dots, which do not convey any clear idea of the 
exact nature of the fabric. Much of the body-armour of these centuries 

d even much later, consisted of quilted stuffs, often reinforced 
letal rings, scales or studs of iron, bone or horn ; of ordinary 
^ The paper published in Zeitschrift filr Historische Waffenkunde, vol. in. 

1 This form of chain mail was in use in Roman times. Fragments have been found in 
northern camps. ED. 


dressed leather ; or of cuir-bouilli, which is leather boiled and beaten, 
so that it could be moulded into the forms required. All these defences 
were quite capable of resisting an ordinary sword-stroke or lance- 
thrust, though more vulnerable against a cloth-yard shaft. Leather 
had clearly given its name to the ' cuirass/ which had been and 
continued for long to be made of it. Such handing down of names of 
arms and many other things quite different in principle was common 
in all ages. The basket-hilted Scottish broad-sword inherited the 
name of ' claymore ' from its great cross-hilted ancestor ; and even 
the word ' artillery ' had been employed for bows and arrows long 
before the invention of gunpowder. Boiled and beaten leather was 
much employed in the making of bards for horses as well as for body- 
armour for their riders ; and its surface lent itself readily to orna- 
mentation. It is impossible to differentiate cuir-bouilli from iron 
in the armour depicted on effigies and brasses, but the mouldings and 
general decoration displayed on the pieces would in many cases imply 
a leathern rather than an iron material. 

An effigy of the twelfth century in the Temple church, London, 
that of Geoffrey de Mandeville or Magnaville, earl of Essex, dating 
from the year 1144, in the reign of king Stephen, exhibits the knight 
encased completely in mail, wearing a coif or hood of the same fabric, 
and over it the tall, cylindrical flat-topped helm. It was found, 
however, that certain vital and more exposed portions of the body 
required further protection ; for the mail far from presenting a 
glancing surface towards a stroke or thrust from a weapon of attack 
rather afforded it a lodgment ; while it gave quite insufficient pro- 
tection against the bruising effect of a blow from a mace. The mail 
therefore became gradually reinforced over the most vulnerable places 
with pieces of leather, either plain or prepared by boiling in oil and 
beating ; or by plates of iron, until a full panoply of metal plating 
had been attained ; a process which had not been quite completed 
before the first. decade of the fifteenth century. 

The first reinforcing defence of iron or of cuir-bouilli was the 
plastron-de-fer, an extra shield for the breast ; towards which part 
of the body the lance was most frequently directed. This defence 
was usually worn between the gambeson and the hauberk, and is 
thus not observable on effigies, seals or brasses. A breastplate of this 
kind is stated to have formed part of the equipment of Richard i, 
when earl of Poictou, in a joust with William de Barres. 

The delicate anatomy of the knee-joint suggested insufficient pro- 
tection from the mail alone, and the poleyne or knee-kop began to 
appear over it in the second quarter of the thirteenth century. These 
pieces are present on the effigy in the Temple church of William 
Mareschal, the younger, earl of Pembroke, died in 1231 ; on the d'Auber- 
noun brass, Stoke d'Abernon, Surrey, dated in 1277 ; and on that 
of Sir Roger de Trumpington, in Trumpington church, Cambridge- 
shire, of about 1290. 

The coif of mail is followed by the camail, in the same fabric, not 
covering the head but attached to the bascinet by staples, fastened 
in position by laces, and drooping over the shoulders, reaching beyond 
the top of the cyclas. It is bolted to the cuirass both back and front. 
This defence extended over the greater part of the fourteenth century 
to early in the fifteenth ; and with the conical bascinet very distinctly 
marks the period. The next part which would naturally suggest 
itself for reinforcement was the sensitive elbow-joint, resulting in 


the elbow-kop or coude, at first a rounded kop over the joint with 
a rondel-wing at the bend. Both poleynes and coudes appear on 
the brass formerly in Gorleston church, Suffolk, dating about 1320, 
of a member of the de Bacon family. The figure bears ailettes ; and 
there are jambs, probably of cuir-bouilli, the defence over the shins, 
just showing above the portion of the figure that has been broken 
off. Poleynes and coudes were first attached to the limbs over the 
mail by laces, then termed aiguilettes, known at a later period 
as ' arming points.' 1 ; but as time moved on these pieces overlap 
and connect the armour for the legs and arms. Jambs and cuissades, 
rerebraces and vambraces complete the defence of the shins and 
thighs and the upper and lower arms, respectively, the plates at 
first merely covering the fronts of the limbs. 

Ailettes appear towards the close of the thirteenth century and 
continued in fashion some fifty years. It is not quite clear whether 
these singular pieces were intended for defence or to be used as planes 
for the ensignment of heraldic devices. They assume various forms, 
were worn upright on the outsides of the shoulders, attached by laces ; 
and might thus serve as shoulder or neck-guards, though they would 
seem to have afforded very little protection. In brasses they appear 
at the backs of the shoulders ; but this is presumably for the reason 
that the artists found some practical difficulty in engraving them so 
as to appear as they were really worn. The ailettes made for the 
tournament of Windsor park in 1278, according to the Roll of 
Purchases, were made of leather and carda.2 

Plates of iron were forged from the solid ingot ; not rolled into 

sheets, from which comparatively modern product so many forgeries 

restorations have been manipulated. In the case of genuine 

armour forged from the solid bar, the different pieces were more or 

ess graduated in thickness, according to the vulnerability of the 

The brass of William de Aldburgh, in Aldboroueh church York- 
i'th'ar^ufatlo 0111 J'S?' ^^f/he 'armour as being" mainly of plate, 
lstens of ' UlderS ' bends of the arms and over the 

ens o * u 

by th P ecvclas Th? ^ breaSt and u PPer-thighs are covered 

ulual at the i H K U f\ S J culssades are of studded work, as was 
or quUtcd cloT or'of U rn W t f her ^ grOUnd material Was cuir-bouilli, 
Hef q ne when Lava in^ln l^Q ^ ? ther is unkn wn. Dr. 
berg a robber fortress in w 1849 < amon g ^ ruins of Vesta Tannen- 
1399, found a ptc of bodT' by aSSault and dismantl * d in 

splmts or hoops? ri^^^^TJ^^ ?' T^^ irOn 
with cloth or velvet rivetteH , fragment had been covered 
and it is highly probable that th' nvet - head s standing well out ; 
kind. As ffr ^can be iudeed fS *?*** W6re f a fabric of that 
before the beginning of the fift % and effigies ' Jt was not 

in ordinary plate The helm 5 7^ A?? tury that these P iece s were 
bascinet, wHh the accomn^n , he AIdborou h brass is the pointed 


gradu " 

at Canterburyad^ c f ha f^ of the Hly Trinity, 

1 Aiguiiiettes were really the , exc e"ent illustration of the degree 

da or silk. aetal ^ atta ^ed to the points .' the laces of leather, 

a A kind of cloth. 


of progress reached in plate armour by the beginning of the last quarter 
of the fourteenth century. The prince died in 1376, and the date 
of the effigy is probably somewhat later. The helmet is the pointed 
bascinet, with the camail. The cyclas, wihch is embroidered with 
the royal arms, hides the cuirass from view. The pauldrons are 
laminated ; and so are the coudes, which have small butterfly wings. 
The upper and lower plates of the knee-kops overlap and connect the 
cuisses and jambs ; and the solerets, laminated over the insteps, have 
long tips, a la poulaine. The armour is hung up over the tomb ; 
the conical helm of iron is surmounted by the crest of cloth ; gaunt- 
lets of brass, 1 with standing figures of leopards, as gads over the 
knuckles ; and the pointed shield of wood, covered with leather. 
The sword is missing but the scabbard remains. 

Brigandines had their origin during the transition period and con- 
tinued in use over the fifteenth century and later. They were jackets 
of canvas or other material covered with small overlapping plates 
or scales of metal rivetted tegether, somewhat after the fashion of 
the ancient Roman corselets. In most cases the plates were covered 
over with cloth, silk or velvet, the rivets showing through. The 
scales of the transition period were sometimes of horn or the jackets 
were of splints, covered over with a textile fabric, similar in character 
to the piece of armour found by Dr. Hefner at Vesta Tannenberg 
in 1849, which has been already alluded to in connexion with the 
cuissades represented on the brass in Aldborough church ; and the 
armour was often termed ' Jazeran.' Brigandines had the advantage 
over plate armour in being flexible, and they were somewhat lighter. 
Examples may be seen in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris, and in the 
Tower of London. 

The aim and object of the armour-smith was to turn out a harness 
of proof capable of resisting all shocks and pressure, in affording a 
protection to the body over all its parts from the action of strokes, 
thrusts and missiles dealt or directed by weapons and engines of war, 
as thorough and complete as was compatible with all possible ease 
and freedom to the limbs of the wearer, more especially in restricting 
as little as possible the varied movements of the arms and hands, 
the knees, ankles and feet, within these limitations ; and to this he 
added all the taste and skill that was in him towards making the armour 
shapely and elegant. A cap-a-pie armour of the second half of the 
fifteenth century and later, though heavy to wear, was far from being 
rigid, stiff and clogging to the natural movements of the body. The 
wearer, it is true, could not run a race in it, for any distance at least, 
nor was he able to get up again easily if he fell or was thrown down, 
but he could move and bend his body, limbs and joints with a con- 
siderable degree of comfort and freedom, and even display some 
agility both in attack and defence, whether on foot or on horseback. 
This was owing to the system of laminae of overlapping plates, some 
of them working loose, though securely, with sliding rivets moving 
in slots. These were arranged over certain parts of the body, and 
were calculated to lend a free action to the limbs in allowing for the 
necessary expansion and contraction of the steel covering over these 
parts ; and the narrow plates were set with a view to working freely, 
upwards and downwards, inwards and outwards, with the action of 

1 Armour of brass or copper was not uncommon in medieval times. Chaucer refers 
to the armour of Sir Thopas as ' his helm of latoun bright.' There are some harnesses of 
brass and two of silver at Dresden. 


the body They occur in the pauldrons and with the rerebraces over 
upper arms and were especially pliable in the gauntlets, solerets 
and over the ankles. The gorget was often laminated over the neck ; 
the lower portion, that over the chest and nape, being often in two 
plates. The breastplate was often laminated over the arm-pits 
and to the back-plate the garde-rein of laminated plates is attached ; 
the taces of overlapping plates, afforded play to the waist ; and 
laminae, working at the junction of the coudes and knee-kops with 
the rerebraces and vambraces and the cuisses and jambs, respectively, 
lent elasticity to the elbow and knee joints. The elbow-kops, how- 
ever, were not always furnished with laminations, but when such were 
absent the pieces were forged of wider dimensions, so as to afford 
sufficient play to the arms. The plates of the tassets were set in- 
versely ; the jambs and vambraces made to close over the limbs, 
the former are hinged on the outsides, fastening together round the 
shins by means of turning pins moving in slots, or short standing pins 
slipped into holes, the pieces holding together in a manner by tension. 
Pauldrons are usually attached to the gorget or the breastplate by 
straps and buckles, though sometimes by upright steel pegs, with 
retaining springs at their heads, fixed near the edges of the gorget, 
over which round holes, cut in the tops of the pauldrons, are slipped, 
thus making the junctions quite secure. In the armour for horsemen 
the pauldrons are uneven in size, that on the right being the smaller, 
so as to give room for couching the lance ; which is provided with a 
large vamplate to defend the lance-arm and the exposed place at 
the arm-pit on that side and also for steadying and retaining the 
lance in position for a charge. There is also a lance-rest for supporting 
the lance. In armour made specially for foot-fighting the pauldrons 
are usually a pair, coming well down over the breasts. In fact, 
almost any suit of armour that has been preserved of the second 
half of the fifteenth century and the whole of the sixteenth was a 
work of art and manufacture, well developed and thought out in all 
its details. It was a triumph of the ingenuity and mechanical skill 
of the armour-smiths. 

Instructions as to the order of putting on the armour in the first 
half of the fifteenth century, are given in a manuscript in the possession 
of Lord Hastings : How a man schall be armyd at his ese when he shall 
fighte on foote. They are reproduced in a paper by the late Mr. Albert 
Way in the Archaeological Journal, vol. iv ; and in another by Lord 
Dillon, V.P.S.A., in Archaeologia, vol. LVII. 

One cannot be quite sure that the armour represented on such 
brasses as those of Sir George Felbrigg, in Playford church, Suffolk 
elating at the end of the fourteenth century ; and of Sir Nicholas 
?fTfiff' m f , Bllcklln g church - Norfolk, just at the commencement 

the fifteenth was entirely of plate, for the trunk and upper thighs 



absence of any other word more suitable or expressive. 


Though one cannot draw any decided line Gothic armour may be 
said to extend over the fifteenth century to nearly the end ; but 
up to, say, its middle, no actual suits have been preserved ;' and 
for the knowledge we may possess of the armour of the first half of 
the century we are indebted mainly to monumental effigies and brasses, 
so many of which have fortunately been preserved in this country.' 
The brass of Sir John Wylcotes, in Great Tew church, Oxfordshire! 
dating about 1410, affords an example of the standard of mail, a 
collar worn under a gorget of plate, following on the camail ; and 
I think the latest monument to show it is the brass in Theddlethorpe 
church, Lincolnshire, dating about 1424. The Wylcotes brass is 
without the jupon, so now the breastplate and taces are exposed to 
view, and they are in plate. Small plates of iron guard the weak 
places over the arm-pits, the vif de I'harnois or defaut de la cuirasse ; 
in this case oval in form. Modern writers on armour usually call 
these pieces ' rondels ' or ' palets/ the latter word a contemporaneous 
term sometimes used for head-pieces, though never met with I believe 
as being applied to these plates ; but Viscount Dillon, V.P.S.A., 
shows in one of his valuable contributions to this branch of archae- 
ology, most of which papers are printed in Archaeologia and the 
Archaeological Journal, that the name employed to express them in 
contemporary records is ' besague ' or ' moton.' Besagues or motons 
appear over the arm-pits on the Gorleston brass, dating about 1320 ; 
they vary in form though a circular one is the commonest. The 
term ' besagues ' would seem to have been applied somewhat generally 
to roundels or disks of leather or of iron ; but it was also used to 
express battle-axes. Gay, in Glossaire Archeologique, thus defines 
it : ' L'arme de ce nom est une hache a deux taillants opposes 
(bipennis), et une sorte de long marteau d'armes assez semblable a 
une pioche . . . .' The late Mr. Hewitt in Ancient Armour, cites 
Wace, on the invasion of England by the Normans : 

' Li charpentiers, ki empres vindrent, 

Granz coignies en lor mains tindrent ; 

Doloeres e besagu&s 

Orent a lor costez pendues.' Line 11, p. 650. 
This goes to show that the term was also employed to express a 
carpenter's tool. 

The brass in South Kelsey church, Lincolnshire, dating about 
1420, exhibits the knight in a pointed bascinet, crescent-formed 
motons, fan-shaped wings to the coudes, taces in six broad lames, 
and short tile-formed tuilles. The richly ornamented belt is still 
present, now finally to disappear. The fingers of the gauntlets are 
articulated. The armour shown on the effigy in Hoveringham 
church, Nottinghamshire, believed to have been ascribed by Mr. 
Stothart to Sir Robert Grushill, is certainly not of the reign of Richard 
ii, 1377-1399, but should rather be dated in that of Henry vi. Here 
the helmet is a bascinet ; fluted motons or besagues over the arm- 
pits, of a curved tooth-like form ; coudes with elaborate heart-shaped 
wings ; taces of eight lames, with short rectangular tuilles attached 
to the bottom rim by straps and buckles. This effigy shows the 
collar of SS the presence of which probably deceived Mr. Stothart 
as to its date. 1 The meaning of the symbol is unknown, but it is 

1 Probably the earliest representation of this collar we have is that on the effigy of Sir 
John Swinford, who died in 1371. 



suggested as being an abbreviation of ' Sanctus.' The armour 
represented on the brass in Sawbridgeworth church, Herts, of John 
Leventhorpe esquire, of the year 1433, exhibits all the characteristics 
of the Hoveringham effigy, though the style is less ornate, and its 
date is 'probably rather earlier than that monument. 

The armour of about the middle of the fifteenth century onwards 
is the most shapely of all periods, and its form followed the fashion of 
the Florentine civil dress. The earliest examples were plain in not 
having developed the flutings and ridgings of a somewhat later period. 
The Missaglfas of Milan were content with following the graceful 
outline of the dress ; but rather later suits, which are greatly of 
German origin, are usually though not invariably distinguished by 
their curved flutings, with corresponding ridgings, designed after 
the folds and creases of the dress, with its scalloped edgings. These 
lines are beautiful and harmonious,, and had the advantage of pre- 
S2nting a more glancing surface towards the assaults from weapons 
of attack. The usual helmet is the salade ; with the beavor or 
mentoniere, part of which afterwards became incorporated in the 
armet, the chest portion being replaced by the gorget. The salade 
was usually worn at a slight angle in order to bring the ocularium 
in the direct line of vision. The earliest instance, I believe, of the 
presence of this head-piece on any English monument, is on the brass 
of Sir Robert Staunton, at Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, dating 
about 1458. The beavor or mentoniere is not rendered on the brass 
doubtless so that the face could be seen. The cuirass in this style 
of armour is decorative and there is the usual second plate, sometimes 
two, over the abdomen. The arm-pits are protected by mo tons. 
Tuilles cover the thighs ; and between them is the brayette or cod- 
piece ; and over the loins is the garde-rein. The solerets are usually 
though not invariably extended to an extravagant length, the toe- 
pieces reaching to a tip far beyond the foot, after the fashion of the 
shoes a la poulaine. 

We reach this style of armour in the perfect harness represented 
by the Beauchamp effigy, in St. Mary's church, Warwick. The 
figure is cast in latten or laton, a fine golden looking blend something 
between bronze and brass. The earl died in 1439, but the contract 
for his monument was not given out until fifteen years later. The 
harness represented is of the earliest and finest form of the style known 
to connoisseurs as ' Gothic ' ; and it exhibits body-armour at its very 
best, as well in dignity of form as in beauty of outline ; and it is free 
from any fantastic ornamentation. The armour represented was 
probably copied from an actual harness made by Tomaso or Antonio 
da Missagha, of Milan, if, indeed, the design for the effigy was not 

mshed to the contractor, Bartholomeus Lambespring, from Milan 
and it is thus of a later type than any harness actually worn 
earl. The breast-plate of this example exhibits a deep curved 

oove on either side and is shorter than was usual a little later, with 
sh * C6S : and there are low neck-guards. Fig. 1 (plate i) 
back vl w 6 ?S; m an Upright P sition ' Mr ' Stothart also gives a 
f f | Ure o , showin g the arm <>ur as carefully delinated 
f /'% 2 ( J? late !) re P rod "ces an actual armour forged, 
h der Sei g rei <*en, ' Pfalz-grafen am Rhin,' 

the Gthu hlS 1S ' P erha P s > th e most precious example of 

d * isfrel St the 

noble in form and severely plain, being 

Proc. Sue. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vii. 

Tu face page ISO 






;,-, Hc. Antiq. AV^r , ;J scr. vn. 

To face page 137 

I'lG. !>. SI IT B iK TII.TIXG. 





free from flutings or decoration of any kind. The helmet in this case 
is not the salade, but an early form of armet. Like the armour of 
the Beauchamp effigy the cuirass is rather short ; the taces in six plates, 
to the bottom of which the pointed tuilles are attached by straps and 
buckles. The soleret tips are of extreme length. This harness was 
the work of Tomaso da Missaglia, of Milan, or possibly the joint pro- 
duction of himself and his grandson Antonio. We learn from the 
writings of thel ate Wendelin Boeheim, custos of the Vienna collection, 1 
that the name or designation ' Missaglia ' was adopted by Petrolo 
Negroli, the father of Tomaso, from the place of his birth, situated 
near Lucca. Tomaso died in 1468, and his grandson and successor, 
Antonio, was still living in 1492, so that it is not improbable that the 
two worked together for some time. At a later period this illustrious 
family of armour-smiths would appear to have reverted to the family 
name ' Negroli.' The great armourers of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries were fine artists in steel, and many of their creations pre- 
served are models for all time in elegance of form and excellence of 
workmanship. We can trace their individuality and idiosyncrasies to 
an extent making it often possible to attribute their work even when 
unstamped with their monograms and devices. The Missaglia- 
Negrolis, of Milan ; the Kolmans, of Augsburg ; the Seiisenhofers, 
of Innsbruck ; the Grunewalts and Von Worms, of Nuremberg ; the 
Piccininos, of Milan, and many others carried on their craft from 
generation to generation. 

During the fifteenth century, and perhaps rather later, new modes 
in armour as in dress had their birth in Italy ; but they took some time 
to travel to other countries less advanced in fashion and refinement. 
Fig. 3 (plate i) reproduces a later Gothic armour of German origin, now 
at Berlin, dating about 1480. It had formed part of the collection of 
the late Prince Karl of Prussia. The helmet is the salade of true 
German form ; broad curved flutings and ridgings extend over its 
surface, those on the motons being radiating. The elbow-kops are 
sharply pointed ; the tuilles large, and the solerets have tips of extreme 

A radical change in armour took place towards the end of the fif- 
teenth century, again following a new departure in the civil dress, 
more especially in the rounded or globose form of the doublet ; and 
the abnormally wide-toed shoes of the period, ' bear-paw ' or ' cow- 
mouthed,' as they were called. The head-piece is the armet or close- 
helmet, the most perfect form of helmet as well as the most familiar ; 
and it had the great advantage of the weight being evenly distributed 
along the gorget. In principle it is a combination of the salade with 
the mentoniere or beavor. This type of head-piece is usually in three 
main pieces, viz., the crown-piece, the visor and the beavor. The 
combed skull or crown-piece goes partly over the forehead and extends 
to the top of the neck ; following which is a laminated collar or tail, 
which protects the nape. The beavor covers the chin and has usually 
a continuation of the collar in front. The visor, sometimes divided 
into the ventail and the vue, unites these pieces, being pivoted to the 
crown-piece through the side ends of the beavor. The visor is in in- 
dented sections, running out in a sort of beak, and it is pierced with 
an ocularium or slits for vision ; and holes for breathing and hearing. 
The helmet opens at the sides to be put on or off, and closes over 
the head with a spring snap. There is, however, an earlier form 

1 Kunsthistorische Sammlung des Allerhochste Kaiserhauses Sammlung, p. 2. 
\Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 21 


where side-pieces are hinged to the crown-piece, the beavor strapping 
on This type also opens for admitting and releasing the head, and 
is made fast by a screw behind. At the back is a small projecting 
disk attached to the head-piece by a pin, the reason for which is 
difficult to imagine, but may-be it was intended as a protection for 
the fastening screw ; though its very slenderness would hardly ward 
off a serious stroke from a sword or battle-axe. There is also a type 
of armet without collar which fits over a rim at the top of the gorget, 
the object being to avoid the chance of a stroke reaching the throat 
from under the collar of the more general form of armet. or of the point 
of a lance glancing up to it. This helmet is shown on Fig. 5 (plate in) ; it 
is often termed a burgonet, on the authority of Meyrick, but this is 
a mistake, as first pointed out by the Baron de Cosson. The real 
burgonet, which is a lighter form of helmet, will be described later 
on. In armour of this type the neck-guards, when present, are broader 
and higher. These pieces are often wrongfully termed passe-guards, 
the name for an extra piece used in jousting. In harness of this period 
the elbow and knee-kops are smaller, for they had got so extravagantly 
large as to be much in the way ; and instead of tuilles, each in a single 
plate, there are laminated tassets. Like the Gothic style the armour 
was made both plain and fluted, the last-named fashion is known 
as ' Maximilian,' the whole surface down to the jambs, which are always 
plain, is covered with narrow, regular, radiating flutings ; differing 
in this respect from Gothic armour, with its broad sweeping flutings 
and ridgings. 


The emperor Maximilian would seem to have introduced this style 
of armour into his dominions after his Italian campaign in 1496. 
That he engaged armourers from Italy is shown by a contract, 
mentioned by Boeheim, made in 1495, with the armour-smiths at 
Milan, Gabrielle and Francisco de Merate, to erect and equip for him 
a smithy in the town of Arbois, in Burgundy, and to forge there a 
number of harnesses at certain fixed prices. This form of armour 
with its narrow regular flutings, armatum spigolata, had thus its origin 
m Italy like the Gothic ; and, if any further proof of this were needed, 
contemporary Germany called it ' Mailander Harnisch ' a clear 
indication of origin. I will illustrate the ' Maximilian ' style by giving 

few particulars of a suit of the kind in the Wallace collection of 

arms and armour, no. 56 in the catalogue of that institution, shown on 

4 (plate i). The head-piece is the armet, the visor of which ex- 

bits the series of ridges, with intervening slits for air and vision, 

Characteristic of the period. The breastplate is globose and has 

t ridge along the top, followed by a narrow plain strip, and 

rirtt S 1C a V? Utmg ! to the nm at th e bottom ; a lance rest is on the 

C nS ar Spiked and fluted ' the taces in four lames > 
The cui ssades, a restoration, are 

P lain ' The solerets are ^ide-toed, 

the win S s of the elbow 
are fur- 

and the 


and knee 

the general 


be best suited for the purpose, but for the reason that they are more 
accessible to the English student than armour in private collections 
or abroad. 


Tonlet armour has a deep skirt of hoops called jambers or bases 
standing out all round like a more modern crinoline. Jambers are 
often termed lamboys by writers on armour, but this is an old mis- 
reading. This clumsy and unwieldy type of armour was mostly 
used for fighting on foot, though there were suits, like that illustrated 
on Fig. 5 (plate in), 1 adapted for horsemen ; and for this purpose it must 
have been especially inconvenient, for the hoops move upwards and 
downwards like the laths of a Venetian blind. Bases, the skirts of 
the doublet of the period, were made of cloth, velvet or richly em- 
broidered stuffs ; and this garment was in fashion during the reigns 
of Henry vir and Henry vm ; an inventory of the wardrobe of the 
last-named sovereign schedules ' coats with bases.' This fashion, 
like the one immediately preceding it, is of Italian origin, for we find 
bases on an effigy at Corneto, a petticoat showing pleats or folds. 
We have an early English example of a tonlet or skirt of steel on the 
brass of John Gaynsford esquire, at Crowhurst, Surrey, who died 
in 1450. There is a remarkably fine and historic armour of this style 
in the Tower of London, made by Konrad Seiisenhofer, of Innsbruck, 
in 1514. Fig. 5 (plate in) furnishes an illustration of this type in a har- 
ness forged for Friedrich n, duke of Leignitz and Brug ; which armour 
formed a part of the collection made by the late Prince Karl of 
Prussia, and is now in the Zeughaus at Berlin. It dates from very 
early in the sixteenth century. The duke is mounted on a barded 
horse, and the front portion of the tonlet is absent so that the harness 
could be worn on horseback ; and the detached front portion could 
be replaced in position for the purpose of foot-fighting if required ; 
the attachment being effected by sliding rivets moving in slots. The 
helmet is an armet of the type mistaken by Meyrick for a burgonet. 
Medieval bards had their origin probably in the twelfth century, 
though there are no representations of them so early. Wace, writing 
in the reign of Henry n, says that the horse of William Fitz-Osbert 
was housed in chain-mail at the battle of Hastings, but this is in- 
credible. There is but little mention of bards in English records 
before the close of the thirteenth century, but in the fourteenth they 
would seem to have become fairly common. German men-at-arms 
appear with barded horses in the second ha'f of the thirteenth 
century, but they are exceptional before the fourteenth. The late 
Mr. John Hewitt, to whom we are indebted for much precious research, 
mentions an ordinance of the year 1313, 2 which requires a man-at- 
arms to be equipped for war and mounted on a horse ' couvert de 
couverture de fer ou de couverture pourpointe,' so here is a choice 
between iron and quilted stuffs ; and another, in 1353, ' le plus qu'on 
pourra de chevaux couvers de mailles et de gambaissure.' The ' iron ' 
in the first case was chain-mail, and both a chamfron and a crinet 
of leather would be present. The chamfron, crinet and peytral are 
observable in engravings of the first quarter of the fourteenth century, 
and they were probably of cuir-bouilli. In the inventory of the 
armour of Louis x, of France, surnamed le Hutin, dated in the year 
1316, occurs the item ' un chanfrein.' Quoting again from the late 
Mr. Hewitt's book, on page 361 : ' In the Histoire de Charles VII, 
^ee plate facing p. 142. 2 Ancient Armour, 11, p. 312. 


Mathieu de Coucy tells us that in 1446, a combat a outrance took 
place between the Seigneurs de Ternant and Galiot de Balthasin, 
in which the latter was mounted ' sur un puissant cheval, liquil, selon 
la costume de Lombardie, estoit tout couvert de fer.' A complete 
equipment of steel plate was attained in the second half of the fifteenth^ 
century, when according to a picture in the Vienna Zeughaus, dated 
in 1480, ' Der Ritter sitz auf seinem bis auf de Hufe, verdeckten Hengst.' 
The horse on Fig. 5 (plate in) is not trapped. There is a chamfron, for 
the face, with cheek-pieces ; a crinet, for the neck ; a peytral, for the 
breast ; flanchards, for the sides ; and a crupper, for the hind-quarters. 
The bard of the engraved suit of Henry vm, in the Tower of London, 
is stated to weigh 92 pounds. Bards for the tourney were usually 
of leather. 

The expression ' trapped and barded,' so frequently met with in 
records, is often misunderstood. The bard is the defence for the 
horse, while the trapper is its outside textile covering or garment ; 
which perhaps originated, like the surcoat of the man-at-arms, as a 
protection from the glare and heat of the sun ; for without these gar- 
ments the carrying of heavy armour by both man and horse would, 
under certain circumstances have been unendurable. Trappers were 
often made of very costly materials, much bejewelled and emblazoned 
in gold and silver thread. With the decline of archery and the ever 
increasing necessity for the greater mobility of cavalry, bards steadily 
declined in importance. Sutcliffe, in Practice of Arms, printed in 
1593, says : ' The French men-at-arms in time past used barded 
horses for feare of our arrowes ; but now since archerie is not so much 
rekoned of, and bardes arc but a weake defence against shotte, lanciers, 
leaving their bardes, are much like the Albanian Stradiots.' 1 


The tournament or tourney covered a great variety of quasi- 
military exercises and diversions ; but the subject is too large and 
complex for treatment in a short study beyond giving an outline of 
the more important courses, and illustrating the armour employed 
in them. These exercises were probably first introduced into England 
from France, for Matthew Paris terms them conftictus gallicus. 

The tournament proper, like the older behourd, was a contest of 
armed horsemen, troop against troop ; while a joust was a single 
combat or a succession of such, run with lances in the lists 

After the fourteenth century each important form of joust had its 
own special type of armour, sometimes differing greatly, though in 

hers in minor details only. It was designed to repel more definite 
rms of attack than in warfare ; and the tourney was subjected to 
strict ordinances, regulations and limitations. 

Jousts of Peace, hastiludia pacifica or joules a plaisance, were courses 

out^r, y e T C1Se and courtes y: while Jousts of War, joules a 
ranee or as Froissart calls them justes mortelles et a champ, were 

rUn Wlth pointed lances ' J<* tes P^ieres were open 
^ by P roclamation to meet -a certain 

d cxercises w ere much practised in all the 
u tably at the brilliant Court of Burgundy 
but it was in Germany and Austria where 

of light - horse usuauy s id th 


Jnt'rio^f rt l al S , P rtS 

m the fiftoonth V ^' a 


they reached their greatest development, and in these countries there 
were over forty varieties, concerning which much information is 
afforded in the turnierbiicher of the German courts, and more especially 
in those of the emperor Maximilian. In French we have the Tournois 
du Roi Rent, and there is a set of English rules in the Herald's college. 
None of these authorities, however, is easily accessible. 

Variants in jousting were often conceived with a view of producing 
some striking or humorous novelty ; indeed, the passion after the- 
atrical effect in the ' good old times ' brought about some extraordinary 
contrivances as applied to the tournament. 

The harness for each course was supplemented with a number of 
additional pieces, which were screwed on over the parts of the body 
against which the different forms of attack were mainly directed. 
The principal reinforcing pieces were the grand-guard, with volant- 
piece, being an extra defence for the face, chest, right and left shoulders ; 
the manifer, a heavy rigid gauntlet for the lower bridle-arm and hand ; 
the polder-miton or &paule de mouton for the defence of the right 
fore-arm and bend ; the passe-guard for the left elbow, and an extra 
breastplate. 'The lance was fitted with a vamplate, a hollow rounded, 
shield of iron, placed along the shaft above the grip, for the protection 
of the right hand and arm. The j ousters clad in their heavy armour, 
with the additional pieces screwed on in their places were thus practi- 
cally immune from injury, and, indeed, serious accidents were rare. 
In jousting much depended on the docility and training of the horses, 
which charged at a hand-gallop ; but their mobility must have been 
much restricted by the bard, trapper, breast-cushion, heavy armour 
of the rider, to say noting of the blindfolding, resorted to in most of 
the courses. 

The principal courses of Jousts of Peace were : the Joust at the 
Tilt, known in Germany as the Italian Joust ; the Gestech or German , 
Joust ; and Scharfrennen. The Joust at the Tilt was run with lances 
of soft wood, lighter than those employed in the other courses, so that 
they might splinter easily ; they were rebated or bluntly tipped with 
a coronal ; and the combatants rode against each other with a barrier 
of planks, called a tilt, between them, along which they charged, the 
bridle-arms towards the tilt. The tilt or barrier gave a fixed direction 
to the j ousters and prevented any collision between the horses. This 
contest was mainly one of the breaking of lances. It was in a course 
of this kind that Henri n, of France, was stricken unto death by 
Montgommeri in 1559. The armour used in this form, as shown on 
Fig. 6 (plate u), did not differ much from that employed in warfare, but 
it was greatly strengthened by the additional pieces. Leg-armour 
was worn to avoid injury to the limbs from striking or scraping against 
the barrier. A distinguishing feature of the armament for this course 
was the tilting shield, which fitted round the left side of the neck, 
coming nearly straight down the middle of the breastplate and cover- 
ing the left breast and shoulder. It curves slightly outwards at the 
bottom and is attached to the grand-guard by strong screws. There 
is an account of a Joust at the Tilt in some MSS. belonging to Lord 
Hastings, which have been commented on by Mr. Albert Way in the 
Archaeological Journal and Viscount Dillon, in Archaeologia. 

The German Gestech is a much older course, and was also run with 
lances tipped with coronals, but there was no barrier between the 
jousters ; and the horses ran blindfolded, so that they should not 
flinch or jib at the moment of impact ; and cushions or mattresses, 


stuffed with straw, covered their breasts, to act as buffers in case of 
collision This course thus involved much more initiative than the 
other The saddle employed had a high support in front but none 
behind so that unhorsing was much more frequent than in the Joust at 
the Tilt Fig 7 (plate in) reproduces a harness for this course. The great 
iousting-heaume is very heavy and roomy, weighing twenty pounds, 
and the ocularium affords but a very limited range of vision. It is 
bucket-formed, with a bcavor extending over the top of the cuirass, 
the crown-plate curving gently over the jouster's head. The helm 
rests on the shoulders and is screwed on to the cuirass, back and 
front, the back-screw placed vertically for the purpose of adjusting 
the line of vision. The breastplate is globose, flattened on the right 
side for the better couching of the lance ; and it is reinforced with 
a heavy plate over the abdomen, to which the taces are ri vetted, 
and to them the heavy, solid tile-formed tuilles are attached by straps 
and buckles. The loins are protected by a garde-rein. The motons 
over the arm-pits are very large, on the right side is a lance-rest, and, 
as is usual in this course, there is a heavy corkscrew-like queue 
(rast-haken or schwanzel), a counterpoise for the heavy lance used 
in this course. The jousting-shield is of wood, covered with leather 
and gesso. It is formed rectangularly at the top, somewhat rounded 
at the bottom and curves slightly outwards. The right fore-arm and 
bend is reinforced with the polder-miton, and the bridle-hand and arm 
covered with the stiff and heavy manifer. No leg-armour' was used. 
The harness dates from a little before the end of the fifteenth century. 
There were several varieties of this course. 

The course known as Scharfrennen was run with pointed lances as 
its name implies, and was thus, in a sense, a survival of the jotite a 
entrance. It dates from about the commencement of the fifteenth 
entury ; and was a hardier course than the others. Unhorsing was 
much more easily achieved by reason of the saddle employed being 
without any supports at all, formed in fact more like the English saddles 
of to-day. It demanded a surer seat, a highly- trained horse, and great 
skill and adroitness in the rider. The objectives of the lance were 
either the beavor or the jousting-shield on the left side. The first- 
named mark was more difficult to hit and the lance much more apt 
to glance off, but when fairly struck, it proved irresistible. The 
armour was lighter than that used in Gestech or German Joust ; 
the helmet, a jousting-form of salade without visor ; the shield very 
large ; and the form of the breastplate similar to that employed in 
the German Joust. In the royal library at Dresden is a parchment 
on which a Scharfrennen is depicted between the elector of Saxony 
and two antagonists. This form of combat is germed a Gedritts, 
signifying that the victor in the first encounter had still to dispose 
of a second j ouster thus three were engaged and hence the name. , 

Among the several variants of Scharfrennen is Geschiftrennen, 
the peculiarity being that on the shield is a certain spot which when 
fairly struck by the lance set a mechanism in motion causing the 
shield to fly up in the air in pieces. 

A favourite form of the tourney in the fifteenth century was the 
Kolbenturnier, which differed materially from the other courses in 
that no personal injury to an opponent was thought possible ; the 
object being merely to strike off the zimier or crest which decorated 
his helm, The weapon employed was a kolben, which is a baston 
or mace of wood, polygonally formed. 

Prcc. Soc. Antiq. Neivc., 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 142 






All the courses of the tourney fell into disuse early in the seventeenth 
century, the last to survive for a short time being the Freiturnier 
or Free Course, which involved little more than some difference in the 
size of the shield to those employed in other courses ; and one called 
Scharmiitzel ; the last-named a sort of general skirmish, with a view 
to practice for war. A Scharmiitzel was held at' Dresden in 1553, 
when four bands of horsemen and forty harquebussiers attacked a 
mock fortress, defended by a garrison armed with spears and military 
forks, and supplied with 400 earthenware pots as missiles. 

The foregoing comprises the more important forms of the tourney ; 
the Caroussal ; Running at the Ring, often termed Tilting at the Ring, 
(though erroneously for no tilt was involved) ; and the Quintain were 
merely games, though with certain features in common with the 


The importance of the heavily-armed man-at-arms in warfare 
had been steadily declining since the battle of Courtrai, fought in the 
year 1302 ; and even as early as the beginning of the sixteenth century 
a large proportion of the body-armour made for war purposes tends 
to become lighter, as the greater mobility of armies in the field became 
more imperative ; and demi-harnesses were employed for light cavalry. 
Fig. 8 (plate n) 1 illustrates an interesting demi-suit in my own collection, 
forged with a special view to lightness, for the leader of a troop of 
light-horse, such as German Reiters or Albanian Stradiots. The 
armour is banded throughout in strips of bright steel on a black en- 
amelled ground ; and it is hung on a characteristic figure of the period. 
The helmet is a bourgonet ; the gorget in three plates ; and the paul- 
drons are riveted to it. 

The hands and fore-arms are protected by gauntlets with long 
pointed cuffs, and the finger and thumb-plates are articulated. The 
breastplate is gussetted, and has a tapul or salient projection over 
the navel, characteristic of the peak or pucker usual in the doublet 
of near the middle of the sixteenth century. Taces of three lames 
and tassets of six, the latter held together by sliding rivets working 
in slots. The gorget bears the maker's mark, and the breastplate 
the Nuremberg guild stamp. 

Another form of half -armour was known as the ' Almain Rivet,' 
the term first employed for the sliding rivets themselves, and the 
designation became extended to the suit of demi-armour itself. The 
word ' Almain,' of course, denotes a German origin. These were 
mobile suits of light armour, usually worn with burgonets. An order 
sent to Florence by Henry vm, in 1512, runs : ' The 2000 complete 
harness called Almayne ryvettes were to be alway a salet, a gorget, 
a breastplate, a backplate and a pair of splints (tassets) for every com- 
plete harness, at 16s. the set.' 3 The burgonet is a lighter form of 
helmet than the armet, and its distinguishing feature is the umbril 
over the eyes. It is in several varieties ; worn either open or with 
a buffe, a protection for the face ending in a collar. The buffe is 
attachable to the helmet by hooks and eyes or rather staples, so that 
the headpiece could be used either open or closed. 

Fig. 9 (plate u) 1 reproduces a fine cap-a-pie armour, now in the Zeug- 

haus at Berlin, which affords an excellent example of the best work of 

about the middle of the sixteenth century. It was made by Peter von 

Speyer of Annaberg in 1560, for Kurfiirst Joachim n, of Brandenburg, 

1 See plate facing p. 137. 2 Archaeclogia, LI, p. 168, 


whose arms decorate the breastplate. The letters P.V.S. with the 
year appear several times on the armour. The helmet is the type 
of armet without collar. The peak on the breastplate projects a little 
below the centre. This peak tends to be placed lower as the century 
advances, until at length the ' peascod ' form is reached, as shown on 
figure 6. There are degrees of this form, which follow those of the 
doublet at every stage. Bulwer, writing in 1563, in the Pedigree of 
the English Gallant, refers to the ' peasecod-bellied doublet.' The 
suit reproduced on fig. 6 (plate n) 1 is the harness in the Wallace collection, 
catalogue No. 484, already referred to as having been made for a form 
of Joust at the Tilt. The breastplate is of the true Elizabethan 
' peascod ' form, converging to a retreating point at the bottom. 
You have the shape exactly in the civil dress as shown in the portrait 
of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester, by George Perfect Harding. The 
tassets swell out over the hips, another feature observable in the por- 
trait ; and, indeed, in portraits of queen Elizabeth herself. This 
form continued with some modifications up to nearly the end of the 
century. In the Wallace collection is a russet armour, catalogue 
no. 864, the russetting, an effect produced by a process of oxydation 
or firing to a russet colour, a surface more easily kept clean than one 
of ' white ' armour. The breastplate is of the peascod form. This 
harness is one of the twenty-nine suits scheduled in a manuscript, 
An Elizabethan Armourer's Album, now at South Kensington, and 
was forged by one ' Jacobe,' the master-armourer at Greenwich during 
part of the reign of queen Elizabeth. ' Jacobe ' would seem to be 
identical with Jacob Topf, who was hofplattner at Innsbruck, from 
1575 to 1587 ; and as such the immediate successor of the celebrated 
Jorg Seiisenhofer, the last of a remarkable family in the craft. There 
is, however, some difficulty as to dates, for some of the suits mentioned 
in the Album would appear to have been made some years after Jacob 
Topf was undoubtedly working at Innsbruck, and had been appointed 
hofplattner there. 

Up to the reign of Henry vin the fine armour for England came from 
Italy or Germany, but the king arranged with Maximilian i, for German 
smiths, who were installed at Greenwich. The iron was imported 
from Innsbruck, English iron not being considered good enough. 
Many harnesses were made, in the second half of the sixteenth century, 
with the taces and tassets combined in a series of overlapping plates, 
extending from the waist to the knees. Concerning these long tassets, 
Meyrick refers to an agreement, now deposited in the State Paper 
Office, between Henry vm and one Captain Wolff van Goetenburgh, 
dated at Greenwich in 1544, for the services of five hundred men- 
at-arms ; and the armour they are to wear is stipulated to be ' tas- 
settes couvrantes les genoux.' 

Blackened armour is met with as early as the fourteenth century ; 
t was much more easily kept clean than ' white,' i.e., bright steel, 
over which a tunic of stuff was often worn. Froissart mentions a 
case of blackened armour under the year 1359. 

During the sixteenth century there was a description of armour 

I penny-plate,' which consisted of circular pieces of steel riveted 

o leather there is an example at the Rotunda, Woolwich. The 

signation occurs in an inventory of the effects of the Earl of Shrews- 
item, one old peny plattcotte.' 

During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries boys of the higher 
5 were taught the use and practice of arms at an early age A 
1 See plate n facing p. 137. 


group of boy's harnesses of various sizes and periods may be seen at 
the Dresden Museum, and there are also several of such suits at the Musee 
d'Artillerie, Paris. Numerour dints on the armour show that hard 
knocks had been exchanged. 


Up to about the middle of the fourteenth century armour is believed 
to have been plain, but soon after that etching and engraving along 
the borders and margins began, though it was not before the reign of 
Maximilian I, 1493-1519, that the decoration extended at all ex- 
tensively to other parts of the armour. During the emperor's reign 
it was sometimes enriched almost over the entire surface ; a notable 
example of which may be seen in the fine skirted armour in the Tower 
of London, by Konrad Seiisenhofer of Innsbruck, sent to our Henry 
vin by Maximilian. The subjects of the ornamentation are the legends 
of St. George and St. Barbara, and the work is lightly and tastefully 
executed. The enrichment may have been carried out by the armour- 
smith, though probably he did not design it. Artists of the highest 
eminence, such as Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo, 
Titian, Albrecht Durer and Benvenuto Cellini, were employed in 
designing for this purpose, and they reckoned it not the least honour- 
able branch of their work. Harness was freely and delicately etched, 
engraved and enriched with gold, damascened, appliqued and decor- 
ated with repousse work in a manner that has not been equalled 
in any other age. Some of the decoration, however, sadly interfered 
with the glancing surface of the armour, thus greatly militating against 
its efficiency for war purposes ; though for merely pageant suits that 
mattered little. The imitation of the civil dress in steel was carried 
to absurd lengths, as shown in the so-called ' Pfeifenharnis,' forged 
after the picturesque costume of the period, with its pipings, puffs 
or rolls and slashes, illustrations of which may be seen in the Triumph 
of Maximilian. In a suit in the Wallace collection, catalogue no. 
555, the details of this dress have been most faithfully and minutely 
reproduced. The very fabric of the dress employed in the costume 
has been imitated and the slashes are gilded. This interesting example 
was acquired by Sir Richard Wallace from the Goodrich court collec- 
tion ; and is figured by Mr. Richard Skelton, F.S.A., in Arms and 
Armour, vol. i, plate xix. Armour preserved of this description is 
rare. Another richly embossed suit at Hertford house, catalogue 
no. 1164, had also formed part of the Meyrick collection ; and is figured 
in Skelton, plate xxxiii, and illustrated here on Fig. 10 (p'ate in) 1 . 
It is stated to have belonged to Alfonso n, the celebrated duke of 
Ferrara, 1533-1597. The cabasset now with the suit never formed 
part of it, and, though the style of enrichment is similar to that of the 
rest of the armour, the subject is a different one. It has ear-flaps 
which is unusual with this style of helmet. The surface of the armour 
is russetted and banded, the details of ornamentation damascened 
in gold and silver. A fine figure of Mars, holding a long-shafted 
weapon in the left hand, occupies the centre of the middle band on the 
breastplate. This figure is standing in an alcove, below which is a 
pair of satyrs, back to back. Seated on the recess are two nude 
figures, captives, bound together in the same position as the satyrs 
below ; and this band is crowned with a gorgon's head, flanked by 
allegorical figures with trumpets. The bands on each side of the 
central one are embellished with allegorical figures and satyrs. Fes- 

1 See plate facing p. 142. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 22 


toons of flowers and fruit, with masks and cornucopiae garnish and 
connect the intervening spaces below the bands. The back-plate 
is banded like the breastplate ; and the recess m the centre contains 
a figure of Hercules and the Nemaean lion, surmounted by the grotesque 
head of a satyr. The other plates of the suit, excepting the helmet, 
are enriched in a similar manner. 

The cabasset is akin to the morion, and is simply a tall iron hat, 
rather narrowing towards the crown to a curious little projecting 
apex. It has a narrow brim curving slightly towards either end, 
and above it runs a line of rivets for fixing the lining. The first mention 
of this type of helmet is in an ' ordonnance ' of Francis I, which orders 
that men-at-arms are to wear the armet ; light horse, the salade ; 
and ' les arquebusieres, seulement le cabasset, pour viser mieux et 
avoir la t6te plus delivre.' There was nothing in the cabasset to 
impede the aim, and it was therefore the proper head-piece for the 


The decline of armour may be said to have become acute coincident 
with the period of its greatest elaboration, and towards the close of 
the sixteenth century unmistakable signs of a general decadence 
appear ; indeed, by that time, except for the purposes of pageantry 
and parade, cap-a-pie suits had almost ceased to be worn. The demand 
for them languished, and with it went the taste and skill for making 
and decorating them ; for we have very little more of the exquisite 
work of the Renaissance, the vigour and force of which had spent 

There were many contributory causes to the decline and subsequent 
disuse of armour. Some writers lay far too much stress on the employ- 
ment of firearms as being the main reason, but the very early handgun 
had little if any influence in this direction, for armour was then proof 
against its projectiles, which were first arrows ; though naturally the 
steadily increasing efficiency first of the harquebus and later of the 
musket, by which a much greater penetrative momentum was attained, 
certainly tended to discourage the use of heavy armour. Another 
cause lay in the fact that full armour could not be constantly worn 
during a long campaign without injury to health, besides being a great 
clog on the mobility of armies in the field. King James I is said to 
have remarked that heavy armour ' was an admirable invention, as 
t hindered a man from being hurt himself or of hurting others.' The 
man-at-arms of an earlier age became the pistolier, the landsknecht 
and the cuirassier of the seventeenth century. 

Early in the seventeenth century another decided change took place 

m the form of the breastplate, following the fashion of the doublet 

il life, in the gradual shortening of the waist ; and body-armour 

became stumpy, uncouth and inelegant in form, besides being inferior 

in resisting power and fit. The last-named circumstance was a potent 

lactor towards the disuse of armour, for harness was frequently made 

hen in certain arbitrary sizes, each piece being numbered, so that 

the suits rarely fitted individual cases. They were thus very apt to 

the hmbs of the wearers into sores beyond endurance ; and 

their armour were often thrown away on the march, all 

rdinances and penalties notwithstanding. There is ample evidence 

J m the writings of military experts from the end of the sixteenth 


century onwards. The latest style of cap-a-pie armour is well illus- 
trated by a harness in the Musee d'Artillerie at Paris, which was 
presented by the Republic of Venice to. Louis xiv of France, in 
1688. It is reproduced on fig. 11 (plate n). The contrast between it and 
the style of armour preceding it is very striking. The suit is engraved 
with foliations ; the proof-marks on the armour affording centres for 
the enrichment. 

During the last half of the century plate armour gradually disappears, 
the pikeman being the last infantry arm to employ it. As early as 
the reign of Charles i many of the military had discarded all body- 
armour beyond the gorget, cuirass and helmet ; indeed, Cruso, in 
Militarie Instructions to the Cavallrie, in 1632, tells that the arque- 
bussier then only wore the buff-coat, though this would appear to have 
t>een only very partially the case. The ' pair of plates ' were the 
last pieces worn, and, except in the case of the cuirassiers, were in 
time abandoned in favour of the buff -coat alone. 

In my collection of arms and armour at Tynemouth is the harness 
and equipment of an officer of pikemen ; and there are also those of 
a cuirassier. They are both hung on figures which were designed by 
the late Karl Gimbel, of Baden-Baden ; and they formed part of his 
interesting and important collection of arms and armour, which was 
dispersed at Berlin in 1906. They are reproduced on figures 12 and 13 
(plate iv). 


In the reign of James i, the infantry consisted mainly of pikemen 
and musketeers. Ward, in his Animadversions of Warre, remarks 
that ' the whole strength of an army consists in the pikes ' ; and 
Markham, in Souldier's Accidence, written in 1625, says : " All 
pikemen shall have good combe-caps for their heads, well lined with 
quilted caps, curaces for their bodies of nimble and good mould, being 
high pike proof ; large and well compact gordgetts for their neckes, 
iayre and close joyned taches, to arme the mid-thighs ; as for the 
pouldrons and the vant-braces, they may be spared, because they are 
cumbersome. All this armour to be rather of russet, sanguine or 
blacke colour, than white or milled, for it will keep the longer free 
from rust. These shal have strong straight yet nimble pikes of ash 
wood, well headed with steel, and armed with plates downward from 
the head, at least foure foot, and the full size or length of every pike 
shal be fifteene foote besides the head. These pikemen shall also 
have good, sharpe and broade-swords, strong scabbards, chapt with 
iron, girdle, hangers or bautricke of strong leather ; and lastly, if to 
the pikeman's head pece be fastened a small ring of iron, and to the 
right side of his back peece (below the girdle), an iron hooke, to hang 
his steele cap upon, it will be a greate ease to the souldier, and a nimble 
carriage in the time of long marches.' 

This interesting suit answers closely to the above mentioned require- 
ments, though the ' pouldrons/ Gervase Markham thinks ' may be 
spared,' are present in this case. The harness is of blackened iron, 
the helmet, a cabasset, ' well lined with a quilted cap,' is furnished 
with ear-flaps and a socketed plume of feathers ; and it has been proven 
by a stroke from a sword or axe. The gorget covers the top of the 
throat and nape of the neck ; the cuirass is held together by straps 
over the shoulders and round the waist ; and to the top of the breast- 
plate the tassets are attached by straps and buckles, reaching to the 
mid-thighs. The pike, fifteen feet long, is held at the order and the 


leather baldrick or waist-belt, holding the sheathed sword, has a lapel, 
or hanger as it was termed, suspended from it, for carrying the pike 
easily when on the march. The sword, which answers to the first 
half of the seventeenth century, has a heavy pommel, straight quillons ; 
and knuckle-bow and side-branches join ring. Double-edged blade 
grooved a third of its length. The suit is illustrated on fig. 12 (plate iv) 1 . 
This admirable and faithfully represented figure with a finely formed 
and characteristic head, is clad in a buff-coat, worn under the cuirass ; 
long wristed gloves, of the same material ; a broad linen turn-down 
collar ; velvet knickerbockers, ornamented at the sides with gold 
braid and brass buttons ; worsted stockings and laced shoes. Height 
5 feet 6 inches. 


This interesting fig., no. 13 (plate iv), is of the time when the use of 
plate armour had reached its last phase. The basin-like head-piece is 
termed a ' Pappenheimer,' named after count Pappenheim, the 
celebrated general who fell at the battle of Lutzen, in 1632. The 
' skull,' which is of hammered iron, is divided by beading into five 
segments, which spring from a small circular plate at the crown ; in 
the centre of which is a small ring, recommended by Gervase Markham, 
for the attachment of the helmet to the belt of the wearer, for giving 
ease when on the march. An umbril shades the eyes ; and there is 
a nose-guard, which can be adjusted at pleasure ; and flexible ear- 
fiaps. The lobster-tailed neck-guard is in four broad plates, and 
reaches well down the nape of the neck. The cuirass of blackened 
iron, is short ; the breastplate, much flatter than before, has a ridge 
running down the middle, and a projecting rim at the bottom for 
holding up the belt which binds the cuirass together ; the attach- 
ment at the top is effected by iron-plated straps, with adjustable 
slot-holes at the ends for locking over brass-headed rivets, placed well 
down the front. The ledge at the bottom of the cuirass is ornamented 
with a line of brass-headed rivets, and there is the same style of decora- 
tion round the arm-pits. There is a bullet indentation on the breast- 
plate, being a test mark. A chamois-skin baldrick is slung over the 
shoulder for the sword, which weapon has a fluted oval pommel ; 
straight quillons ; knuckle-bow joining pommel and coalescing with 
half shell-guard, and there is a thumb-ring ; double-edged blade, 
tapering gently towards the point. Besides the strap attached to the 
baldrick, for the sword, there is a lapel or hanger, the use of which is 
not apparent ; and an ordinary leathern strap goes round the waist, 
to which the powder-flask, with a graduated charge-chamber, and 
bullet-bag are attached. 

The figure itself has a handsomely formed head and well-modelled 

hands ; it is clothed in a buff-coat with long sleeves, underneath which is 

i purple velvet doublet ; the arms of the leather coat are bound round 

with circlets of gold braid, and it buttons over on to large gilt buttons, 

L narrow slit being left down the arms disclosing the velvet garment 

neath to the wrists. There is a broad turn-down collar, trimmed 
pomt-lace. In his left hand the cavalier holds a buck-skin 
Sloye with a long cuff trimmed with gold gimp ; and in the right hand 
-lock pistol. Around the waist is a parti-coloured sash, and he 
blackened leather top-boots, reaching well above the knees, 
spurs are fitted to the heels. Height 5 feet 8| inches. 

1 See plate iv facing p. 143. 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 


NO. 11 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Society was held in the castle, 
Newcastle, on Wednesday, 24th November 1915, at seven o'clock in 
the evening, Mr. F. W. Dendy, D.C.L., a vice-president, being in the 

Several accounts recommended by the Council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

The following ordinary member was proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

Matthew Peaps, 22 Windsor terrace, Gosforth, Newcastle. 

The following BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. C. A. Corder : A bundle of recruiting bills and posters. 

From Mr. R. Blair: The Antiquary for Oct. 1915 (xn, 11). 
Exchange : 

From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal, xxi, iii. 
Purchases : The Jahrbuch of the Imperial German Archaeological 
Institute, xxx and index ; and Notes and Queries for the month. 

The recommendation of the Council to hold no meeting in December, 
on account of the Christmas holidays, was agreed to. 


Mr. Charlton remarked that the Proceedings sent out to members 
were sometimes damaged in the post by folding and otherwise, and he 
thought steps might be taken to prevent this as far as possible. 

Mr. Clague said that owing to the pressure on the post office, due 
to the war, there was a difficulty, as he had found, in preventing 
occasional damage to postal matter. He would suggest that each 
member be supplied with two copies of the Proceedings one sent to 
him in the usual way and the other held in reserve. 

The chairman thought that it was a matter for the Council's con- 
sideration rather than for that meeting, and he suggested that it 
should be discussed at a future meeting of the Council with the view 
of adopting such measures as might be possible to prevent further 


The Rev. Dr. Gee read a paper on ' A Sixteenth Century Journey to 
Durham,' for which he was thanked by acclamation. 
The paper will be printed in Archaeologia Aeliana, vol. xm. 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 



Owing to the lateness of the hour the paper by Miss Hope Dodds 
on 'The Butchers' Company of Newcastle : its history, with a list of 
the members and extracts from the books,' was, on the suggestion of 
the chairman, taken as read. 

It will be printed in extenso in Archaeologia Aehana. 


The following paper by Mr. William Boyd was also taken as read : 
' In the year 1774/5 old Somerset house was demolished and the 
building of the present Somerset house for "the use of public offices was 
begun and was completed about the year 1786. The Royal Academy 
of Arts first assembled here in apartments, the use of which was 
granted to its members by king George HI. The Royal Society met 
here from 1780 to 1857, and rooms were also occupied by the Society of 
Antiquaries of London and the Geological Society. All these societies 
afterwards removed to Burlington house. The building of Somerset 
house is said to have cost half a million of money. The architect was 
Sir William Chambers, a Scotchman who was born in Stockholm in 
1726 and died in London in 1796. He was the favourite architect at 
the court of George in, and of some considerable celebrity ; amongst 
many other works he designed the famous pagoda in Kew gardens. 
He was treasurer of the Royal Society in 1768 and a fellow of the 
Royal Academy and of the Royal Astronomical Society. The Strand 
front of Somerset house has always been much admired, and is 
adorned by nine ' masks ' designed by Sir William Chambers. The 
centre one represents the ' Ocean,' and the 
others represent eight English rivers, viz. : 
the Thames, Mersey, Humber, Tweed, Med- 
way, Dee, Tyne and Severn. Of these 
emblematical masks, that of 'Ocean* and 
those of the first four rivers named were 
carved in stone by Wilton, and the four 
remaining masks (which include that of 
the Tyne) by Carlini. They were two of 
the early Royal Academicians. Sir William 
Chambers came home from Italy with 
Wilton about the year 1770 and married 
his daughter. 

The river Tyne is represented by a head 
having a beard in three plaits surmounted 
by a basket containing coals and sur- 
rounded by various emblems of the trade 
of the district, and is made familiar in the 
north of England by the plate forming the 
frontispiece of vol. n of Brand's History of 

The Rev. John Brand, the historian of 
Newcastle, was born in 1744 and was edu- 

Roval FrP* v ca t ed i up to the a S e of fourteen, at the 

o Ss 2S|STS ar A i S 001 , f Newca *tle, when he was apprenticed 
hUn un tin i7^ r ' A * tho *y Wheatley, a cordwainer, who brought 
at Lincoto r ' T? 6 ? ? e obtained a 'Lord Crewe ' exhibition 
X>ln college, Oxford, and was ordained in 1771, and held 


various curacies and livings in the north of England, occupying 
himself with literary work of various kinds, including the col- 
lection of materials for his History of Newcastle. But in 1784 he 
was presented by the duke of Northumberland to the livings of 
St. Mary at Hill and St. Andrew Hubbard in the city of 
London, and he then took up his residence in London. In 1777 
he had been admitted as a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London, and in 1784 was elected secretary of the society, which post 
he held till his death in September, 1806, in the sixty-third year of 
his age. In 1789 he published his well-known History of Newcastle. 

As before stated the Society of Antiquaries, of which Brand was 
secretary, had its rooms in Somerset house and, as he would mix in 
the literary society of the day, it is easy to imagine that he would be 
on intimate terms with Sir William Chambers, the architect of the 
building, where his daily avocations took him, and there can be no 
doubt that it was in this way that he obtained the design of the head 
of the river-god Tyne, which, engraved by Fittler on copper-plate, 
forms the frontispiece of vol. n of his History of Newcastle. 

Moses Aaron Richardson, who was a younger brother of T. M. 
Richardson, the artist, was born in 1793, and in early life devoted 
himself to the elucidation of local chronology, heraldry and family 
history, and, after the issue of records of the memorials in St. Andrew's 
and St. Nicholas's churches, he published in 1841 The Local Historians' 
Table Book. In the year 1827 he opened a shop as a printer and book- 
seller in Blackett street, Newcastle, at the corner of that street and 
Pilgrim street, removing thence to Grey street soon after its construc- 
tion was begun by Grainger in 1832. Reviving the practice of 
the early printers and booksellers, he put up a sign over his shop 
door, adopting for that purpose a life-size carving of the head of 
the river-god Tyne, which forms the frontispiece of Brand's History, 
the design of which, as has been shown, originated from Somerset 
house, London. This head was carved in wood by Robert Sadler 
Scott, a house and ship carver in Blackett street, and was placed 
over his shop door by M. A. Richardson when he moved to Grey street 
soon after 1832, and an engraving on wood was used, either as a 
printer's colophon or on the title pages of the numerous imprints from 
his press. Moses Aaron Richardson emigrated to Australia in 1850, 
and the business of printer was continued by his son, George Bouchier 
Richardson, who removed the business to 38 Clayton street, where the 
carved head used as his trade mark was fixed over the doorway. In 
1854 G. B. Richardson followed his father to Australia, and the business 
was carried on, first by J. G. Forster, and then by others, and 
eventually sold. 

The late Mr. Andrew Reid purchased the carving at some date 
between G. B. Richardson's departure in 1854 and the year 1863, 
when he placed it over the arch in the centre of the new Printing Court 
Buildings on Akenside hill, where the original wooden carving has since 
been carefully preserved by his descendents. The carving has recently 
been examined (Oct., 1915), and is found to be of wood, and is doubt- 
less the same carving which was placed over his shop door by M. A. 
Richardson about the year 1832. 

It is thought that this brief record of the origin, migration and 
present existence of the emblem, so well known and much used in 
Northumberland, may be of interest to some who concern themselves 
with such details of local history.' 



The Rev. Arthur Watts, of Witton Gilbert, read the following paper 
on the recent discovery at Witton Gilbert, of a polished stone axe 
and other stone objects. At the meeting on the 5th October, 1915 
(page 122), he presented the objects to the society and they are 
now in the Blackgate museum: 

'A well-preserved polished stone axe, a rudely shaped hand-hammer, 
and several stones that seem to have been used as whetstones, were 
found in a gravel-bed, under a considerable accumulation of peat, 
in a deserted bed of the Browney, at the foot of Church-hill, just north 
of the ruins of St. John's chapel, in the parish of Witton Gilbert, 
Durham, in the years 1913 and 1914, during the preparation of new 
sewerage works for that parish. The spot lies well within the bounds 
of the ancient deer-park which surrounded Beaurepaire, that charming 
retreat built by the priors of Durham, and so much used by them 
in the 13th and 14th centuries, at which time St. John's chapel was 
built for the use of their foresters and park-people generally. 

The sewerage works were in the hands of a local foreman, Mr. 
T. I. Watson of Chester-le- Street, to whose intelligence we in the 
first place owe the discovery of this axe. He brought it to me, know- 
ing my interest in such things ; and left it with me to decide what 
should be done with it, both of us agreeing that it should not be 
placed in any private collection. It has remained in my keeping till 
it found a resting place on 5th October 1915, in the museum of the 
society at the Blackgate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 


deposition here. Dr. Henson, dean of Durham, would 


willingly have found a home for it in the dean and chapter library, 
but I think that your museum will afford it a farther range of usefulness, 
so here it is, together with the hammer and other stones found by me, 
July 1914, in a very thorough examination of that part of the gravel- 
bed where the find was made, and which is now covered up by the 
completed sewerage- tanks. 

I think that its associated stones should be preserved with it, a 
matter of great importance. 

The Newcastle and Durham Natural History Society asked me to 
act as guide on 15th July, 1914, on occasion of a visit by members of 
that society to Knitsley for Howen's gill, and to them I showed axe 
and hammer, since Howen's gill was once, in my opinion, part of the 
same water- course as that where the tools were found, and owes its 
existence to the same glacial period. The hammer had been found by 
rne toward the end of the excavation and near the bottom of the gravel, 
just a short time before their meeting. 

A special interest attaches to these tools, since the place and con- 
ditions under which they were discovered happily fell under the 
scientific observation of one, who for thirty years has made the geo- 
graphical and geological evidences afforded by the Browney valley a 
special study, and to interest others founded in 1907 the Browney 
Valley Naturalist's Field Club. 

The geological interest in this find, which is great, will be dealt with 
in another place, so we will confine ourselves to the antiquarian interest, 
only dealing with the former when absolutely necessary. After 
removing some 8 or 9 inches of soil, the axe was found under 5 feet of 
peat, in a gravel bed over 7 feet thick, well cemented by iron oxide, 
and yielding Criffel, Shap and other granites, among ganister, millstone- 
grit and red sandstone boulders, with porphyries, quartz and trap- 
rocks among local stone, basalt and coal forming part of the morainic 
deposit indicated in the rounded mound of Church hill (357 feet above 
the sea) on the one side, and Blackcliff hill on the other (some 330 feet) . 
The Browney now flows south of this latter hill at a lower level, but 
when the axe was in use flowed north of it. The gravel-bed extended 
beyond the peat and overlies a stiff clay akin to Birtley clay of the 
adjoining Team valley, and which roughly outlines a glacial lake that 
extended from Aden cottage by Durham Red hills to beyond Langley- 
Park colliery. The axe was found within the boundaries of this ancient 
lake. The accompanying section indicates the original positions of 
both axe and hammer. 

The axe is of a greenish-blue slate or shale of great fineness and density, 
and is probably Silurian and from Cumberland. It has not yet been 
analysed, but its concoidal fracture points to a high per centage of 
silica. It weighs 1 Ib 9 oz., is 9 inches long by 2f broad and 3 in 
thickness at the most. It is little damaged, and fortunately, 
only at the butt end. The cutting edge is almost perfect, showing 
but a few ancient notches and on its two smooth faces a few 
patches where the original flaking had gone too deep to be entirely 
removed in the polishing without too greatly reducing its weight. 
Lord Avebury says that ' flint was the material most commonly 
used, but every kind of stone hard and tough enough for the purpose was 
utilized during the Stone Age in the manufacture of implements. Of the 
better qualities of rock suited for celt making the type of the felspathic 
extreme of the series of trap rocks is the pure felstone or petrosilex 
of a pale greyish or bluish green, except where the surface has been 


acted upon. The average composition of the rock is 25 parts quartz 
and 75 felspar. Its physical characters are absence of toughness and 
the existence of a splintering concoidal fracture almost as sharp as that 
of flint. After choosing a stone the first step was to reduce it by blows 
of hammer to suitable size. Grooves were then made artificially with 
Hint knives, sand and water a difficult task. The required depth 
reached, the projecting portions were removed by skilful hammer blows, 
and the instrument then sharpened and polished on blocks of sandstone.' 
Though this refers to flint axes, the process was similar for other 
material, save that the grooving was not always needed. It was not 
needed in this case. 






4- Ate. found 

i feet fy more 

X Jiammer found. 

centre to sides and to curved cutting edge as Mr H Palmer'^ 



the peat began to bury it. Its general appearance, and especially the 
nature of the curve of the cutting edge, is so like the well-known Solway 
axe, which fortunately was discovered along with its shaft, that we 
cannot resist the belief that our Witton axe once had a handle. The 
former was hafted in such a way that every use of the tool fixed it 
more firmly in its position, which was such that the blade made an 
angle of 110 to the haft, thereby making its use much more effective. 
This too indicates a latish period of the Stone Age, and yet before man 
here in Britain had acquired either the knowledge or the means of 
boring a hole in the tool. The hole, if any, was still in the wooden 
haft. The same is true of the hammer, which puts their age as older 
than the ' barrows/ round or long. 

The hammer is a much rougher tool, but its diamond shape, flattened 
faces, and general appearance, besides the nature of the stone selected, 
strike one familiar with ancient hammers, and handling it at once 
strengthens the opinion, for it lends itself readily to hand grip. It 
is of a dense, weighty igneous rock, possibly from the Cheviots, 
weighing 1 Ib. 8J oz., just one ounce less than the axe, though only 
5| in. long, 2 wide and f thick. It shows signs of much more jostling 
and tumbling about than the axe does, and was found towards the 
bottom of the gravel bed. 

Both are probably of about the same age, and that is geologically 
certain, for the gravel forms part of the alluvial deposits that constitute 
the surface material of the Browney valley at the present time, and in 
which alluvium this and still older river beds are revealed in our pit 
workings ; but these latter belong to the beginning and this now under 
our consideration to the end of the entire last glacial period. Both are 
made of the materials supplied by the gravel bed in the form of boulders 
or travelled stones from Cumberland and Galloway by Edendale, 
South Tynedale and Weardale, and from the Cheviots and south east 
Scotland by North Tynedale, Derwentdale and Howen's gill into the 
Browney valley, brought on and in ice. Specimens of the smaller 
stones are exhibited, one showing ice action, and some of the larger may 
be seen at Witton Gilbert rectory. Curiously enough boulders of Shap 
and Criffel granite meet in this gravel bank, a point of junction farther 
north than ever seen by me before ; but of this more hereafter. 

The main known facts are now before us, and the question naturally 
arises what is the age of the tools ? They are undoubtedly prehistoric 
and postglacial. This gives a minimum and a maximum age possible, 
between which the true age must be sought. No one can doubt their 
human origin, nor that they are Neolithic. They are of about the same 
age as the upper river gravels of our existing river systems as they 
gradually took shape on the retreat of the ice northwards and west- 
wards, when the last glacial age was departing in Pleistocene times. 
It remains therefore only to fix the date of that age. 

The deserted Browney river-bed, which yielded the tools, is con- 
tinuous with that pre-glacial course of the Browney which passed 
by Aden cottage, the Flass, and Durham county hospital into the Wear 
at Milburngate, before the Browney took its present course by 
Bearpark (Beaurepaire-park) ruins and mouth of Dearness to the 
Wear opposite Butterby, and, close at home before the Browney cut 
for itself a way along the face of the Black Crags, near Witton Gilbert 
railway station, south of Blackcliff hill, to the north of which the old 
stream flowed. This deserted water-course is therefore preglacial, 
and not merely postglacial or belonging to historic times. These 


changes need time, and probably large time. The nearest point of the 
Browney to-day to the sewerage works is by St. John s ruined chapel, 
where it is distant about 150 yards, but here the Browney has long been 
encroaching as though coming back to claim its olden rights. The 
average distance is about a quarter of a mile, as the accompanying 
survey tracing shows. 

Everyone knows that gravel can only be formed in running water 
and peat only in stagnant water. When the lost axe found a resting 
place among the gravel, the Browney was still flowing in its olden bed, 
which has been deserted long enough for at least seven feet of peat to 
accumulate and itself be covered by eight or nine inches of soil. The 
rate of deposition of peat depends upon many factors, and is therefore 
only a very rough guide to age. It, however, testifies that the axe is 
venerable, and this the geographical evidence confirms. The shape 
and style of the tool further establish its antiquity. 

The gravel bed is certainly co-eval with that retreat of the ice up 
Browney valley, which left as indications of its march the Red hills 
and our Church hills, both of which are transverse deposits of sand, 
gravel and clay freely sprinkled with boulders (akin to those in the 
gravel bank), and therefore morainic in origin, holding up between 
them the waters of a glacial lake, till a way was finally opened by 
Beaurepaire ruins. The axe is perhaps co-eval with the gravel-bank 
or possibly earlier, but not much earlier ; quite certainly not later. 
It could only possibly be later by being lost in the bog, whilst the bed 
of peat was amaking, and sinking by its weight to the bottom of the 
peat, and so resting on the gravel though in the peat. However it 
was not found on the gravel, but in it cemented some inches below the 
top in the ochreous mass of stones and grit, from which it was freed and 

Considering all these points, the age of the tools must be assigned to 
the river-gravels of the pleistocene age of the quarternery period, and 
on antiquarian grounds to either the Moustier or Chelles group. Now 
hand axes (though not of this shape) are a distinguishing feature of 
the older Chelles group, though almost invariably of flint ; whilst in 
the later Moustier group hand axes are rare. My opinion, in spite 
of this, is that its place will be found in the Moustier or possibly even 
a later group, since there can be no doubt that it belongs to the close 
of the Glacial age and not to an inter-glacial period, as do certainly the 
tools and weapons of the Chelles group. We must see therefore if 
it is possible to give a date to the Glacial age. 

This we fortunately can now do without those extraordinary demands 
upon time with which astronomers, who accepted Dr. Croll's theory, 
startled geologists. They fixed the close of the last Ice age at 80,000 
and its beginning at 240,000 years ago. Geologists were startled, 
because there is evidence of man's existence as far back as the pliocene, 
and possibly miocene. age of the tertiary period, which demanded an 
antiquity for man of not less than some three millions of years. 

Since Drayson worked out his curve of the obliquity of the earth's 

os, geologists in Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland and America have 
along various lines of research, on glacier cones, peat mosses, water- 
fall avenues, etc., etc. been able to test its accuracy. At all points 
ts conclusions are confirmed. The last Ice age began 23,000, reached 
s climax 15,000 and ended 7,000 years ago. The obliquity curve 
tes a cycle in 31,756 years, and enables us both to forecast 

nmg events and to reveal hidden past times. It tells us we are now 


removed 15,450 years from the height of the last Glacial age, that of 
maximum obliquity, and are now approaching one of minimum 
obliquity, which we shall reach in 385 years. Then seasonal contrast 
will be at its lowest. In other words, the last Ice age began 23,900 
B.C., reached its full strength here in Durham 13,544 B.C., came to an 
end 5,624 B.C., and we shall reach the centre of our present Inter- 
glacial period 2,295 A.D., that is 380 years hence. 

If these calculations are reliable, and there is every day growing 
reasons for thinking they are, our axe and hammer were not less than 
7,537 years old, nor more than 15,000, when unearthed in the excava- 
tions at Witton Gilbert in 1913 and 1914 respectively. 

This is the answer which geology gives. Archaeological research 
may help us to a still more proximate date when definite ages can 
be assigned to the human remains, that afford the evidence on which 
the Chelles, Moustier and other men are based. One thing is pretty 
certain, the man who used that Witton Gilbert axe was contem- 
poraneous with the Mammoth ; our submerged forests were not then 
submerged, and the Dogger Bank was a hill range. 

It must be remembered first that the \ice would retreat from France 
earlier than from Durham. Scotland and Iceland ; secondly, that 
Paleolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages are rather phases of 
civilization than chronological periods of time ; thirdly, that stone 
weapons did not pass wholly out of use when bronze displaced them, 
but their use lingered on in remote and uncivilized regions, and for 
ordinary purposes, as we still find them being used in New Guinea, 
South America, etc., by barbarous tribes of men. When Egypt was 
in the Bronze age, Britain was in the Palaeolithic age, for copper was 
known and used in Egypt certainly 7,000 and probably 10,000 years 
ago. Its use did not reach Britain till 2,500 B.C. at the earliest, and 
that of Iron till 1,000 B.C. Dr. Greenwell gives 1,000 B.C. for copper. 

Possibly our axe was in use by earlier tribes than the Ancient Briton, 
by some of Iberian stock, who knowing only stone weapons fell away 
westwards before tribes of Celtic stock, who knew the use of bronze ; 
just as they in turn fell away westwards before the Romans and our 
Saxon ancestors, who knew the use of iron and steel, and as the modern 
German hopes we shall have to fall back before the use of poisonous 
gases and other forms of chemical attack. But that time is not yet. 

Allowance being made for our backward civilization, I think we may 
safely say that this axe is not less than 7000 years old.' 

The Rev. A. Watts, Miss Dodds, and Mr. Boyd were thanked for 
their communications. 

RADCLIFFE PAPERS (continued from p. 128). 

The following are letters from Charles Busby, one of the agents to 
the countess of Derwentwater, concerning the property : 
Madam Xbr. the 3d 1722 

I have the Honor of your Lad'ps of the 25th past, and as to my Accts Mr. Rod- 
bourn writes me that as to the Date and Annvall p'riod of them tis well enough with oute 
any alteracon of them, so shall lett them stand as now sent up. Some dayes since I rece'd 
f m my ffriend the Malancolly News y't notwithstanding all endeavours to the Contrary 
y't Com'rs had sent down preacepts to the Sherrifes of Bishopricke and Northumberland 
to take possession of all my L y M y's Estates, whereupon I went over immediately to 
Durham, where (tho they had y't same notice w'th me) not one single stepp was taken to 

[Proc. 3 Ser. viij 24 


prepare the Ten'ts against the Storm or any Intrest made to the Serriffes (sic), however 
my lourney was taken extreamly well, and such Methodds have since been taken that one 
Tennant has not turned to them this last Weeke wee had a Meeting att Newcastle in order 
to have Mr. Seriant Cuthberts Opinion on these Affaires, but he lyes Weather Bound in the 
Country so must be forced to go againe. These Journey's are verry expensive but I have 
not time to consult your Honor before hand, and if I sette still I dont see but they may 
tamely [?] take all, which would be a verry great preiudice to my Lord, for I do not despaire, 
if matters are drove to the worst, but to secure his Honor aboute 800 p. an. When att 
Durham I gave Mr. Ca by the particulars of your Honors relateing to Mr. Garlington, 
& desired him to make the Superior acqvainted there with The Gen't that came in Mr. 
Loraines place, has not been in Aldston Moor, as I wrotte your Honor, in my last he had, 
depending on his word for his goeing. I have wrotte him aboute it some time since, but 
have no answere, he is much at Cheesburn Grainge, & whether he will ever go or not I can 
not tell, however the people shall not be destitute this holy time, for in Case he does not 
comply w'th your Honors offer I will send Mr. Thompson who is acqvainted in y't Country 
to do the Duty till I have your Lad'ps further pleasure herein. I am in all Humble Duty 

My Wife sends her most 
humble Duty to y'r Ho'r 
little Lord, and Lady Anne 
w'th humble thankes tor y'r 
Lad'ps kind present, and 
rememberances of her. 

[Addressed : ' For 
water att her House 


Your Honors Ever Most 

Obedient Humble Servant 
Char: Busby. 

The R* Hon'ble the Countess of | Darwent- 
in Bruxells | Brabant | p d 4.'] 
Madam Xbr. the 22d 1722 

The inclosed I thought convinient to send y'r Ho'r. that your Lad'p might the 
better give an answere in Case Mr. Garlington should write to y'r Honor. He is now 
returned into these parts, and as I am told does not valve the reflections y't are cast upon 
him by all people, so not likely to alter his Course of life, continvally shufneing f 'm place to 
phce, and never abideing where he should be. As to L y M y's affaires there is little more 
don in y'm y'n w't I wrotte y'r Ho'r in my last ; save y't wee have had Seriant Cuthberts 
Opinion w'h is verry darke on her Lad'ps side, if all be Law he sayes, w'h I much qvestion 
so hopes she will take the Opinions of others that are more immediately concerned in these 
Matters. As to ffranke Simpson I have lately had a letter f'm the Coaler and 2 f'm his 
Attorney all to no purpose, the ludgm't he is layed up for is but 38, on paym't whereof he 
may be discharged but will afterwards be lyable to the subsequent charges so that if he be 
not entirely cleared, the payeing of the Judgment will be lost money's, as your Ho'r designs 
he should be att liberty ; upon the whole I shall differ doeing any thing further till I hear 
asaine f'm your Lad'p w'n I shall obey y'r Ho'rs Commands. My Lords Birthday wee 
observed w'th prayer in the Morning, and did not omitte drinkeing his Lod'ps, y'r Hon'rs, 
Lady Anne and ffamileys good healths in the afternoon. My Wife beggs leave to ioyn in, 
humble duty to your Ho'r my Lord, and Lady Anne ; being eqvally w'th my selfe. 
Madam | Your Honors Ever Most | Obedient Humble Servant 

Char: Busby. 

[Addressed: 'For | The R' Hon'ble the Countess of I Darwent 
water att her House m | Bruxells | Brabant | p d 4'] 

ffeb: the 23d 1722[-3] 

Persvant to yo'r Ho'rs com'and I have been att Yorke, and after long strugle 

compounded Simpsons Debt, since w'h time I been att Morpeth and released him oute of 

Prison, gave him a Ginnea f'm y'r Lad'p, and told him everry thing y'r Honor was pleased 

o order me. The sum he stood charged with att Yorke was 56 12 2 what I have layed 

for his releasm't travelling Charges and all other expences included is 38 19 for 

he now stands clear of all things, excepting 5 10 '0 w'h the Coaler of Morpeth charges 

v'th all for diette and lodging, whilst in his Custody. But this I told the Coaler I could 

ot pay with oute y'r Ho'rs order, so he tooke Simpsons note for that sum, till such time 

I had y r Lad'ps pleasure in it. 


As to Lady M ys affairs I have good hopes of y'm both f'm my ffriend, and Mr R bn, 
so did not mention w't y'r Lad'p wrotte on y't secure, w'n att Durham for fear it might give 
offence, when there was no p'sent occasion, of speakeing of it : Workmen are'now on att the 
Mill Damme, w'h I hope to see compleated by May day and when that is finished, would 
have something don att the Divills water, to prevent the ffloode coming into the Cbrne 
ffields, below the ffourd leading to Hexham, A charge now if taken in time of aboute ten 
pounds but if neglected may prove of ill consequens, and a great charge hereafterl As 
to the Wide Haugh Head your Honors orders are verry iust, to have the Charges first com- 
puted, which can not so immediately now be well don, by reason Sr Wm. Blacketts should 
be first consulted, for some Libertys in his side the W . . . which when granted, may save 
very consider ... of that Expence. With myne and my wifes most humble Duty to your 
Honor, my Lord, and Lady Anne I begg leave to remaine 

Madam | Your Lad'p Ever Most | Obedient Humble | Servant 

Char: Busby 

[Addressed : ' For | The R* Hon'ble the Countess of | Darwentwater 
att her House in | Bruxells | Brabant.'] 

Madam Ap: the 27th 1723 

My L y M y continving so verry much oute of order, I went over last weeke 
partly on business, but more particularly to inform myself of the State of her health, and 
posture of Affaires in Case of Mortality. As to the former according to the Acc't the Gen't 
gave me she cant continve long, and as to the latter I do not find any will has been made, 
since the death of either of her Brs. and how to advise, as the Case now stands, for the best 
to my Master, putts us both to a stand, so have stated the Matter above and when T have 
rec'ed their thoughts, shall then go over againe to the Honest Gen't who I dare answere will 
do all he can, for your "Honors Servis. He desires, that not withstanding y'r Lad'p, has 
had no Answere to your fformer letters, that your Honor would not omitte writeing now 
some times,forthat her temper is such that she loves to beCourted to do the thing her naturall 
Inclinations lead her to of her owne accord. Our Mill Damme is now near finished the Charge 
whereof when compleated your Honor shall have in particulars. Twould be much for your 
Lad'ps advantage, if your Honor would be pleased to signify your pleasure with this Town 
Tennants, both now and old, for till they come to new Agreem'ts none will burn Lime or 
Manure the Ground in any tollerable manner as itt ought to be. With the tender of myne 
and Wifes most humble Duty to your Honor, my Lord, and Lady Anne I begg leave to 

Madam | Your Ladyshipps Ever most | Obedient, Humble Servant, 

Char: Busby. 

[Addressed : ' For | The R* Honorable the Countess | oi Darwent- 
water att her House | in Bruxells ] Brabant | p d 4 '] 
Sr. June the 14th, 1726. 

The Honor of yours to my Wife, I had owned long since, but differed the same in 
hopes to have given y'r Honor some agreeable News concerning Mr. Arth: R fe, who, 
as I am told by Mr. Garlington, is now in tollerable good health, and goeing for London in 
about 3 Weeks ; which I am glad to hear, beliveing there may be many Snakes in the 
Grass where he bideth att present. Mr. Garlington has been many year's in my Lords ffamily, 
and liued with Mr. R fe some yeares here att Dilston, has been sent for to him severall 
times of late since his illness, and is now goeing to London with him, which I am glad of 
beliveing him to have a true Honor and regard for my Lord and his ffamily, so shall say- 
all I am capable to him on this behalfe, as also recomend to him to go To Mr. Rodbourn 
when he comes to Town, as occasion requires for his advice, as he promises to do. However 
a Line f'm your Honor, if you are so pleased, to Mr. Garlington, may do more, then what 
an other can say or write. With the tender of myne and my Wifes most Humble Duty 
to your Honor, Lady Webb, my Lord and Lady Anne, I beg leave to remain 

Yours Honors Ever most Duti- | full Obedient Humble Servant, 

Char: Busby. 

[Addressed : ' For | The Honorable S r lohn Webb | Barn 4 att his 
House in Bruxells | Brabant | p d 4 '] 


- The fol'owing letter addressed to Sir John Webb is probably from 
another agent: 

Hono'rd S r 

Sep'r 15: 1731: 

I Rec'ed yo'rs of the lltb inst, and shall obserue all yo'r Orders therein, I am truely 
glad to heare Lord Darwentwater is well, and that it proues a Mistake as inserted in our 
publick news ; and hope this fyne wether will procure my Lady & her ffamilly a Safe 
passage ouere ; and happy Arriuall in London ; 

I haue been with fanner Chubbs Executors of Saturday last, and treated with them about the 
ffarm and tythes and the Most I Can bring them to giue for the ffarm is 27011. a yeare w'th the 
Liberty of plowing Stony Close, and the most they offer for the whole tythes is 110M. per an. 
that is : 60tf. per ann' for the tythes of the ffarm, and 50H. per ann' for the parish, and priuy 
tythes all together ; and they insist uppon haueing Wats's Liueing on Acco't of haueing 
Occation for a house and they offer for that Liueing : 4=511. per ann' theyr designe in Case 
they doe agree with you is to quit Doctor Callards ; but they will not rent the ffarm without 

all the tythes these 2 Executors are both Sufficient men ; but are much Cast downe with 

the badness of this yeare ; now if you please to haue me trye any other tenuant for the 
ff irm & tythes : I shall doe it ; but am not Certain if agreeing ; and Chubbs haue the offer 
of another farm at Clarington parke ; the Long delays about ye agreem't with Mr. Reedy and 

the parson ; has been a prejudice to the Letting of yo'r ffarm, Considering the times 

I haue been with Mr. Jervisses tennant, who Continews Sick and Lame ; but says still that 
he will aduanse rent ; but is not soe pressing for it as before ; I haue another tennant that 
has offerd to take it, but Cannot tell what rent he will giue ; he is a stranger to the farm and 
Country, but liues a great distans of, tho' I haue a good Charracter of him ; and that he is 
a Suffitient man ; I am willing & redy to doe for the best. I haue sold that Small bergin of 
Geo: Mowdys at hamptworth for the ffyne of 1911 for a Leas of 3 lifes ; it being onely : i : 
acre of grownd, and ualued at one pound per ann': the purchaser gaue me More for it : by 
reason it Lyes handy and Convenient for him. 

I haue been Ouer att Accon this Week to Look after the repairs of yo'r Mills &c. ; and to 
deleuer the Leasses, and to haue the Counterparts Signed. Tho: Brenton Makes great Com- 
plaints still about Mr. Perkins takeing all the ffishe : so thate yo'r Royaltie is not worth any 
thing to him he has not Signed his Leass yett but says he will in about 3 weeks time but 
says he will neuer Signe noe More unless he ha? Some Consideracon for the ffishinge, and 
thinks it hard to pay rent for what he Makes noe proffitt of. 

The Widdow Snelling desires a Court may be kept at Mich'mas next on acco't of her 
widdows Esstate ; her husband not being taken tennant before he dyed : quere : whether 
shee can haue her widdows Estate accordinge to the Custom of the Manner, or Not (her 
husband did Come to the last Courrt and did desire to be admitted tennant : but some 
dispute ariseing soe that he was not took tennant : please to giue yo'r answer to this $ 
yo'r Next Letter ; the widdow was left very poor but Shee has 2 brothers that haue assisted 
her : and shee proposes to Continew out her Leass of Marthins ffarm : being : 6 : years to 
Come ; and to help breed upp her Children. These being all the affairs as I haue to accquaint 
you with at present, hope it will fynd you and all yo'r Honor'ble ffamily in perfect & good 
health ; which I truely wish may attend you, being with all humble Duty, 

Hono'ed S'r | Yo'r Most ffaithfull | Servant 

Jno: Brown. 

I begg my Most humble duty may be acceptable to my Lady and to all yo'r ffamilly where 
<1ue. pray when I haue gott the next packquet of Leases redy where shall I send y'm for 
you to execute. 

I shall obserue yo'r orders about Mr. Richardson ; for Mr. Rings Tennem't ; and Huntts ; 

I Can deale with him, but I haue been a lourney to queer after the widdow Ring and the 

utor about ye herriott he is gone off for London ; and Shee is gone down below tanton 

; and the tennant uppon it is uery poor and has nothing uppon the Esstate worth 

J that I Cannot tell what I shall doe in this Matter. 

[Addressed: ' To | The Honor*" S' John Webb Barn" | at the 
two red Lamps in Poland Street | London ' | 4'] 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 


NO. 12 

The one hundred and third annual meeting of the Society was held 
in the Castle, Newcastle, on Wednesday, the 26th January 1916, at one 
o'clock in the afternoon, Mr. F. W. Bendy, D.C.L., a vice-president, 
being in the chair. 

Several accounts recommended by the Council for payment were 
ordered to be paid. 

Mr. B. Blair (one of the secretaries) said that their noble president, 
the duke of Northumberland, had asked him to make his apologies to 
the members for his absence from the meeting owing to other engage- 

The following ordinary members were proposed and declared duly 
elected : 

1. Leonard Atkinson, Eilansgate, Hexham. 

2. Donaldson Bell Jackson, 18 Market Street, Newcastle. 

3. James Dudfield Rose, 22 Croft Terrace, Jarrow, 

The chairman then declared the following persons duly elected to the 
respective offices in terms of statute v, which sets forth that ' if the 
number of persons nominated for any office be the same as the number to 
be elected, the person or persons nominated shall be deemed elected, and 
shall be so declared by the chairman,' viz. : 

President : His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G., F.S.A. 

12 Vice-presidents: The Rev. Cuthbert E. Adamson, M.A., Robert 
Coltman Glephaii, F.S.A., Frederick Walter Dendy, D.C.L., the 
Rev. Henry Gee, D.D., F.S.A. , the Rev. William Greenwell, D.C.L., 
F.S.A., &c., Francis J. Haverfield, LL.D., F.S.A., Richard Oliver 
Heslop,M. A., F.S.A., John Crawford Hodgson, M. A., F.S.A., WiJliam 
Henry Knowles, F.S.A., the Very Rev. Henry Edwin Savage, D.D., 
Thomas Taylor, F.S.A., and Richard Welford, M.A. 

Secretaries: Robert Blair, F.S.A., and Joseph Oswald. 

Treasurer: Robert Sinclair Nisbet. 

Editor : Robert Blair. 

Librarian : Charles Hunter Blair. 

2 Curators : W. Parker Brewis and William Hardcastle. 

2 Auditors: Herbert Maxwell Wood, B.A., and James Arnott Sisson. 

12 Council: William Parker Brewis, F.S.A., Sydney Storey Carr, 
Walter Shewell Corder, J. Wight Duff, D.Litt., &c., William 
Waymouth Gibson, William Hardcastle, Jon. Edward Hodgkin, 
Arthur M. Oliver, John Oxberry, G. R. B. Spain, Nicholas Temperley, 
and William Weaver Tomlinson. 


Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read the following report : 
'Although individually the vocations and avocations of most of us have 
been disturbed by the continuance throughout the past year of the Great 
War, as a society our operations have been but slightly affected by it. 
\PfOC. 3 Ser. VH] 25 


The chief interference was in connexion with the country meetings, of 
which none was held, satisfactory arrangements for them having been 
rendered difficult by the increased cost and uncertainty of railway 
travelling and the restricted facilities for road conveyance. A very 
successful outdoor meeting was, however, held in Newcastle on 5th 
October in conjunction with the Durham and Northumberland Archi- 
tectural 'and Archaeological Society, when there was a large attendance 
of members of both societies, including Dr. William Greenwell one of our 
vice-presidents and president of the younger society, who despite the 
weight of nearly ninety-six years assisted in carrying out the day's pro- 
gramme. It is interesting to note that he was first elected a member of 
our Society more than seventy years ago (3rd June, 1845). Ten indoor 
meetings have been held as usual during the year and were well attended, 
and the papers communicated to them suffered neither diminution in 
number nor abatement in interest. 

Our transactions have been published with customary regularity. 
These included vol. xu of the third series of Archaeologia Aeliana (com- 
prising pp. xxxv and 375, eight plates and many other illustrations), and 
the first half of vol. vn of the current series of Proceedings (comprising 
160 pages in sheets, 15 plates, and numerous illustrations in the text). 

When we compare the total number of members with those attending 
the meetings it is evident that to the majority the publications of the 
society constitute the chief inducement for membership. No doubt the 
absentee members follow, with sustained interest, our doings as reported 
in the transactions. It is therefore obviously of the utmost importance to 
the welfare of the society that the regular issue of our publications should 
be maintained, and it is satisfactory to know that the editor has in his 
possession excellent materials for more than one future volume of 
Archaeologia Aeliana, and that he is able month after month to fill the 
Proceedings with interesting and valuable contributions towards the 
elucidation of local history and the study of northern antiquities. 
Unfortunately the cost of production is rising, and the scarcity of labour 
in the printing trade is affecting the progress of the volumes in the press. 
This is causing considerable anxiety, but it is expected these difficulties 
will prove to be only temporary, and if in the meantime the bulk of the 
volumes has to be reduced, it is hoped members will make due allowance 
for the abnormal state of affairs prevailing. 

A feature of the past year's activity in the way of publications was 
the re-issue of the first and only volume of the first series of the 
Proceedings. This was mentioned in last year's report as then in pre- 
paration. The cost was defrayed by special subscriptions. An edition 

f about 100 copies was printed and nearly the whole of it has been 
disposed of. The re-print runs to 347 pages and has a new index 

ompiled by the editor. Contrasting the Proceedings of to-day with this 
volume of sixty years ago, we cannot fail to be struck by the absence of 
illustrations in the latter, and to appreciate how modern methods of 
reproducing drawings and photographs have added to the means of 
conveying accurate information. 
An accidental fire took place in the castle in April last, destroying a 

ortion of the reserve stock of our publications, including the guide-book 

o the Keep As the latter is in constant demand for sale to visitors, its 
hor Mr. W Parker Brewis, F.S.A.,.has kindly re-written it, and the 

with much additio * al 

- of the castle, Mr. John Gibson, whose services of forty- 
on, were sympathetically referred to in last year's report, 

Proc. ,$oc. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vil. 

To face page 162 



From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brewis, F.S.A. 


passed away on 12th March last, at the advanced age of 82 years, having 
performed his duties at the castle until within a fortnight of his decease. 

Our losses of members by death since the last annual meeting 
include : George Edward Hunter, (elected 1911) ; he was a captain in 
the 6th Northumberland Fusiliers (T.), and was killed in action near 
Ypres on the 26th April last ; George May, (elected 1899) ; John Philip- 
son Ridley, (elected 1889) ; Rev. F. G. J. Robinson, (elected 1900) ; R. 
Stanley Rowell, (elected 1908) ; George Weddell (elected 1898) ; and 
Thomas Williamson, (elected 1891). 

It is feared that Captain James Harold Cuthbert, D.S.O., (elected 1912) 
reported as missing in the war, may be lost to us. As the owner of the 
site of Corstopitum he rendered possible by his generous aid and co- 
operation the excavations there. 

Only nine new members have been elected during the year. This is 
below the recent annual average, but considering the circumstances of the 
times it need not be regarded as a matter for discouragement. 

During the year there have been issued two volumes of the Surtees 
Society's publications edited respectively by two of our vice-presidents, 
namely: Visitations of the North (i) by Mr. F. W. Dendy, D.C.L., and 
North Country Diaries (n) by Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, M.A., F.S.A. 
There has also just been published by the Cambridge University Press, 
The Pilgrimage of Grace and the Exeter Conspiracy, written by our 
member, Miss M. Hope Dodds, in collaboration with her sister. 

The periodic pilgrimage ' of the Roman Wall (which took place in 
1886, 1896, and 1906) falls due in the summer of 1916. It will be a 
matter of consideration whether it should be arranged for if the blessings 
of peace be restored to us by that time. 

The British Association for the Advancement of Science is to meet in 
Newcastle in 1916, when our society will gladly participate in welcoming 
it as on previous occasions in 1838, 1863, and 1889. 

The exhibition, at present open in the Laing Art Gallery, of pictures 
and objects illustrative of old Newcastle, suggests the expression of a 
hope that, when happier times return, it may not be left to the efforts of 
a society like our own to collect and display similar memorials, but 
that Newcastle will at no distant date have an adequate municipal 
museum commensurate with the city's rank in the present age and 
worthy of its storied past. 

The reports of the treasurer, curators, and librarian have been received 
by the council and are submitted herewith." 

The treasurer (Mr. R. S. Nisbet) then read his report and balance sheet 
which will be printed in full in Arch. Aeliana, 3 ser. xm. The following 
is a summary: The membership of the society is 373; 9 ordinary 
members were elected during 1915, and 16 lost by deaths and resigna- 
tions. The balance sheet, including a balance at the beginning of 1915 
of 60Z. 8s. 8d., shewed a total income for the year of 5951. 4s. 6d, and 
total expenditure of 563Z. 4s. 5d., leaving a balance in favour of the 
society of 321. Os. Id. The capital invested, with dividends, is now 
284Z. 5s. 4d!. The receipts were : from subscriptions, 384Z, 6s. Qd. ; from 
the Castle, 105Z. 16s. 2d., and the Blackgate, 351. 7s. lid. ; from books 
sold, 91. 5s. 9d. The expenditure includes: for printing Archaeologia 
Aeliana, 145Z. 14s. Id. ; and Proceedings, Q5L 3s. Qd. ; for books bought, 
subscriptions to societies, and library expenses, 531. 9s. lid.', for castle 
expenses, 1142. 3s. IQd. ; for Blackgate, 48Z. 16s. Qd. ; for museum, 
11. 2s. 6d. ; and for sundries, 65Z. 18s. 3d. 

The curators' and librarian's reports were also read. 


The chairman moved the adoption of the report and after being 
seconded by Mr. R. 0. Heslop, the motion was carried unanimously. 

The following BOOKS, etc., were placed on the table : 
Prtwnts for which thanks were voted : 

PiSm the Rev. E. J, Taylor, F.S.A., West Pelton vicarage: A Brief 
Account of Durltam Cathedral. 

From the Corbridge Excavation Committee : Report on Excavations in 

rom, F.S.A. : (1) Ex Libris Journal, vole, i n, 
in, cloth ; and (2) The Early History of Bedale^y H. B. McCall. 

Froui the Phoenix Assurance Co., Ltd., London : Roman and Medieval 
Discoveries in London. 

FromR Blair: The Antiquary lot Dec. 1915 [after the issue of two 
volumes annually since 1880, the publisher, Mr. Elliot Stock, 
has been compelled to cease the publication owing to lack of 
support ; this is consequently the last number] . 

Exchanges : 
From the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society : 

Transactions, xxxvn, ii. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : (1) Proceedings, no. LXYII ; 

and (2) Octavo Publications, no. XLVII, ' Outside the Banwell Gate. 1 

From the Royal Archaeological Institute :Thc Archaeological Journal, 

no. 286. 
From the Royal Numismatic Society -.The Numismatic Chronicle, 

4th ser., no. 59. 
From the Cambrian Archaeological Society : Archaeologia Cambrcnsis, 

6th ser., xvi, i. 

From the Royal Society of Norway -.Proceedings for 1914. 
From the Kent Archaeological Society: Archaeologia Cantiana, xxxi, 

8vo. cloth. 

From the Canadian Institute of Toronto -.-General Index, 1852-1912. 
Purchases ; 

The Museums Journal, xv, 6; The Scottish Historical Revieio for Jan. 
1916; York Memorandum Booh, n (125 Surt. Soc. publ.) ; The Register 
of the Priory of St. Bees (126 Surt. Soc. publ.) ; The Registers of 
Chatton (Durh. and North. Par. Reg. Soc.) ; Proceedings of the 
Imperial German Archaeological Society, xxx, i and iv ; and Notes 
and Queries for the month. 

By Mr. R, H. Edleston, F.S.A. : 

(1) An autograph letter of the Rev. Denis Grenville bought by the late 

Rev. Dr. Edleston from a London dealer in 1892. Mr. Edleston writes ; 

The letter is from Dean Grenville, who was at the time rector of Easington 

to [?Dr. More, of Christ's College, Cambridge], about a dispute between 

himself and his curate, Dr. Davies, asking advice on a case of conscience, 

1 Whether a man bee bound to keep his word or perform a rash contract 

(tho 1 it be under hand and seal) to his own ruiue. The business had been 

referred laat year to two civilians in this country, Mr. Cradock and Mr. 

Basire. 1 The letter is dated Easington, Nov. 4, 1682, and is 4 pp. 4to. 

(-2) A rubbing (by himself) of the large and fine monumental brass of 

1510, of Cardinal Prince Frederick, of Poland, in Cracow cathedral 


The following is a note by Mr. Edleston on the brass : 

This brass, which measures about 111 inches by 62 inches, is on 

the floor of a raised platform in front of the high altar of the cathedral 

[ Krakow, the coronation place of the kings of Poland. Cardinal 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 104 



From a Rubbing by Mr. R. H. Eclloston, F.S.A. 


prince Frederick Jagiellos was the /fifth .sou of king Kazimierz iv of 
Poland and queen Elizabeth his wife, an Austrian princess. His 
elder brothers, king John Albert, king Alexander, and king Sigismund i 
successively occupied the Polish throne. The house of Jagiellos 
originated in a duke of Lithuania of that name who married queen 
Hedwig of Poland, and being baptized, took the name of Ladislaw iv. 
He was succeeded in 1434 by his son, king Ladislaw v, who became 
king of Hungary, and left the throne of Poland in 1444 to his brother 
Kazimierz iv, the father of 'cardinal prince Frederick. Queen Hedwig 
was the daughter of Laszlo I, king of Hungary, who succeeded to the 
crown of Poland in 1370 on the death of his uncle, king Kazimierz in, 
the last male representative of the house of Piast to sit on the Polish 
throne. The house of Piast began to reign in Poland in 842, so that 
the royal pedigree of cardinal prince Frederick can be traced direct 
from the ninth century to the death of his nephew, king Sigismund n, 
in 1572. The present representative of the house of Piast is apparently 
prince Paul Salvator Riedelski, the descendant of king Boleslaw n, son 
of king Kazimierz i, who died in 1058, and elder brother of king 
Ladislaw i, who died in 1102. Boleslaw n, called 'the Bold,' who 
was excommunicated by Pope Gregory vn, for the murder of St. 
Stanislaus, before the altar, fled the country, and died about the 
year 1085, Cardinal prince Frederick was elected bishop of 
Cracow in 1488, when only 18 years of age, and in 1493 he became 
archbishop of Gnesen. The young prince was created a cardinal 
deacon by Pope Alexander vi, with the title of Sta Lucia. The 
cardinal prince died in 1503, aged 35, and the monument was erected 
in 1510 by his brother, king Sigismund i. On the western face of the 
platform is a metal relief with figures, forming part of the monument. 
The general design of the brass shows a more than life-sized figure of 
the cardinal, standing under a triple canopy of small depressed arches 
with lights at the back. In front of the lights, behind the figure of 
the bishop, hangs a handsome diapered curtain with a border at the 
top, suspended from a rod by interlaced cords, as is done at the 
present day. The figure of the cardinal is superimposed on the 
curtain, in the same manner as Flemish brasses frequently are on a 
diapered background. In the dexter shaft of the canopy is a figure of 
St. Albert, archbishop of Prague, who was martyred in 997, and on the 
opposite side a figure of St. Stanislaus, bishop of Cracow, and patron 
saint of Poland, who was murdered in 1079. St. Albert is vested in 
amice, alb, gloves, and chasuble, with mitre and pall, and is repre- 
sented reading an open book held in both hands. The archiepiscopal 
cross is on his right arm. St. Stanislaus appears in the act of exhorta- 
tion, holds a pastoral staff, with the velum or sudarium, in his right 
hand, and wears alb, gloves, and cope with a tasselled hood, and a 
mitre with long vitae or infulae. Both figures are under canopies. 
At the corners of the canopy are four shields of arms; that at 
the dexter base bears three fleurs-de-lis for the see of Gnesen, 
and is surmounted by an archbishop's cross and mitre. That at 
the opposite base bears three crowns for the see of Cracow, and 
is surmounted by a pastoral staff and mitre. The shields placed over 
the pinnacles of the canopy are identical, and show an eagle displayed 
and crowned, the arms of Poland. Over each is an archbishop's cross 
and a cardinal's hat. The figure of the cardinal prince himself is 
finely engraved, and the face is evidently a portrait. The cardinal is 
vested in amice, alb, jewelled gloves and rich chasuble, mitre and 
pastoral staff with the velum or sudarium. He wears no tunic, 


dalmatic or stole. The alb is long, with a small apparel at the feet ; 
the chasuble is unusually long behind, and remarkably short over the 
arms, doubtless to allow greater freedom when officiating. The amice 
is very full and loose, with an apparel only just showing in front. The 
cardinal wears a ring on the first finger and thumb of each hand. The 
sleeves of the alb, which are full, and not unlike the modified form of 
an Anglican bishop's lawn sleeves, have long tasselled wristbands. The 
folds of the richly embroidered chasuble, with its centre orphrey, are 
very well delineated. The cardinal holds a pastoral staff in his right 
hand, and a handsomely bound book in his left. The pastoral staff is 
encircled with the velum or sudarium, finished with an umbrella 
shaped top on which are engraved the letters i H s. The base of the 
crook is ornamented with figures of saints under canopies. The mitre 
is a mitra pretiosa, and of large proportions. The feet of the figure rest 
on a crouching lion. The marginal inscription in raised capitals reads 


HVMANIS CESSIT ET ASTEA TENET -|-. This work is not improbably 
the work of Peter Vischer, of Nuremberg." 

By Mr. William Brown, F.S.A. : ' A Bellasis deed of 1108.' 

Mr. Brown's note on it is as follows : 

"According to the pedigree of the Bellasis family, recorded in the 
Visitations of Yorkshire in 1584-5 and 1612 (Foster's edition, p. 232), John 
Bellasis the younger, mentioned below (Robert is not named), was son of 
John Bellasis, living in 1365, and Alice, daughter of Sir Robert Hansard 
of Walworth knt. From the same authority we learn that he gave all 
his land in Wolneston 1 and Bellasis in exchange for the manor of Henknoll 
' in liberam puarani (sic) et perpetuam elemosinam,' unto Robert, prior, 2 
and convent of Duresme, by indenture made between them, dated at 
Duresme, Monday after the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle [Dec. 7], 
A.D. 1380.8 By his wife, Ann, daughter of Robert Lamplugh of Lamp- 
lugh, he had a son, Sir Robert Bellasis, kt., who married Margery, 
daughter of Richard Dalton of West Auckland, 4 and died in 10 Henry vi, 

More correctly Wolveston. 

Robert de Berrington, prior of Durham, 1374-1391. 

i ' 148 ' Ifc 

'Bellasise, Bellasise, daft was thy nowle, 
When thou gavest Bellasise for Henknowle ' 

rise to the 

w, the beautiful site ' and cous e<iuently post-Conquest, Belle 

marriages should be transposed 

by, It is possible that the 


The document, which has been cancelled, has had its dorse utilized for 
an undated rent-roll of St. Helen's Auckland, which may be assigned to 
the first decade of the fifteenth century. Robert de Belasys acted as 
steward for Sir Robert de Colvyll of ArnclifEe and Dale knt., for his manor 
of St. Helen's Auckland, in 1398. This manor came to the Colvilles by 
the marriage before 1330 of Sir Robert Colville and Elizabeth, daughter 
and heiress of Sir John Conyers of Sockburn. On the extinction of the 
Colville family the manor went in thirds between the Wandesfords of 
Kirklington, the Mauleverers of ArnclifEe, and the Fulthorpes of 
Thirkleby. The following is the deed : 

Pateat vniuerais per presentes quod ego, Robertas de Belasyse, remisi, 
relaxaui et omnino pro me et heredibus meis imperpetuum quietum clamaui 
Johanni de Belasyse junior! de Dunelmo, fratri meo, heredibus et assignatis 
suis, totum jus et clameuoi que habeo, habui seu quouisrnodo habere potero 
in vno mesuagio in veteri Eluet, situato inter teuementum prioris et 
conueutus Dunelin. ex parte boriali et tenementum Johannis Paynetour et 
Isabelle vxoris eius ex parte australi, cum omnibus pertinenciis suis in 
Dunelmo : ita quod nee ego predictus Robertus, nee heredes niei, nee 
aliquis alius nomine nostro, in predicto mesuagio cum suis pertinenciis 
aliquod jus vel clameum decetero exigere vel vendicare poterimus set ab 
omni accione juris exclusi simus imperpetuum per presentes. Et ego uero 
predictus Robertus et heredes mei predictum mesuagium cum suis 
pertinenciis prefato Johanni de Belasyse, heredibus et assignatis suis contra 
omnes gentes warantizabimus et defendemus imperpetuum. In cuius rei 
testimonium huic presenti scripto meo sigillum meum apposui. His testibus, 
Gilberto de Eluet, Johanne Aspoure, Thoma Clerk et aliis. Dat' apad 
Dunelmum vJcesimo die mensis Marci, anno regni regis Henrici quarti post 
conquestum Anglic nono." 

By Mr. J, C. Hodgson, F.S.A. : The following list of isolated and 
private burial places in Northumberland : 

" There was a garden, and in the garden a new tomb wherein 
was man never yet laid." John xix, 41., Revised Version. 

HABNHAM. Mrs. Katherine Babington, or Madam Babington, wife of 
Philip Babington of Harnham, widow of George Fenwick of Brink- 
burn, and daughter of Sir Arthur Heselrigg, buried 9 September, 1670, 
' in hope of future bliss,' in a rock tomb in the garden at Harnham, 
where there was formerly a monumental inscription. (Hodgson, 
Northumberland, part n, vol. I, p. 346). 

SWABLAND. Mr. William Heselrigg, of Swarland, died 12 April, 1681, 
aged 68, died and buried in a pasture field close to his home, where 
there used to be a tombstone with an inscription (New History North- 
umberland, vn, p. 403). 

WHALTON. Mr. John Moore, of Whalton, died in 1684, and was buried in 
the grounds of his own house in that village. A tombstone with 
monumental inscription was set up in 1772 at the request of his 
grandson (Tomlinson, Guide to Northumberland, p. 267). 

MILBUBN GBANGE. Mr. George Horsley, of Milburn Grange, by will dated 
17 August, 1684, desired that his body should be buried in his 
orchard, in which there is, or was, a tombstone to his memory 
(Hodgson, Northumberland, part n, vol. i, p. 336). 

BEBWICK. Mrs. Elizabeth Watson, wife of Robert Watson, and daughter 
of William Webb, master of Berwick school, was buried in the Mag- 
dalen fields on the 21 April, 1694, in a place now marked by a few 
stones without any inscription, very near the crumbling sea banks. 
(Raine, North Durham, p. 319). The Magdalen fields belonged to 
Watson family from circa 1660 to 1829. 

GAINSLAW, WITHIN BEBWICK BOUNDS. Mr. William Compton, of Lincoln's 
Inn and of Gainslaw, died 25 Sept., 1773, aged 73, and was buried in 
a vault in his own gardens, his widow being laid beside him in 1809. 


Here is a fine mausoleum built by Sir John 
SK Hussey Delaval after his only son's death on 7 July 1775 but it is 
believed never to have been brought into use (New History of North- 

Wi^lir^OaVerfne Maria Grey, first wife of Charles Grey of 
Morwiok and daughter of Rev. John Skelly, successively vicar of 
Shilbottle and of Stockton, and his wife Lady Betty Gordon, daughter 

Gordon, died 21 June 1786 aged 33 
and was buried in a vault in the garden of Morwick (New History of 

, the Tyne Mercury, died 24 

April 1819, aged 47, and was buried in his own garden near Chimney 
Mill (Welford, Men of Mark, in, p. 191). 
CTIBISTON BANK. John Brannan, an Irish harvester, who died 15 Sep- 
tember, 1857, was buried on a knoll in a grove of trees in a pasture 
field south of the homestead : the iron cross marking the grave may 
be seen from the passing railway train south of Christon Bank rail- 
way station. Over the grave is a stone on which are cut the name 

BRINKBURN. ' Mr. Arthur H. Cadogan, of Brinkburn priory, died 11 May, 
1896, aged. 47, and was buried in the plantation of trees near the 
priory. The remains of his mother and neice have since been laid 
beside him. 

BIDDLESTON. Mr. Walter Charles Selby, of Biddleston, died 5 March, 
1900, aged 42, and was buried, not at Alwinton where many gen- 
erations of his very ancient house rest in a vault under the chancel, 
but in his own park at Biddleston. 

LANGLEY CASTLE. Mr. Cadwallader John Bates, of Heddon and of Langley 
castle, died 19 March, 1902, aged 49, and was buried in the castle 

CAPHEATON. Sir John Swinburne, seventh baronet, died 15 July, 1914, 
aged 83, and was buried, not at the ruined chapel of Capheaton which 
is west of the house, but in the ground to the east of the house. 

MILFIELD. Mr. George Grey Grey, of Milfield, died 18 September, 1915, 
and was buried in the grounds of Milfield Hill. 

By Mr. Edward Wooler, F.S.A. : A finely modelled bronze hand from 
the collection of Mr. Wm. Home, of Leyburn, who purchased it at 
a sale, but of which the provenance is unknown. 

Mr. Wooler wrote that it was on the 21st October, 1915, he was at 
Leyburn, and having some hours to wait he visited Mr. Home's museum, 
where he observed the bronze produced, and he was much struck with it, 
having seen a similar hand in the Chesters museum, which is said to 
have been found in the well dedicated to the goddess Coventina at 
Procolitia and deposited there as a rotive offering to the goddess. 1 

The hand represents the left hand of a female, unadorned with rings, 
&c., and evidently of some person in a superior station of life, as will be 
seen by the trimmed nails, and the general refined conformature of the 
hand. There arc no rings on the fingers. It is of the size known as no. 
7, and the hand is Tins, long, so that the woman must have been of a 
stature of about 5ft. 10 in. The bronze weighs 3 Ibs. 8 ozs. It is ap- 
parently ancient, as moulders at the present day would have employed a 
better shaped core and consequently used less bronze in the casting. It 

Thwn/ mgei ' 8 ;? ly ' w - bich were ori g iQ allyin two or three pieces, are Roman. 
?ounS " *" 6 

Free. Soc. Aiitiq. Newc., 3 ser. vil. 

To face page 168 


(See opposite page.) 


is a beautiful casting, and has been made from a mould of an actual 
hand in a natural position, which renders it much more interesting than 
it would otherwise have been. 

Throughout the museums of Europe are scattered many specimens of 
bronze hands, termed votive hands. 2 Four of them have been found at 
Pompeii. Bronze hands were sometimes mounted by the Romans on a 
staff, as an ensign, but there are no signs of this in the hand in question. 
An- open hand is symbolical of fidelity was, therefore, appropriate to 
such legions as bore the title pia fidelis. A plain bronze hand was 
carried on a staff before the early kings of France at their coronations. It 
was called the Hand of Justice. There was some important signification 
attached to the hand. What that signification was it is difficult now to 
clearly explain. It was probably inspired by some ritualistic ceremony 
of early worshippers. Particular hands appear to have been given as 
special votive offerings to the gods, appealing to them for protection 
against threatening dangers or as gratitude for expectant favours. 

The masculine creative triad was represented by the thumb and the 
two first fingers being held up erect, the third and fourth finger being 
closed on the palm of the hand. This was the symbol of divine light, 
truth, authority, and mystery, by which initiates in ancient wisdom 
knew each other. It is an emblem of great antiquity, and is found on 
many of the most ancient Hindoo, Assyrian, and Grecian sculptures. 

This form of hand is often found on the staff or wand of authority at 
coronations and other important exaltations. It is common in early 
Christian art, and is the form in which the Pope raises his hand when 
he blesses the faithful. 

Thanks were voted to the different exhibitors. 



The following brief abstracts, kindly sent by Mr. J. C. Hodgson, 
F.S.A., of sundry inquisition post mortem prove the pedigree of the 
very ancient house of de Insula or Lisle of Woodburn, and subsequently 
of Felton. A pedigree of de Insula is given in the new History of 
Northumberland, vol. iv, p. 333, and of de Insula and Lisle in vol. vn 
of the same series, p. 255. 

24 Edward iij. first members, no. 47. (Inquisition for Lincolnshire only). John de 
Insula of Wodeburne. Died on Tuesday in Easter week last past [March 30, 1350]. 
Robert de Insula is his son and heir, aged fifty years and more. 

42 Edward iij. first members, no. 32. (Inquisitions for Lincolnshire and Northumber- 
land). Robert del Isle. Died on Tuesday, the feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul, 
last past [June 29, 1367]. Robert son of Robert son of Robert del Isle deceased is heir, 
aged twelve years and more. 

(Lincolnshire inquisition gives the heir as Robert son of Robert del He junior, deceased, 
son of the said Robert del He senior). 

15 Richard ij. no. 41. (Inquisition for Lincolnshire only). Thomas Lysle of Saltclyf. 
Died on Saturday next after the feast of the Nativity of the B.V.M. last past [September 
9, 1391]. Robert Lysle, knight, is his kinsman and heir, viz. : son of Robert Lysle brother 
of the said Thomas and is aged thirty, years and more. 

1 Henry vj. no. 15. 

Writ dated 20 November, 1 Henry vj. [1422]. 

Inquisition held at Glaunfordbrigge, co. Lincoln, Saturday before the feast of St. 
Hilary, 1 Henry vj. [9 January, 1423], after the death of John Lisle. 
2 See Proc. Soc. Antiq., Lond,, xx, p. H24, for a paper on votive hands. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 26 


He was seised of the manor of Salcliff, co. Lincoln, held of the king in chief by knight 
service, and worth yearly, clear, 40s., and no more because it is ruinous, and in great part 
fallen down (prostratum) and needs great repair. 

He died 8 October last. 

Thomas Lisle is son and heir, aged nine years and more. 
8 Henry viij, C volume 31, no. 36. 

Inquisition tripartite taken at Rothbury, Monday, 17 November, 8 Henry viij. [1516], 
after the death of Humfrey Lilc, knight. 

He was seised of the manor of Felton worth, by the year, 10/. and held of Edward 
Kurroc, knight, of his manor of Mitford, by what services the jurors know not. 

He was seised of the manors of Beyrle, Hawkwell Thornton, Buytland, Reyddesmothe, 
Gosfurthe sowthe, Est Newton, Matfen and Kyrkharle, worth, by the year, twenty marks, 
and held of the Earl of Westmoreland as of his manor of Bywell, by what services the 
jurors know not. 

He was seised of lands and tenements in Bromhope and Wodburne within the liberty 
of Ryddisdall, worth, by the year, five marks, and held of George Tabus, knight, as of 
his manor of Herbotyll within the liberty aforesaid, by what services the jurors know 

He died 30 July, last. 

Wylliam Lile, knight, is his son and heir, aged thirty years and more. 
4 and 5 Philip and Mary, C volume 112, no. 121. 

Writ dated 16 February, 4 and 5 Philip and Mary [1558]. 

Inquisition indented, held at Alnewyke, 28 April, 4 and 5 Philip and Mary, after the 
death of Robert Lesly of Feltoit, esquire. 

He was seised, in tail male, of five parts of the manor of Southegosforthe, in six parts 
divided, and ' domina ' Anne Lysley, late wife of Humfrey Lysley, knight, was and still 
is seised of the sixth part, and also of an annuity of 8 from the manor of Felton, as her 
dower, the reversion of the lands in Southegosforthe belonging to the said Robert in tail 

Robert, being seised in tail male of the manor of Felton and five parts of the manor 
of Sonthegosforthe, granted to Humfrey Ratclyf of Elstow, co. Beds., knight, Edmund 
("rofte of Stowe, co. Suffolk, Anthony Harvy of Swarlaund and Thomas Welton of Welton, 
<o. Northumbr., esquires, by indenture dated 20 February, 37 Henry viij., shewn to the 
jury (and recited in inquisition), the manor of Felton with demesne lands, park and mill, 
then in his own tenure, and his lands, rents and services in the vill and territories of Felton 
and Shotyngley, then in the tenures of John Mylne, William Burrell, Humfrey Syngleton, 
John Aunderson, Robert Felton and Ralf Ogle, and also his lands, rents and services 
in his manor or vill of Southegosforthe then in the tenures of William Mylner, George 
Syinsoii and Thomas Huntley, of the yearly value of 10. To use of Robert and Anne 
his wife for life and afterwards to use of the right heirs of Robert ; by virtue whereof, 
Anne is seised of the premises with reversion to Robert Lysley, son and heir of Robert 

He died seised of the rest of the manor of Southegosforthe. 

The manor of Felton is held of the king and queen by knight service, and is worth yearly, 
l.-ar, 23/. 

The manor of Southegosforthe is held of the King and Queen by knight service, and is 
worth yearly, clear 40/. 

Robert Lysley died 25 April, 1 Mary [1554]. Robert his son is his heir male, aged 
six years at Christmas last. 

Anne his widow has [ ] the profits of the manor of Felton (except her annuity 

81. dower) and also the profits of one fourth and one twentieth part of the manor of 

mthegosforthe of 12/. yearly value. Lancelot Lisley, brother of Robert deceased, has 

he profits, since his death, of one fourth and of one fifth part of the said manor, 

I yearly value, since the death of Robert and John Lisley, brother of the said Robert, 


has taken, since his death, the profits of one fifteenth part of the manor of Southegosforthe, 
of 53s. 4^. yearly value, by reason of an annuity granted to them by writing of Humfrey 

The following extracts from the Newcastle Couvant and Journal have 
been* forwarded by Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., a vice-president 
(continued from p. 104) : 

To be sold, 7 May, 1773, 1650 oak trees, &c., now growing at Colpighill, near Lanchester. 

'The dispute which lately arose between Mr. Samuel Newton and Mr. Stoney, concern- 
ing those trees is now settled and ended, and they will both join in the sale thereof.' 

' The coal mines under Mr. Newton's and Mr. Stoney's estate at Twizell, near Chester, 
are to be let.' Couvant, 1 May, 1778. 

To be sold by auction at Newcastle 15 July next, a half share of Wardon Paper Mill, 
the property of the assignees of Mr. William Charnley. Also the life interest of the said 
Mr. Charnley in a fourth part of Rains Field in the township of South Rcdburn, co. 
Durham. Courant, 22 May, 1773. 

To be sold by auction, at Newcastle on the 28 June, the manors of Frosterly and Rogcrly 
in the parish of Stanhope, late the estate of John Swinburn, esq., of Coxhow. 

Ibid., 5 June, 1773. 

To be sold, Riplington in the parish of Whalton, 380 acres. Enquire of John Grey, 
jun., esq., or Mr. Adams, attorney at law, Alnwick. Newcastle Journal, 12 June, 1773. 

To be sold, the freehold estate of Coxlodge, parish of Gosforth, 243 acres. Enquire 
of Mr. Burdus, attorney, Pilgrim St. Courant, 19 June, 1773. 

To be sold in the Chancery Court at Durham, 1(5 July next, an undivided moiety of 
lands at Blue House, near Sunderland by the Sea, two messuages and six closes at Ryhope, 
the property of Mr. Thomas Foster, late of Ryhope, deceased. Journal, 26 June, 1773. 

To be sold, the castle, manor and park of Brancepeth, with several fine farms. Apply 
to Mr. John Blake, Essex St., Strand, London. Courant, 17 July, 1773. 

To be sold by auction at Hexham, 24 August, by order of the assignees of Francis 
Thompson, a bankrupt, the estate of Nubbock, near Hexham. Also 2/9th shares of a 
freehold estate between Picktree and Rickleton. Enquire at Mr. Cuthbert's office. 

Ibid., 17 July, 1773. 

All persons indebted to Mr. Thomas Harrison and Mr. Francis Thompson, late of 
London, coal factors, bankrupts, or to Mr. Francis Thompson on his separate account, 
to pay their debts to Mr. Geo. Thompson of Newcastle or Mr. John Clark of Blyth. Ibid. 

To be sold two freehold messuages, garden and malt kilns at Rothbury, the estate of 
the Rev. Mr. Salkeld, deceased. Apply Mr. Thomas Adams, attorney, Alnwick. 

Journal, 31 July, 1773. 

To be sold by auction at Tweedmouth, 10 November, the freehold estate of Unthank, 
near Berwick,500 acres. Also the tithes of the township of Shotton, parish of Kirknewton. 

Ibid., 21 August, 1773. 

To be sold by auction, several freehold farms in the manor of Winlaton and parish of 
Ryton, at Garesfield, Barlow, Letch, Broomry (sic) Close. Courant, 11 Sept., 1773. 

To be sold under Decree of Court the property of the late George Montague Dunk, 
Earl of Halifax, the manor of Harte, co. Durham, with the rectory impropriate of Harte 
and 3,445 acres. Journal, 18 September, 1773. 

' To be sold the several farms and estate of John Hodgson, esq., in the manor of Elswick, 
lying on the north side of the Military Road leading from Newcastle to Carlisle, bounded 
by the grounds of Ben well and Fenham on the west, the town moor on the north, the 
town of Newcastle on the east and the lands of Elswick on the south. 

Courant, 13 November, 1773. 

To be sold by order of the assignees of William Newton, bankrupt, at Turk's Head, New- 
castle, 21 December, a farm at Cornsay, parish of Lanchester, a farm at Fryerside in the 
chapelry of Tanfield, a messuage in the Broad Chare, Newcastle, a farm at Bells-hill, parish 
of Lanchester. Journal, 4 December, 1773. 


To be sold at Crown and Thistle, Groat Market, 11 January, the following estates 
belonging to Mr. Michael Archer, deceased, Thornham-hill parish of Stamfordham, let 
at 100 per annum, a farm at West Matfen, let at 40 per annum, a farm at Wallhouses, 
let at 25 per annum. Ibid -> 25 December, 1773. 

Newcastle, 25 December, 1773. ' The co-partnership betwixt Jonathan Ormston 
and Joseph Lamb of this town, linendrapers and mercers, under the firm of Ormston and 
Lamb, expired this day and is now by mutual consent amicably dissolved.' The business 
is to be carried on in all its branches at the old shop in the Close by Robert Ormston (son 
of the said Jonathan Ormston) and the said Joseph Lamb. Ibid., 8 January, 1774. 
Adamson, surgeon and man midwife, who had the honour to be surgeon to the lying-in 
hospital above nine years till his removal to Belford, and now is appointed sole surgeon 
to the infirmary at Bamburgh castle, begs leave to acquaint the public that he continues 
inoculating on the usual terms, and inoculates the poor in the neighbourhood gratis.' 

Ibid., 12 February, 1774. 

To be sold the manor of Layton in the county of Durham, with 1000 acres, two miles 
from Sedgefield. Apply Messrs. Hopper and Pearson's, attorneys, Durham. 

Ibid., 19 February, 1774. 

Almvick, March 11, 1774. Whereas Mr. Nicholas Fenwick, late wine merchant of 
this town, having retried from business and assigned to us all his stock in trade ; this 
is therefore in his name to return thanks to all those gentlemen who have at any time 
favoured him with their orders, and to beg the continuance of them, which shall be always 
gratefully acknowledged and punctually observed by their most obedient servant, 
Alexander Brown, William Fenwick. Ibid., 12 March, 1774. 

A copyhold estate called the Murdles, near East Boldon, let for 60 per annum to Mr. 
Nicholas Rippon. Also the adjoining copyhold estate of Fieldhouse, let at 70 per annum, 
to Mr. Robert Charlton. Apply to Mr. William Peters, attorney. Ibid., 12 March, 1774. 
To be sold, Noreham Demains and Murray's Hall farm, 1,300 acres, bounded by the 
Tweed, now let at 887 per annum. Apply to Mr. Fenwick of Lemington, near Alnwick. 

Courant, 19 March, 1774. 

To be sold by auction at Burnupfield, 20 April next, the mansion-house of Burnupfield, 
c., the property of the assignees of Messrs. Samuel and Matthew Newton, bankrupts. 

Ibid., 2 April, 1774. 

To be sold by private contract, the freehold estate of Low Walworth, in the parish of 
Heighington, mansion house, 500 acres. Apply to Wm. Ambler, esq., barrister at law, 
Durham, Mr. L. Hartley at Middleton, near Richmond, or Mr. Jasper Harrison, Newcastle. 

Journal, 16 April, 1774. 

North Biddick estate to be sold. Apply to George Errington, esq., at Hartford Bridge, 

Mr. John Lawson at Longhurst, &c. Courant, 23 April, 1774. 

To be sold by order of the assignees of Messrs. Samuel and Matthew Newton, .bankrupt 

at the Turk's Head, Newcastle, 28 & 29 June, 1774 : A copyhold estate in Bedlington, 11& 

acres, let at 100 per annum ; a leasehold farm in Bedlington, held for three lives under 

the Bishop of Durham ; a copyhold messuage, malting and brewery in Bedlington ; free- 

ld messuage, shop and two closes in Bedlington ; 5 leasehold and copyhold houses in 

ledlington ; Robinson's Close and Half Close in Bedlington ; collieries in Bedlington held by 

f the Bishop of Durham ; an undivided moiety of the manor of Twizell, parish of 

ster-le-Street, with the undivided moieties of four freehold farms there ; a freehold 

ssuage in Morpeth ; 2 freehold messuages in Broad Chare, Newcastle ; farmhold; 

irtly freehold and partly copyhold, of Bell's hill, parish of Lanchester ; a sixth part of 

Bryan's Leap Colliery. Newcastle Journal, 14 May, 1774. 

sold a new house at Alnwick, furnished or unfurnished, containing twelve fire 

rooms. Apply to Alexander Brown, Esq., at Alnwick. Courant, 21 May, 1774. 

Je sold a freehold estate called Spittle, at the mouth of the river Tweed, about 

HO acres. Apply to Mr. William Dickson at Spittle. Ibid., 28 May, 1774 

Id by the assignees of Mr. John Laing, a messuage and two shops fronting the 

id a dissenting meeting house fronting the Pudding Chare. 

Ibid., 11 June, 1774. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newo., 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 173 







3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 13 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Society was held in the Castle, 
Newcastle, on Wednesday, 23rd February 1916, at seven o'clock 
in the evening, Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., being in the chair. 

The usual routine business having been transacted, the following 
ordinary member was proposed and declared duly elected : 

Christopher Edmund Baldwin, 32 Holywell Avenue, Monkseaton. 
The following BOOKS, &c., were placed upon the table, viz.: 
Present : 

The Athenaeum Subject Index to Periodicals, 1915. 
Exchanges : 

From the British Archaeological Association : The Journal, xxi, iv. 
From the Essex Archaeological Association : Transactions, xn, i. 
From, the Yorkshire Archaeological Society : The Yorkshire 

Archaeological Journal, xxm, iv. 

From the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, U.S.A. : 
Proc., xix, pp. 111-445. ' Middlemen in English Business 
between 1660-1760,' by Westerfield ; and xx, pp. 1-131, ' The 
Materials for the History of Dor,' by G. Dahl, Ph.D. 
Purchases : 

The Arts in Early England, by Professor Baldwin Brown, in and iv, 

and The Museums Journal , xv, 8 and 9. 

By Mr. R. H. Edleston, F.S.A., F.R.G.S. : Rubbings of the three fine 

brasses (1) of Bruno de Warendorp in the Marienkirche, Liibeck, 

of 1369 ; (2) of bishop Robert Hallum of Salisbury, in Constance 

cathedral, of 1416 ; and (3) of bishop John Avantage, in Amiens 

cathedral, of 1456 (see opposite plate of 1 and 3). 

The following notes on the brasses by Mr. Edleston, were read : 

" 1. The brass of Bruno de Warendorp, 1369, is on the east wall of 

the south choir aisle of the Marienkirche at Liibeck, in the Grand Duchy 

of Mecklenburg- Schwerin. I obtained the rubbing with the assistance 

of my wife on February 22, 1906, when we were on our way back from the 

funeral of king Christian ix at Copenhagen. We had visited Ring- 

sted in Denmark two days earlier, armed with paper and heel ball, 

for the purpose of rubbing the magnificent Flemish brass in the church 

there of king Eric Menved and queen Ingeborg, 1319, but owing to the 

church being in the hands of the Ministry of Public Works for extensive 

repairs, the ' praest ' could not give us permission to make a rubbing, 

though he had the brass, then under a wooden platform in the south 

transept, uncovered for our inspection. The rubbing of the brass at 

Liibeck provided some difficulties, as I had only a rather insecure 

umbrella stand from which to work. Fortunately the organ was playing, 

and the noise of our operations was drowned by the music. The tall 

Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 27 


figure of Bruno de Warendorp is probably of Flemish workmanship. 
He wears a long plain tunic, buttoned down the front to the thighs, but 
open in the skirt, and a slightly ornamented tippet. The tight sleeves 
of the tunic have a little ornamentation at the wrists, and a richly 
ornamented belt is worn round the hips. He has flowing hair, and a 
small pointed beard. The shoes are pointed, and fastened by a strap 
below the ankle. Bruno de Warendorp was pro-consul and captain 
of Liibeck at the time of the war against the Danes under king Walde- 
mar in. He was killed on August 21st, 1369, at the siege of Helsingborg 
in Sweden. Helsingborg is opposite Helsinger or Elsinore, which places 
we had visited three days before, on the narrow strait between Denmark 
and Sweden. There is a marginal inscription with the Evangelistic 
symbols at the corners, but this is a restoration and I did not rub it. 
It runs as follows : ' Anno . domini . M. ccc. LXIX. feria | in . ante . 
fest . bartholomei . obiit . in . schania . dns . bruno . de . Warendorp . fili' 
dfti | Gotscalci . p'consul . & . capitaneus huius . civitatis . tune . t'poris . 
in . guerra . regis . danor' . cuius . corp'. hie . sepultu' . orate p . eo.' 

2. The brass of bishop Hallum, 1416, is on the floor of the choir of the 
cathedral at Konstanz, in the Grand Duchy of Baden. I made the rub- 
bing with the assistance of my wife on 8th Nov. 1899. The verger 
pointed it out to us as the ' Englischer Bischof.' The figure stands under 
a single canopy with eight seraphim in the shafts, and a super-canopy 
above with embattled entablature. The quatrefoil in the centre of the 
canopy bears the letters r b S. The feet rest on a battlemented base. 
In the spaces under the arch of the super-canopy on each side of the 
finial of the canopy are two shields ; that on the dexter side bears the 
royal arms of France and England quarterly, surrounded by the Garter, 
with the motto : ' hony soit qy mal y pense ' ; that on the sinister side 
bears a cross engrailed, ermine, in 1st quarter a crescent, encircled by 
the motto : ' Misericordias domini in eternam cantabo.' The whole 
is surrounded by a marginal inscription with the evangelistic symbols 
at the corners. The inscription reads as follows : 'Sub iacet hie stratus 
Robert Hallum vocitatus I Quondam p'latus Sar sub honore creatus : 
Hie decretor doctor pads q' creator Nobilis Anglor Regis f uit ambaciator | 
ffestu' Cuthberti septembris mense vigebat : | In quo Rob'ti mortem 
Constantia flebat : Anno Milleno tricent' octuageno Sex cu' ter deno cu' 
xpo' vivat ameno.' | The bishop is vested in amice, alb, with apparel 
at the feet, tasselled gloves, dalmatic, maniple and chasuble, and wears 
a ' mitra pretiosa.' The right hand is raised in benediction, and in 
the left hand he holds a pastoral staff with the velum or sudarium. The 
apparel of the amice is ornamented with the letters 3D. He wears no 
stole or tunic. The episcopal ring is on the second finger of the right 
hand. The workmanship is obviously English, and the tradition is 
that the brass was sent out from England. Bishop Hallum died 
whilst attending the famous and prolonged Council of Constance, at 
which John Huss was condemned after such an extraordinary trial. 
Pope John xxm had such an embarrassing time, escaped, and was 
deposed, and very incongruous scenes took place. The length of the 
brass is 93| ins., and breadth 43| ins. The figure is 50 ins. high. 

3. The brass of bishop John Avantage, 1456, is on the south wall 
of a chapel adjoining the south choir aisle of Amiens cathedral. I made 
the rubbing on August 12, 1899, with the assistance of my wife, having 
obtained permission from the cathedral architect's bureau. This 
quadrangular plate measures 25f x22| inches. The bishop is represented 
kneeling on a chequered pavement before the Blessed Virgin with 
flowing hair, crown, and nimbus, holding an apple in her right hand, 


and with the Holy Child on her knee. She is seated in a wide, high- 
backed chair. Behind the bishop is a figure of St. John, with nimbus, 
standing barefooted, in the act of presenting the bishop to the 
B.V.M. In his left hand is the chalice with serpent and a dragon. The 
bishop is vested in amice, alb, tasselled gloves, dalmatic, maniple and 
cope. He holds a pastoral staff between his uplifted hands. In front, 
on the floor, is his mitre. The orphreys of the cope are ornamented 
with fleurs-de-lis. He wears a ring on the second and third fingers 
of his left hand. The background is beautifully engraved with palms, 
flowering trees and birds. The inscription underneath, in raised black 
letters, runs as follows: '-f Sacent tous que reverend pere en Dieu mons' 
maistre Jehan | Avantage Jadis evesque d'amie's fo'daen so' viva't en 
ceste chapelle | rnesse perpetuelle qui ch'un jour doibt estre dicte basse 
parung | del'universitedeschapellai'sdecheenstantostapriesla | messe 
du breto' et apries le son de la cloche quil don 'a pour j soner la de messe et 
pour ch'une faulte. xvi. d. damende et | restauratio' de messe a appliquier 
aule .... d. | chapellains se haulte messe ou covecio deld. chapellais 
ne | prorogue't ladicteheure Et aussy a fo'de led. r.p. paravant | ladi. 
messe quatre obis et messes haultes a dyacre subdyacre I et deux choriste 
aule tiers jours de mois de frevier may aoust | et nove'bre co'me appert 
pl'aplaies lectres sur ce faictes dont | les copies so* ou messel ql do'na 
a la d.univ'site por dire lesd. mess.' | Above the quadrangular plate is 
the indent of a shield. The workmanship is probably Flemish. It is 
the only brass, so far as I am aware, in a church in France." 

By Mr. Basil Anderton, M.A. : A letter of the Rev. John Hodgson, 
the historian, of 29th March, 1819, to Sir Robert Hawks. 

Mr. Anderton said this letter was discovered in a collection of other 
letters which came recently into the possession of the Newcastle Public 
Library. The others relate chiefly to tithes in this district, and were 
from Mr. John Caley in reply to correspondents who had consulted 
him. Caley was the w r ell-known antiquary and decipherer of ancient 
records, who died in 1834. Sir Robert Hawks, to whom the letter is 
written, is described by William Brockie in the Monthly Chronicle for 
March, 1887, as being a son of the William Hawks, who, about 1745, 
founded a few forges on the south shore of the Tyne to work up the old 
iron which collier vessels brought as ballast, and to supply with chains 
and anchors the shipping attracted to the Tyne by the coal trade. As 
the business expanded the Hawks firm became associated with the 
Crawshays, iron kings of Wales, under the title of Hawks, Crawshay 
& Sons. William Hawks died in 1810, and Robert Shafto Hawks, 
his eldest surviving son, became the second head of the firm. He was 
knighted in 1817. He took a keen interest in everything affecting the 
public life of Gateshead. He died in 1840, aged 71. As to John 
Hodgson, the writer of the letter, he is of course the historian of North- 
umberland and one of the original secretaries of the Society of Anti- 
quaries. Mr. Welford, in the interesting account he gives of him in 
Men of Mark, says that the plans for the History of Northumberland 
began to take shape in 1817, and in May, 1819, the first announcement 
of publication was made. The letter which I will now read is dated 
two months earlier, viz., March 29, and it narrates an incident which 
occurred in the course of Hodgson's studies for the great task he was 
engaged upon. You will remember that the first volume of the 
History was published in 1820 ; and it contains extracts from the 
Placita quo Warranto, to which allusion is made. 


Dear Sir Robt. High Heworth, 29 Mch. 1819. 

A great misfortune has befallen me, & I know of no person to whom I can apply for 
relief under it, so well as yourself ; because I know your great readiness in conferring such 
favors as are in your power. 

I have for a few days had the volume entituled ' Placita Quo Warranto &c' printed 
during last year under the authority of Parliament, borrowed from a friend, and in order 
that I might return it soon, I employed an amanuensis for the purpose of copying out 
of it the Parts relative to Northumberland. While I was from home on Saturday last 
he overturned the contents of the Inkstand upon the book by which two sheets of it are 
so foully blotted that I must be under the necessity of either buying another copy, or being 
beholden to some friend to interest himself in procuring me the obliterate parts. And I 
am sure that no person knows better how to proceed in such an affair than your son 
William. The pages on which the black misfortune has fallen are 589 590 591 592 593 
594 595 596 and the unfortunate wight who committed it is Hodgson the poor lame 
Schoolmaster, whom you will remember teaching in Crawford's buildings at Heworth 
Shore. He is out of place & I employ him in my own house to write for me. 

I had also to ask you another favor but fear I shall not have time to explain myself 
sufficiently before post time. I am engaged in collecting materials for a history of my own 
Parish, which you know comprizes the church and chapels of Jarrovv, Heworth, South 
Shields, & Wallsend : but there is one document which I have hitherto not been able 
to get an authentic copy of & that is King Hen vuith's Grant of the Possessions of the 
Celle of Jarrow to Lord Eure. It is I believe in the Augmentation Office. Will you 
have the goodness to try to get me a copy of it saying that it is for a poor curate who 
is writing the History of his own Parish, which perhaps may induce the keeper to give it 
without a fee, but if that cannot be done, I wish to have it, if it can be got for a small 
sum any thing under 20 shillings. The Grant is dated Jan. 6. 1535. & I wish to have 
a literatim copy, as I have all the characters in Types used in old writings as you will see 
by the only proof sheet I have of my Northumberland by me at present & which I enclose, 
but you must not criticize the engravings too much as they are only from wooden blocks 
of my own cutting. 

The storm of wind which abt. a week ago blew the windows out of Mr. King's House 
near the Gateshead bar, split the roof [of] the Felling Brewery, & killed a boy on ye Felling 
Waggon-way, also decapitated the finest of the old sycamores on ye East side of the Felling 
bar 2 f others 1 of branches were broken off it. 

The Rector of Washington it is said is going to Law with his Parishioners respecting 
a Modus in lieu of Tythes in Usworth, &c. 

And Dr. Haggitt has demanded tythe in Kind to [be] paid to him in the ensuing autumn 
by the Low Heworth Farmers, who have hitherto paid 18 annually in lieu of Corn Tythe. 

We have very fine weather, no East winds hitherto, though as yet the spring has made 
very little advance. The Wheats are looking better than I ever saw them in March. 

Mrs. H. desires to join with me in compts. to Lady Hawks your sons and yourself, and 
believe me to be dear Sir Robt. most truly (but sadly hurried) 

your obedt. hble. ser. friend &c., John Hodgson 

By Mr. Edward Wooler, F.S.A. : A Shotley Bridge Naval Cutlass. 
Mr. Wooler contributed the following notes on the weapon : 
" This is a naval cutlass made, as the inscription indicates, by the 
sword makers of Shotley Bridge, whose reputation for the manufacture 
of this class of weapon was at one time more than national. The blade 
is 18 inches long and an inch and a quarter wide at the hilt, and five- 
sixteenth inches in thickness, and is double edged for six and a 
half inches from the point. The guard is made of cast brass, and 
the handle of deer's antler, so as to afford a good hold. The blade 
is riveted on to a brass boss. It will be noticed that it is engraved 
' Shotley B,' and above the name is a ' winged ' pheasant, and below 

1 Cartloads. 


the figure of a lion, from whose paw rays of light in the form of three 
arrow heads are being diffused. On the other side of the blade are two 
greyhounds coursing a hare. Part of the guard is missing. The en- 
graving was doubtless done by the eminent engraver, Thomas Bewick, 
who in his autobiography tells us that his first employment was to etch 
sword -blades for William and Nicholas Oley, sword manufacturers at 
Shotley Bridge. Bewick's great forte, as is well known, was his inti- 
mate knowledge of birds and animal life, and he was therefore admirably 
qualified both by his art and his natural inclination to depict with rare 
excellence his favourite objects. Bewick was born at Cherry burn, 
near Newcastle, in 1753, and was apprenticed as an engraver when he 
was fourteen, so that the date of the cutlass, assuming that the etching 
is his, must be of about 1774. Instead of choosing martial subjects in 
keeping with the character of the weapon, the makers would seem to 
have left the engraver a free hand in the adornment of their work. The 
cutlass belongs to Mr. Ingleby Jefferson, of Northallerton, who 
purchased it at an antique dealer's. The previous history of the weapon 
is unknown. From the etymology of the word ' coutelas ' it would 
appear to have been originally a French weapon. It was sometimes 
written 'cutlace,' sometimes 'cuttleax'; by .Shakespeare 'curtleaxe,' 
and by Pope ' cutlask/ &c. A cutlass is a very effectual weapon in close 
contests. On account of its shortness it can be handled easily and yet 
it is long enough to protect a skilful swordsman. 

The double edge at the point shows that the weapon was intended 
more for thrusting purposes than for cutting after the mariner of a 
sword. The blade is hollow-ground, a peculiar feature of the Shotley 
Bridge sword, and is well balanced. 

The introduction of the manufacture of steel into the county of 
Durham must, according to Boyle, be ascribed to a colony of Germans 
who settled at Shotley Bridge, a village situated on the south bank of 
the Derwent, twelve miles from Newcastle. These colonists came 
from Solingen, a German town in the province of the Rhine. This 
town is an ancient one, and received its charter in 1374. Sword-blades 
have been made there since the early part of the middle ages and 
tradition affirms that the art was introduced during the Crusades by 
smiths from Damascus. Solingen sword-blades have been celebrated 
for centuries, and formed part of the equipment of latter day armies, 
whilst bayonets and similar instruments were also produced there in 
enormous quantities. 

The wording of the following advertisement which appeared in the 
London Gazette in August 1690, is instructive as throwing light upon 
the introduction of the sword-making industry into the north : 
' Whereas great industry hath been used for erecting a Manufactory for 
making sword blades at Newcastle by several able working men brought 
over from Germany, which being now brought to perfection, the under- 
takers thereof have thought fit to settle a warehouse at Mr. Isaac 
Hedley's at the Five Beds in New Street, near Shoe Lane, where callers 
may be furnished with all sorts of Sword Blades at reasonable Rates.' 

The undertaking, however, did not flourish. The Shotley Bridge 
sword works closed in 1702, but were reopened in the following year 
and continued to prosper for over a century. At one time there was a 
great output of these weapons. The Shotley sword blades were con- 
sidered the most valuable in the British market, and commanded the 
highest prices. Latterly the makers did not manufacture their own 
iron, as was the case for a long period after the establishment of the 
German colony, but imported the best Swedish ores from Danomora, 


in Sweden. There was one kind of weapon which it was said eould be 
made to perfection nowhere else in England but at Shotley Bridge. 
This was the hollow sword blade, which required peculiar skill. The 
cutlass exhibited, it will be noted, is of this description. 

The Shotley Bridge swords equalled, in flexibility, strength and 
elegance, the famous swords of Damascus and Toledo. As an instance 
of the skill of these colonists, it is related that one of the sword-makers, 
Robert Oley, who left Shotley Bridge at the beginning of the last 
century, made a wager with eight foreman smiths that he would produce 
within a fortnight a spring which should excel any they might make. 
At the expiration of the stated time Oley appeared at the place of meet- 
ing, but apparently without the spring. He was at once declared to 
have lost the wager. Cooly placing his hat on the table, Oley an- 
nounced that the spring was there and asked some one to take it out of 
the hat. None, however, complied with the request, for the spring 
that lay coiled up in the hat, was a fine, double edged sword. Oley 
himself now took out the sword, and then offered to pay the amount 
of the wager to anyone who could tell which way the weapon had been 
coiled, but no one was able to do so. 

At the close of the Napoleonic era the demand for swords diminished, 
and what was once a nourishing industry fell away, but in 1828 the 
manufacture of sword-blades was still carried on at Shotley Bridge by 
Christopher Oley, a direct descendant of the first German sword-blade 
maker. A portion of the sword-mill used by the Germans is still stand- 
ing on the right bank of the river near the bridge. 

It will be interesting to compare this cutlass with the Shotley Bridge 
sword in the Blackgate museum. 

Armourers were not incorporated at Durham, where there were 
thirteen trade guilds, but they were at Newcastle. When therefore 
the sword-makers established themselves at Shotley Bridge they were 
outside the jurisdiction of the Newcastle armourers, and could not be 
interfered with. Charcoal was made in Chopwell wood, which is in the 
Derwent valley." 

By Mr. W. Morley Egglestone of Stanhope : Photographs of three 
neolithic implements discovered in Upper Weardale, which are 
reproduced on the opposite plate. 

Mr. Egglestone sent the following notes with the photographs : 

" These three neolithic celts were found at Stanhope during the last 
twenty or twenty-five years and have not to the writer's knowledge 
been recorded, or published. There are no palaeolithic stone celts in 
the north of England. Weardale has furnished a number of flint 
flakes and arrow heads of the newer stone age (Proceedings, 3 ser., iv, 
p. 205, 279, and v, pp. 106-115). The stone celt, with its chisel-shaped 
edge, is an implement used for various purposes. When fitted with a 
wooden handle it forms a suggestive battle axe, or it might be used in 
hunting the wild beasts of the forest, and the naked celt held in the hand 
provided an excellent implement for skinning animals, such as red deer. 
With flint flakes, arrow heads, and the stone celt, neolithic man, clad in 
animal skins, would be fairly well equipped for his wild life of the stone 
age. The celts under notice were found in the boulder clay of the cover- 
ing gravels at a depth of several feet. 

No. 1. A fine polished stone celt found at a depth of about 10 feet 
from the surface, weight 27 ozs., lenght 6f inches, broadest part 3 inches; 
middle measurement width 2| inches, smaller end 1 inches, thick- 
ness If inches, substance whetstone. Height above sea level about 
900 feet. 


No. 2. Weight 19f oz., length 7| inches, wider part 3, narrower 
part If, thickness If. Substance altered rock, whetstone. 

No. 3. A smaller celt, weight 5| oz., length 4, width: wider part If, 
narrower part 1-^ inches." 

By Mr. Maberly Phillips, F.S.A. : The following list of isolated 

burials in Northumberland and Durham is additional to those 

recorded by Mr. Hodgson (see p. 167) : 
NEWCASTLE. (1) Susannah, daughter of John Carneath of Newcastle, 

Tanner, and of Mary his wife, was buried in his garden the ninth 

day of ye 6 monthe, 1679. 

(2) Benjamin Tittory, son of Daniel Tittory of Glasshouses, 
broad glass maker, and of Mary his wife was buried in his garden, 
1688, 8m. 26d. 

(3) 1678, Peregrin Tizacke, son of Peregrin Tizacke of Glass- 
houses, and Debora his wife was buried the thirteenth day of 
the 11 month. 

(4) 1679, Abagail, daughter of JohnTizack of Glasshouses, broad 
glass maker, and Sarah his wife was buried the 7 day of the 12 
month. A stone recording this burial was (and may still be there) in 
Heaton park. Brand, the historian, says that he found it in a 
garden belonging to Capt. Lambton near the Glasshouses. 

(5) William Durant, 1681. Buried in the garden of his house 
in Pilgrim Street. A large table stone to his memory may still 
be seen in the vestibule of the Unitarian church in New Bridge 
Street, Newcastle. 

(See ' The Quicks Buring Plas in the Sidgatt, Newcastle,' 
Arch. Ael., 2 Ser. xm, 234). 


WHICKHAM. (6) Here lyeth the body of Aibiah Hodgson, daughter 

to George Hodgson, she departed the 6th Feb., 1669. This 

stone was removed out of a field at the west end of Whickham on 

the 30th day of Nov. 1784, into the church yard. 
DURHAM. Richardson of Durham was buried in his garden at Gates 

house (Surtees, Durham). 
SUNDERLAND. (7) George Humble was brought home and buried in 

his own ground. 
WEST BOLDON. (8) 1657. Eleanor Harper, wife of Robert Harper 

of Sunderland, was interred at West Bowden, in Christopher 

Trewhitt's Orchard at West Bowden. 

Sundry other Trewhitts were buried in this orchard. 
SOUTH SHIELDS. (9) Mary Fearon, daughter of Thomas Fearon, of 

South Shields, was buried in Robert Linton's garden. 

(For 1-4, 6-9, see ' Notes on some Forgotten Burying Grounds 

of the Society of Friends.' Ibid., xvi, 189). 
Votes of thanks were accorded to the different exhibitors. 


Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, F.S.A., read a memoir of William Hutchin- 
son, historian of Durham, Northumberland, and Cumberland, which 
will probably be printed in Archaeologia Aeliana. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Hodgson by acclamation. 


Mr. Hodgson then referred to a list of the incumbents of Stannington 
which he had compiled. When it was proposed, in the year 1904, to set 
up, in the church of Stannington, a list of the rectors and vicars of the 


parish, the first Viscount Ridley requested the writer to revise the roll 
compiled by the Rev. John Hodgson and given in his History of 
Northumberland, part u, vol. ii, pp. 328-329. As a list prepared for 
such a purpose is necessarily restricted to names and dates, it may be 
worth while to place on record a somewhat fuller compilation, together 
with the authorities and references from which the details were 
obtained. The following is the list : 


Circa 1100, WILLIAM, presbyter of Stan[ning]ton, was a witness to 
the confirmation of the marriage settlement of Juliana, wife of 
Ranulph de Merley, lord of Morpeth (NewminsterChart.,p. 269), in 
1129 he was a witness to William de Merley 's grant of Morwick to 
St. Cuthbertandthe monks of Durham (cf. Hodgson, Northumberland 
n, ii, 469). 

Circa 1246, HERBERT, parson of Stan[n]i[n]gton, a witness to a 
charter granted by Roger de Merley (Ibid, in, ii, p. 328). 

Circa 1267, STEPHEN, rector of Stannington. He was a witness to 
a charter granted by John de Plessey, and to another charter 
granted by Sybilla, wife of Robert de Plessey (cf. Hodgson, North- 
umberland, n, ii, pp. 306, 335). He was also party to a suit heard 
in the Northumberland Assizes of 1279 (Northumberland Assize 
Rolls, 88 Surt. Soc. publ., p. 293). 

Circa 1316, JOHN DE GRENDAL, last rector mentioned in bishop Beau- 
mont's appropriation of the church of Stannington to the 
monastery of Newminster printed by the Rev. John Hodgson (Hist. 
Northumberland, in, ii, 68). 

[On March 7, 13|, Roger de Somervyll obtained licence to grant 
the advowson of the church of Stannington to the abbot and 
convent of Newminster in consideration of their great losses through 
the frequent incursions of the Scotch (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1327-1330, p. 
491) . The said Robert de Somerville, who died 15 kal. Febr., 1336, 
and was buried at Burton Agnes, was commemorated at Newminster 
as a benefactor (Newminster Chartulary, 66 Surt. Soc. publ., p. 302).] 


RICHARD BASSET described as vicar of the church of Stannington 

in a charter granted by John de Plessey to the abbot and convent of 
Newminster, in which charter Stephen is described as rector of 
Stannington. Inspeximus, 45 Hen. in (Hodgson, Northumberland, 
m, ii, 66). 

1339, ADAM DE Ros, perpetual vicar of Stannington, was ordered to 
induct Alan de Heppescote into the church of Bolam (cf. Reg. Pal. 
Dur. Kellawe's Reg. vol. m, p. 233). He granted a rent charge 
to the abbot and convent of Newminster (Newminster Chartulary, 
p. 235). 

1338, JOHN DE RED WELL (Randal, State of the Churches] . He exchan- 
ged the benefice of Stannington for that of EUingham with William 
Thorpe (Durham Registers Hatfield, cf. new Hist. Northumberland, 
vol. n, p. 284), died circa 1379. 

1363, WILLIAM T[H]ORPE, vicar of EUingham, 1361-1363. exchanged 
that benefice with Redwell (Ibid) . 

1366, WILLIAM CANE, on the resignation of Thorpe (Randal, State 
of the Churches). 

1370, JOHN DE DUFFELD, on the resignation of Cane (Randal). 

1388, WILLIAM DE MALTEBY after the death of Duffeld (Randal) . 

1401, WILLIAM DE LAMESLEY, on the resignation of Malteby (Randal). 


1416, THOMAS WHYTINGHAM, after the death of Lamesley (Randel), 
became vicar of Kirknewton in 1427, apparently in exchange 
with John Gray. 

1427, JOHN GRAY (Randal) apparently in exchange for the benefice 
of Kirknewton. 

GEORGE LAWES (Randal) became rector of Simonburn in 1496 
on the presentation of the Crown (Ibid.). 

1496, JOHN HYKESON, collated by the bishop of Durham on the 
: resignation of Lawes (Randal). He is entered as William Hickson 
in the visitation of the diocese of Durham in 1501 (22 Surt. Soc. 
publ., p. xxi). 

1533, STEPHEN HALLYDAY collated by the bishop of Durham on the 
resignation of Hykeson (Randal). To him Thomas Wailes of 
Tynemouth, by his will dated 15 Febr. 155f gave ' v j syluer 
sponnes we my fiiat bedfellow did gyue to me' (Durham Wills, 
2 Surt. Soc. publ. p. 155). 

1558, CHRISTOPHER THORABYE, on the resignation of Hallyday 
(Randal) . He gave his age as thirty-two years when he made a 
deposition in a case in the Ecclesiastical Court of Durham in which 
Ralph Ogle of Saltwick and John Ross of Shotton were charged 
with brawling and fighting in the church (21 Surt. Soc. publ., 
p. 258). In his answer to articles exhibited against him, given 
on 3 June 1587, he stated he was ordained priest in queen Mary's 
reign, and was collated to the vicarage of Stannington by bishop 
Tunstall (22 Surt. Soc. publ., p. 134). 

Circa 1618, HUMPHREY HARDMAN of Stannington, clerk, on the 1st 
May 1618, apprenticed his son, Henry, to Gawin Milburn of New- 
castle, mercer (Dencly, Newcastle Merchant Adventurers 93 Surt. 
Soc. publ.). 

1629 JOHN SNAPE instituted 7 March, 1629 (Liber Institutionum, 
P.R.O.), of St. John's College, Oxford, matric. 1616, aged IS, B.A. 
1620, M.A. 1623, vicar of Hartburn, 1636, from which benefice 
he was ejected during the Commonwealth, ' plundered and harrassed 
from place to place ' (Walker, Sufferings of the Clergy) . 

EVAN (Randal). 

1656. 'Mr. WOOLFALL, the younger, a godly and constant preacher 
who hath for his allowance 50/. per annum ' (Inquisition held 1 June 
1656, Survey of Church Livings, vol. IIT, P.R.O.). Possibly the 
John Woolfall born at Tunstall, Lancashire, admitted St. John's 
Coll., Cambridge, 1641, aged 17 and (perhaps) curate of All Saints, 
Newcastle, 1652; vicar of Woodhorn from 1661 until he 'was 
summoned to receive his reward the 22 of February, anno domini 
1683.' M. I. Woodhorn. Thomas Wolf all, a native of Lancashire, 
was curate of St. John's, Newcastle, from 1647 to his death 21 Oct., 
1652, (cf Brand, Newcastle, vol. i, 118, 675). Thomas Wolfall 
was author of The Doctrine and Practice of Renovation, printed by 
S[tephen] B[ulkley] Gateshead, 1652 ; a second edition of which 
appeared in the following year ; also of the Doctrine and Practice 
of Mortification, 1641. Copies of these rare tracts were offered at 
the sale of Thomas Bell's library, 2 November, 1860. 

Circa 1658, GEORGE HAWDON, M.A. (Randal). A record of his 
ordination at Stannington upon the Thursday, April 15, 1658, has 
been preserved in the Earsdon registers. As ' Mr. Haddon ' he 
appears without comment in Calamy, Ejected or Silenced Ministers. 
At the Restoration he conformed, and was collated 24 Sept., 1661, 
by bishop Cosin (Randal). He was residing at Burradon in 1657 
\Ploc. 3 Ser. vn] 28 


when he had a daughter named Catherine born to him (Earsdon 
Register}. His son Joseph was baptized at Stannington 19 June, 
1659, and his son Henry on the 26 Feb. 166f . 

1662, JOHN JACKSON, M.A., instituted 12 Dec. 1662, (Randal). 

1663, JOHN THOMPSON, on the resignation of Jackson was (Randal) 
previously rector of Ingram. 

1666, REYNOLD HORSLEY, instituted 10 March, 166| (Liber Institu- 
tionum, P.R.O.), of University College, Oxford, subscribed 7 Nov., 
1655. The baptism of his eight sons and four daughters are all 
entered on one page of the register of Stannington, as is his own 
burial in the quire on the 31st July 1699. 

1699, JOHN TEASDALE, instituted 25 Sept., 1699 (Liber Institutionum, 

1714, CUTHBERT ELLISON, instituted 9 Aug., 1714 (Liber Institu- 
tionum, P.R.O.), of Lincoln Coll., Oxford, -matriculated 23 March, 
170 5, as son of Samuel Ellison of the Side, Newcastle, aged 17, 
B.A. 1704, M.A. 1711. He voted in respect of his benefice of 
Stannington at the election of knights of the shire in 1722. He 
was the author of the rare book of verses entitled A Most Pleasant 
Description of Benwel Village, printed at Newcastle by John 
White in 1726. He was buried in St. Nicholas's on the 
15 Febr. 174f (Newcastle Courant, 16 Feb., 1745). He would 
appear to have seldom resided on his cure which was served by 
the following stipendiary curates : Mr. Pye before 1725 ; Mr. 
Arthur Caley, 1725; Mr. Thomas Potts, 1727; Mr. Mark Hall, 
1731-1744. A memoir of Cuthbert Ellison may be found in Mr. 
Richard Welford's Men of Mark. 

1745, MATTHEW ROBINSON, instituted 29 March, 1745 (Liber Institu- 
tionum, P.R.O.), inducted 11 April of the same year (Register). 
He was the fourth son of Robert Robinson of East Rainton, and was- 
baptized at Houghton-le-Spring, 17 Febr. 1701. He may 
perhaps be indentified with the person of that name who graduated 
B.A. in 1723 from Peterhouse, proceeding M.A. in 1727 ; vicar of 
Bywell St. Andrew 1729-1750, minister of Slaley 1740-1756. He 
was residing at Bedlington in 1734, when he voted at the election 
of knights of the shire for Bywell vicarage, and at Stannington 
in 1748 when he voted in respect of that benefice. He married 
Isabel daughter of the Rev. Nathaniel Ellison, vicar of Newcastle, 
but died without issue 10 November, 1756 (Stannington Registers , 
and Newcastle Courant, 13 Nov. 1756). His widow died at 
Kirkwhelpington, 18 August 1762 (Ibid. 21 Aug. 1762). He 
rebuilt Stannington vicarage in 1745. 

1757, JOSEPH WOOD instituted 14 Feb. 1757 (Liber Institutionum, 
P.R.O.), a Yorkshireman by birth, he matriculated at University 
College, Oxford, 15 October, 1730, aged 19, B.A. 1734, M.A. 1737, 
chaplain or minister of the donative chapel at Blyth, 1751. He 
was residing on his cure when he voted at the election of knights 
of the shire in 1774. He died 8 September 1779 (Hodgson, North- 
umberland, in, ii, p. 329). 

1779, THOMAS SIMON BUTT instituted 20 Dec. 1779, (Liber Instit- 
utionum, P.R.O.), of Christ Church, Oxford, matriculated 26 March, 
1770, aged 19, as son of Gary Butt of Lichfield ; B.A. 1773. 

1801, SAMUEL VINER instituted 20 November 1801 (Liber Institu- 
tionum, P.R.O.), of Pembroke Coll., Oxford, matriculated 17th 
Dec. 1757, aged 18, as son of William Viner of Gloucester; of 
Magdalen Coll., 1759-1764, B.A. 1761, M.A. 1764, vicar of Pitting- 
ton, co. Durham, 1770-1772, vicar of Heighington 1772-1815, and. 


for thirty-five years principal surrogate in the Consistory Court 
of Durham. Dying at Durham 31 May, 1815, aged 76, he was 
buried at St. Oswald's beside his wife and daughters. 

1815, TIMOTHY MYERS instituted 11 Nov. 1815 (Liber Institutionum, 
P.R.O.). He was a chaplain in the Royal Navy and as such was 
serving on H.M.S. Mars at the taking of Copenhagen, and was after- 
wards vicar of Preston, Dorsetshire. At the instance of his kins- 
man, Dr. Bouyer, archdeacon of Northumberland, he was collated 
to Stannington by bishop Barrington. He voted at the election 
of knights of the shire in 1826. He died 4 Feb. 1845, aged 77, and 
has a mural monument in the church. 

1845, HENRY KING COLLINSON, of Queen's College, Oxford, matricu- 
lated 16 Oct, 1823, age 19, as son of John Collinson of Sheen, Surrey, 
B.A. 1827, M.A. 1833, collated by the bishop of Durham, 11 Mar. 
1845, and inducted 27 April of same year (Register). 

1867, AMBROSE JONES, of St. John's College, Cambridge; B.A. 1848, 
M.A. 1851; perpetual curate of Elworth, Cheshire, 1850-1867; 
presented to the vicarage of Stannington in 1867 by the bishop of 
Chester and retained the same until his death 2 July, 1909. During 
his vicariate the ancient church of Stannington was taken down 
and a new structure erected. There is an obituary notice of him 
in the History of the Berwickshire Naturalists Club, vol. xx, p. 111. 
1909. ALFRED GEORGE DODDERIDGE, of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
M.A., collated by the bishop of Newcastle. 

Mr. Hodgson was also thanked for this paper. 



Indenture quadripartite made 30 November, 5 Anne, and year 1706, 
Between (1) Thomas Forster of Etherston, co. Northd., (2) John Bacon 
of Staward in the same co., esq., (3) William Bacon of Staward, esq.. 
the eldest son and heir apparent of John Bacon, and (4) Margaret 
Forster, daughter of Thomas Forster, after reciting intended marriage ' by 
the Grace of God ' between William Bacon and Margaret Forster, it was 
witnessed that in consideration of this intended marriage and of the 
covenants and agreements thereafter mentioned on the part of the said 
John Bacon his heirs, &c., the said Thomas Forster his heirs, &c., 
covenanted with John Bacon to pay him ,1,000 on the solemnization 
of the marriage, and within 2 months of such marriage give reasonable 
security for the payment of a further ^1,000 in yearly sums on the 1 1 Nov. 
of j100 for 10 years and within 100 months after such solemnization the 
sd. John Bacon and his heirs, &c., to convey, settle &c., messuages, lands, 
tenements, &c., in the counties of Northd. and Durham, of the yearly 
value of ,300 to the use of Wm. Bacon during his natural life without 
impeachment of waste and if the said Margaret Forster should survive 
him /200 to her during her natural life for her jointure and in lieu of her 
dower and thirds, &c., and after the death of both of them for the 
heirs of the body of William Bacon and for want of such issue to the 
use of the said John Bacon. Signed by all the parties and sealed- 
Thomas Forster using a head facing right ; John and William Bacon 
a shield (with mantling) [ ] on a chief two mullets for Bacon; and 
Margaret Forster a chevron between three hunting horns for Forster. John 
and William Bacon sign in the presence of Roger Fenwick, William Fen- 
wick, and Thomas Boutflower; and Thomas and Margaret Forster sign in 
the presence of Edw. Grey, Nicholas Lewis [mark] and James Ogle. 

The Rev. D. S. Boutflower has kindly sent the pedigree, given on p. 
184, shewing the connexion of the Forsters with the Boutflowers. 


o a 



Ss 5? 

^92 5 
0s a o 9 



$3 Js 2 ? i 

fe ^^ 



O o 



Ot3 <B eS 




c3 ^ 

!"S ^"i^S o fe 













|ll|i \ 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 14. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the Castle, 
Newcastle, on Wednesday, 29th March 1916, at 7 o'clock p.m., the Rev. 
H. Gee, D.D., F.S.A., a vice-president, being in the chair. 

The usual routine business having been transacted, the following 
members were proposed and declared duly elected : 

1. Charles D. Forster, Clerk of the Peace for Northumberland, 

Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 

2. R. W. Gregory, 7 Lilburn Gardens, South Gosforth. 

3. David P. Patrick, 11 Kingswood Avenue, West Jesmond, 


The following BOOKS, &c., were placed on the table. 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. William Philipson : Two large atlases : one of the world, 
consisting of 33 maps, by H. Moll. Henry Overton, Emanuel Bowen 
and Thomas Bowles, the earliest of 1708 some "are dedicated to 
queen Anne, and others to George n; the other of all the counties of 
England and Wales, consisting of 45 maps, by Emanuel Bowen and 
Thomas Kitchen. On the inside of the front cover is the name of 
a former owner, ' John Fen wick, 1735.' 

From Mr. Thomas Porteus of Reading : Three old local directories : 
(1) Whelan's History. &c., of Northumberland, 1855 ; (2) Christie's 
Annual Directory for Newcastle, &c., 1876-7 ; and (3) Ward's 
Directory of Newcastle, &c., 1885-86. 

From : The Athenaeum Subject Index to Periodicals, 1915. 

Exchanges : 

From the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland : Trans., XLV, iv. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : Proceedings, XLIX. 

From the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society : Tran- 
sactions, n.s., in, ii. 

From the Cambridge Antiquarian Society : List of Members, Oct. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Bulletin 

57, ' An Introduction to the Study of the Maya Hieroglyphs.' 
Purchases : 

The Pedigree Register, .111, no. 36 ; The Museums Journal, xv, no. 
9 ; and The Year Book of the Scientific and Learned Societies of 
Great Britain and Ireland, 1914-15. 


By Mr. William Lee, of Consett : A carving knife, having impressed 
on its blade I W OLEY, the Shotley Bridge sword-cutler. The blade 
is logins, long* and 1J ins. wide. The horn handle is 5|ins. long. 

Mr. Lee was thanked. 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 29 



The last Wednesday in April falling this year in Easter week, 
it was decided not to hold either the council meeting or the 
monthly meeting. 


An obituary notice of Mr. Heslop by Mr. R. Welford, V.P., was read 
by Mr. R. Blair, one of the secretaries. It will be printed in Arch. 
Aeliana, 3 ser. xin. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Welford. 

On the motion of the chairman, seconded by Mr. Knowles, it was 
resolved that the condolence of members be sent to Mrs Heslop and 
family on the great loss sustained by the death of Mr. Heslop, not only 
by them but by the society. 


Mr. R. B. Hepple, LL.D., read an interesting paper on this subject, 
which will probably be printed in extenso in an early volume of Arch. 

The chairman, in moving a vote of thanks to Mr. Hepple, said it 
was a very interesting subject, for the references to monastic learning 
in Bede and other early north-country writers were innumerable. At 
the same time it was tantalising that so little information was given 
by such writers as to the contents of the libraries which their allusions 
implied to have existed. Mr. Hepple, however, had made it quite 
clear that the evidence all pointed towards the possession of consider- 
able stores of manuscripts, even if exact catalogues could not be 

Prof. J. Wight Duff, in seconding, remarked that it was wise to 
exercise caution in estimating the extent to which Greek originals were 
accessible in the monastic collections of Western Europe. The Irish 
libraries had kept in touch with Greek longer than other libraries in 
the west ; but it was not difficult to prove the absolute ignorance of 
Greek on the part of medieval copyists of Latin MSS. when a Greek 
quotation came in the text. 

The vote of thanks was carried by acclamation. 

Mr. J. C. Hodgson read the following notes on the 


connected with Northumberland and Durham. 

Along the walls where speaking marbles show 
What worthies form the hallow'd mould below. Tickell. 

Sacred to the Memory of J John Strother Ancrum | youngest son of 
the late | John Strother Ancrum, Esq. | of Canonbury Middlesex, | 
who died 5 March | 1807 J Aged 4 years and 11 Months. 

According to the parish register of Chatton, Strother, son of William and Margaret 
Ancrum, of West Weetwood, was born on the 23 of August, 1754. Although it is evidently 
a post entry and is in other ways puzzling, the names are so unusual it is probable that the 
child may be identified with the John Strother Ancrum who died at Canonbury on the 
6th November 1803, in his forty-ninth year (cf. Gent. Mag., 1803, p. 1095) . Two daughters 
of John Strother Ancrum died at Canonbury in the month of July, 1806 (Ibid., 1806, p. 778), 
and his third daughter, Jane, was married in the month of May 1821, to Christopher Cookson, 
eldest sop of Dr. William Cookson, canon of Windsor. 



In memory of Ann Askew | widow of the late Anthony Askew, Esq I 
who died April 20, 1833, aged 65 | Also her two grandchildren, Felix | 
Henry and Louisa, who died in | their infancy. 


To the Memory of I Eliz: Clavering, Wife of | Geo: Clavering, | of 
Green Croft I in the County of Durham, Esq r I who died at Bath ( 
Sep r 19, 1763. | Aged 38 Years. 

Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. Edward Browell, rector of Romaldkirk, and granddaughter 
of Mark Browell, the Newcastle diarist, was married in 1746 to George Clavering, of Green- 
croft, in the parish of Lanchester, second son of Sir James Clavering, sixth baronet. She 
died without issue. Her husband, after marrying a third wife, died 23 May 1794, and 
was buried at High Wycomb, Bucks. 

Underneath this stone | are deposited the remains of Thomas 
Dampier, D.D., | Dean of Durham, | who died July 31, 1777, | in the 
65th year of his age. 

He was son of William Dampier, of Blackford, Somerset ; educated at Eton and at 
Corpus Christi college, Oxford, where he matriculated 2 Nov. 1731, aged 19; migrating 
thence to King's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1735, proceeding M.A. 
1741 and D.D. 1755. Returning to Eton as a master, he was collated to the second 
stall of Canterbury 1765, became a canon of Windsor 1769, collated to the second stall 
of Durham 1771, master of Sherburn hospital 1773, and was made dean of Durham 17 
July 1774. He was father of Thomas Dampier, successively bishop of Rochester and Ely. 

Here lyeth the body of Abraham Dixon, Esq., of Newcastle upon 
Tyne, the best of fathers obiit 5 Dec r A.D. 1746 astatis 58 And also 
the remains of Alice wife of the above Abraham Dixon and daughter of 
John Ord, Esq. 

Abraham Dixon was son of Abraham Dixon, of Newcastle, master and mariner, who 
on the 4 June 1694, intending shortly to take a voyage to sea, made his will, and after 
providing for his wife, Barbara Peareth, stepdaughter of Joseph Atkinson, alderman of 
Newcastle, and his infant daughter Mary, gave his property at Shipley, co. York., and 
in Spicer Lane, Newcastle, to his son Abraham. The testator, returning trom his voyage, 
survived until 1699 or 1700. 

Abraham Dixon, the son, was baptized at All Saints on the 6 May 1689,and was admitted 
to the Merchants Company, 15 May 1713. He married 25 August 1720, at Gateshead, 
Alice, daughter of John Ord, of Newcastle, attorney, and in 1726 purchased the fine estate 
of Belford from James Montague. Alice, widow of Abraham Dixon, died at her house in 
Red Lion Square, London, on the 18 April 1753. 

The Remains | of Henry Ellison, Esq., of Hebburn in the County | 

of Durham, | are deposited near this place. | He died August 20 th 

1795, | Aged 61 Years | [on a classical urn draped]. 

Henry Ellison, of Hebburn, was baptized at Gateshead, 9 December 1734, as the eldest 
son of Henry Ellison, by Hannah Coatsworth, his wife, and was admitted free by the 
Merchants Company, 9 August 1765, by patrimony. He married, 15 May 1779, Henrietta 
daughter of John Isaacson, and by her had issue, three sons and tour daughters. 

EMPSON (stained glass window west end ol north aisle.) 

In memory of the late Charles Empson of this city, born 1795, died 


A native of York who settled in Newcastle, about the year 1827, as a fine art bookseller. 
He was elected a member of this society on the 3 February 1830, was a contributor to the 
transactions, and as such has a memoir in the centenary volume (Arch. A el. 3 ser. x,p. 178). 



Sacred | To the Memory of | Mrs. Jane Fenwick | Daughter of 
Edward Colville of White-House | In the Bishoprick of Durham, Esq r | 
And | Wife of Robert Fenwick | of Newcastle upon Tyne Esq r | She 
departed this Life the 6th of Oct. 1749 | Aged 47 | 

Jane, tenth daughter of Edward Colville, of the Butchers company, Newcastle, and 
of Whitehouse in the parish of Jarrow, was married, firstly, to Charles Clark, of Gray's 
Inn, and of Newcastle, and secondly, to Robert Fenwick, of Lemington, and of Newcastle. 
She died s.p. By her will, dated 26 March 1746, she devised her purparty of the rectory 
of Stannington which she took under her first husband's will to her second husband 
for life, with remainder to three of her sisters (cf. Hodgson, Hist. Northumberland, n, 
ii., p. 331). 

In Memory of | Elizabeth the beloved Wife of ] Rich d Grieve of 
Alnwick, I in the County of Northumberland Esq. | who dyed the 7th 
day of Nov: | 1752. 

She was daughter of William Davidson, or Davison, described as of Plymouth, by his 
wife Grace, daughter of Robert Brandling. She was married 31 January 1739/40, at 
Alnwick, as his second wife, to Richard Grieve, of Alnwick, attorney, and of Swarland, 
by whom she had issue three sons and three daughters, one of whom was George Grieve, 
one of the actors in the French Revolution, and the resolute enemy of Madame du Barry 
(cf. pedigree of Grieve, new History of Northumberland, vn, 399). 


Hujus Columnae | sepultus est ad Pedem, | Ricardus Heaviside 
Armiger. | In Agro Dunelm natus. | Qui Bathoniae Obiit | 12 mo Aprilis, 
A.s. | MDCCCXV | Annum agens LXII. j R.I. P. 

The family of Heaviside were freeholders at Rainton, in the parish of Houghton-le- 
Spring. The hamlet or village of Middle Rainton was built on freeholds sold off in small 
allotments for building sites in 1820 by Mr. R. Heaviside (cf. Parson and White, Directory 
of Durham and Northumberland (1828), n, 274). 


Henry Hudson. Esq. of Wheatley | Northumberland | Died May 
15 th 1789 I Aged 69. | 

The last male heir of the puritan family of Hudson of Newbiggen, in the parish of 
Newburn, and the grandson of one of Cromwell's ' Ironsides,' he was of Whitley hall, in 
the parish of Tynemouth, and died s.p. (cf. Hudson pedigree, new History of 
Northumberland, vni, p. 398). 

Robert Hughes Esq., Rear Admiral of the Red | Died Jan? the 15 th 
1774 Aged fifty seven Years | Whose military Merits | Intitled him no 
less to publick Honors | Than his social Virtues | To private Esteem. | 
His Courage, like his Wit | Was ever at his Command: | No Rashness 
misguided the Exercise of either. | Let the Brave | Revere Him for the 
pattern which they gain. | Let the Gay | Regret him for the Pleasure 
which they lose. | He married Sarah, Daughter of Alex r Collingwood 
Esq r , | of Unthank, in Northumberland by whom He has left | Issue 
a Son and a Daughter. 

Robert Hughes, Captain, afterwards Rear Admiral, R.N., married on the 27 August 

1766, at Morpeth, Sarah, fourth daughter of Alexander Collingwood, of Little Ryle and 

Unthank, by his wife Eleanor, daughter of Robert Blake, of Twizel in Norhamshire. 

According to the Peerage and Baronetage, Thomas Collingwood, brother of the above 

named Mrs. Hughes, married, as her first husband, Mary, daughter of Sir Richard Hughes, 

of East-Bergholt, first baronet. 



Henry Forster Mills, A.M. | Chancellor of York Minster I Died 

27th April 1827 | Aged 58 years. 

Henry Forster Mills, of Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A. 1790, M.A. 1793, was born 
5 September, 1768, being eldest son of Henry Mills, of Durham, wine merchant, and of 
Willington, in the same county, by his marriage with Elizabeth.daughter of Robert Fenwick, 
of Lemington. He received his Christian name from his ancestor Henry Forster, alderman 
of Durham, whose daughter Jane became the wife of Robert Mills, sometime of H.M. 
Customs, Sunderland. By his marriage, on the 27 November 1794, with Alice Harriet, 

daughter of Dr. William Markham, archbishop of York, he had a numerous issue and 
obtained much valuable preferment, becoming successively rector of Emley, Yorkshire, 
of Cheshire, prebendary of York and Southwell, and, as set out in the memorial 
inscription, chancellor of the cathedral of York. The wine merchant's business carried on 
by the families of Forster and Mills, at Durham, now belongs to Messrs. Hutchinson and 


Robert Mitford, Esq. | died Dec 25 1818 aged 38. 

1818, Dec. 18 (sic). At Bath, Robert Mitford, Esq., late of the audit office, Somerset 
house, and of Mitford, co. Northumberland (Gent. Mag., 1818, vol. n, p. 646). 


In a Vault | underneath lie | the Remains of William | Meade 
Ogle Esq | who died 28 June 1811 | Aged 80 

William Meade, an Irishman, married Sarah, daughter of Henry Ogle, of Drogheda, 
and under the provision of the will of his brother-in-law, John Ogle, of the same place, who 
died in the year 1773, assumed the name and arms of Ogle (cf. Ogle, Ogle and Bothal, 
privately printed, 1902, pp. 277-279). 

Here lies | The Body of | John Ogle, of | Eglingham in Nor | th- 
umberland, Esq r | who died the 13 th | of Feb: 173&, in y e | 48 th year 
of his 1 Age. 

John Ogle, second son, but heir by adoption, of Robert Ogle, of Eglingham, by his 
marriage with Dorothy, daughter of John Grey of Howick, had possession of the family 
estate at Eglingham exactly for twelve months, his father having been buried on the 21st 
February, 173^. He married Sarah, daughter of Robert Bell of Bellasis, and widow, first, 
of Jonathan Pilsbury, and secondly, of Ralph Scurfield of Eachwick, who survived her third 
husband for eighteen years (cf. Ogle, Ogle and Bothal, p. 203). 

Near this Place lyes the Body of | Ralph Sowerby, Esq r | one of 
the Aldermen of the Town | of Newcastle upon Tyne j who died Feb: 
19 th 1765 j Aged 66. 

The son of Lawrence Sowerby, of Fishburn, in the county of Durham. He was appren- 
ticed on the 13 June 1764, to Nathaniel Clayton, boothman, and was made free of the 
Merchants company, 31 March 1725. He served as sheriff of Newcastle in 1740, and 
mayor in 1743, 1750, and for the third time in 1758. 

(1) Arms: gules a lion rampant argent within a bordure engrailed or 
(TUDOR) impaling i (1) azure three martlets or, on a chief or three martlets 
argent (FENWICK); (2) argent on a chevron sable three quatref 'oils or (EYRE). 
Crest above : a demi lion rampant tongue gules holding in paw a rose gules. 
Sacred to the memory of | William Tudor esquire, (Fellow of the 
Royal College of Surgeons | of England, | Inspector General of Army- 
Hospitals, | and, for many years, an eminent surgeon, | in this city, f 
He died at Kelston Knoll, in this county, | July 9 1845 aged 76. 

Dr. Tudor, son of Thomas Tudor, by Lucy Draper, his wife, after serving as surgeon 
in the Bays under the command of the Earl of Pembroke, settled in Bath, where he attained 
eminence in the exercise of his profession. By his first wife, Dorothy, daughter of Nicholas 
Fenwick of Lemington, by his wife, Dorothy, daughter of Collingwood Forster, he had 


issue three daughters and co-heiresses, viz.: Dorothy, wife of R. Carmichael Smyth, 
major 93 reg. ; Isabella, wife of George Edward Frere, of Roydon, Norfolk; and Elizabeth 
Jane, wife of Thomas Thorp, of Alnwick. Dr. Tudor married secondly, Julia Purvis Eyre, 
daughter and co-heir of William Purvis, afterwards Eyre, of Newhouse, Wilts., third son 
of Rear Admiral C. W. Purvis of Darsham, Suffolk. She survived her husband for forty-five 
years and died at Kelston Knoll. 

(2) Sacred to the Memory of | Dorothy Wife of William Tudor, 
Esq r 1 Surgeon of this City | Daughter of the late Nicholas Fenwick, 
Esq r | of Lemmington in the County of Northumberland | Who, after 
long Suffering | borne with Christian Patience, | departed this Life | 
the 9 th day of December 1823 | Aged 39 Years. 


Edw: Ward, Esq r | Morpeth | Northumberland | Obit [sic] Oct r 22 d , | 

1777 (sic), | aet. 67. 

Edward Ward, second son of Edward Ward, was baptized at Morpeth on the 2 Novem- 
ber 1710, and married, also at the same place, 4 January 173, Elizabeth Fenwick, and 
secondly, 3 September 1754, at Wallsend, Sarah, widow of James Steward, of North Shields, 
and had issue by both marriages, only one of whom, a daughter, seems to have survived 
him. The year of his death as given on the monument is incorrect, for it was announced 
in the Newcastle Courant of 26 October 1776, and is correctly entered in the burial register 
of Bath Abbey. 

Edward Ward's nephew and namesake, Edward Ward, of Nunnykirk, died at Bristol 
Hot Springs on the 11 January 1779. 


Near this place are deposited | the Remains of | John Wealleans, 
Esq r | of Peels, Northumberland | who died the 10 th of April 1803 | 
Aged 56 Years. 

The eldest son of Christopher Wealleans, tenant of Harbottle Peels, an extensive flock- 
master (died 1 July, 1800), by his wife, Elizabeth Robson. He died unmarried. 


Mr. R. Blair, one of the secretaries, read some notes by Mr. Wooler 
in answer to the query, ' Was there a Roman Station at Northallerton ? ' 
of which the following is a portion : 

"This has always been a debatable question, and many eminent 
antiquaries have taken different views of the subject. I propose in 
these notes to discuss the varying evidence that is available in the light 
of modern research and endeavour to arrive at a conclusion based upon 
actual discoveries and the probabilities they suggest. That there was 
a Roman camp at Northallerton in the vicinity of Castle hills seems 
undoubted from the discovery of a Roman inscribed walling-stone, 
numerous Roman coins and other Roman remains. In 1743 a Roman 
cinerary urn was dug up at the Castle hills. In 1788, in a field 
close to these hills, Lawrence Lawrie dug up a large urn containing 
a quantity of Roman coins, chiefly of the later emperors. A few 
were corroded, but the greater part were in good preservation, 
So numerous were the coins, which amounted to several 
hundreds, that they soon got into circulation as farthings, 
and went by the name of ' Lawrie's farthings.' Hutchinson, the 
historian of Durham, writing about 1820, stated that ' All the vallums 
are now perfectly grassed over, and in the whole ground there is not 
the least appearance of mason-work : so completely have the materials 
been removed for the purpose of building houses in the town, many 
shewing evidence whence the stones were obtained. At Romanby 
there is not any trace that we could discover of a Roman camp. If the 


Romans had a fort in this vicinity, we should be inclined to conceive, 
with Dr. Stukeley, it was situated where the Castle-banks (as the present 
remains are now called) do lie ; though by such large and extensive 
modern works the traces of a Roman fort are defaced. The 
stronghold of the castle consisted of a circular mount, defended by 
circumvallations and ditches. The mount is very steep on the west 
side, but on the east the access is more gradual ; it is about twenty feet 
in perpendicular height, is in circumference three hundred paces, and 
the sides are so steep as to be ascended with difficulty ; the crown is a 
level plain. Immediately at the foot of the mount is a ditch which runs 
quite round it. On the west side a vallum rises immediately on the 
outside of the ditch, but as it advances to the eastward spreads itself 
to a considerable distance, and shews great remains. To the north 
side a large mole or bulwark rises on the vallum. There are considerable 
traces of a wide ditch on the outside of this vallum. On the west there 
are no other outworks, but the ground appears as if in former times it 
might be flooded, and thence the castle rendered unassailable on that 
part. From the mole and vallum last mentioned, there runs out to 
a considerable distance another vallum, shewing great remains, and 
taking a large sweep, terminating at the brook that runs on the south, 
and inclosing three or four acres of land. The outward vallum has a 
deep ditch, which, by receiving the waters of the brook, must have 
afforded a very powerful defence. On this last vallum, to the north, 
and not far distant from that before noted, is another bulwark or mole. 
We at first considered these eminences as the ruins of some gateway 
towers, but on examining the approach, that idea was relinquished.' 
Hutchinson is here evidently describing the Norman earthworks as 
then existing. 

Ingledew, in his History of Northallerton, page 393, states that in the 
year 1838, while cutting through the earthworks at Castle hills for the 
formation of the railway from Darlington to York, amongst a number of 
other Roman remains there was found a stone bearing the inscription : 
INSTAN[T]E | FLA HYRO LEG. vi. v. This stone was missing shortly after 
it was found, but in 1841 attention was drawn to a stone built into the 
gable of a house near the chapter house of Hexham abbey, inscribed : 
INSTAN[T]E | FL. HYGIN | LEG. vi. v. The similarity is so remarkable 
that the question arises: is it one and the same stone, the inscription 
having been in the first place badly read ? In the first line of each 
' Instante ' is the word indicated, the second T being ligatured with 
the N. The stone is a walling stone, ten inches broad by seven inches 
high, with If inch letters. The inscription appears to be complete. It 
is now preserved in the cathedral library at Durham (see Lapidarium 
Septentrionile for an illustration of the Hexham stone) . The greater part 
of the ground was levelled by the workmen employed in forming the 
railway. The soil was removed by the contractor's waggons to a 
distant part of the line for the purpose of forming embankments. At 
the foot of the hill portions of foundations of freestone were discovered, 
and several Roman coins. Near the centre of the hill, and about a 
yard from the surface, was also discovered an ancient well, about a 
yard in diameter, lined with neatly dressed freestone. In the same 
railway cutting there were also found what were stated to be 
Roman spurs, and coins of- Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, 
Commodus, Severus, Geta, Constantius Chlorus, and Constantine. 
In these discoveries there seems ample proof of the existence of a 
Roman camp or station here. 


Mr. I'Anson, F.S.A., in 'The Castles of the North Riding' (Yorks. 
Arch. Jour., xxn, 366), says: 'It seems highly probable that the 
Conqueror founded a motte and bailey fortress on what is now known 
as Castle hills, when he encamped at Northallerton in 1068.' Ingledew 
(His. N.) is of opinion that this castle was founded within a Roman 
camp, and the earthworks still remaining in field No. 18. o.s. (on 
the west of the railway), with their rounded north-west angle, show 
evidence of Roman origin. 

The Norman earthworks occupied an area of some twenty acres. At 
the beginning of the 19th century the high earthworks on the south 
side were levelled, and the deep trenches filled up. In 1807 Miss 
Lambton of Biddick, the owner, allowed part of the hill to be converted 
into small fields, and in so doing the trenches on the east side were 
levelled. After her death the north side of the Castle hills, which was 
entire, was bought by Mr. Thomas Hunter, who took down the high 
mounds, which were very formidable, and filled up the deep trenches. 

What better position could the conqueror have selected for his 
Norman motte and earthworks ? for it afforded an excellent strategic 

A Roman road left York by the north gateway, by what is now 
Bootham bar, which crossed the Tees at Pontey's lane, the boundary 
between the parishes of Middleton-St. -George and Dinsdale. From 
this road Gale says there was a branch road to Catterick through 
Romanby. It passed through Romanby, Yafforth, Langton and 
Bolton-on-Swale . 

In levelling the Castle hills earthworks a strong pavement of stones 
about two feet below the surface, and three or four courses deep, and 
firmly set, was removed, probably a portion of a Roman road. Several 
score loads of these stones were sold to the overseers of the highway for 
repairing purposes. 

It has been suggested that the name of the adjoining village of 
Romanby is also indicative of the existence of a Roman camp in the 
vicinity. Gale, the learned antiquary, says : ' It is highly probable 
that Northallerton arose out of the ashes of an old Roman station, whose 
name we have lost, there still being in the parish and not half-a-mile 
distant, a hamlet at this day called Romanby, through which runs a 
Roman way from Thirsk to Catterick. But it may be doubted whether 
the name of Romanby is derived either from the Roman works in its 
neighbourhood, to the Roman road which runs through it, or to any 
other associative connexion. Had this been the case, as Langdale very 
justly observes, similar circumstances would have given the same name 
to other places near Roman settlements. There does not appear to be 
any other village of the same name in the country. In Domesday 
Romanby is called Romundebi. The Rev. J. B. Johnson, the author 
of The Place Names of England, suggests that the name Romanby is 
derived from Rothmund or Rodmund, a fully accredited name, meaning 
the dwelling of Rodmund, ' by ' signifying" a house, dwelling, or little 
settlement, and of Scandinavian origin." 

Mr. Wooler was thanked. 


Mr. Parker Brewis writes ' that Mr. Wooler's description (p. 176) of 
the Shotley Bridge sword as a naval cutlass is an error, for it is a 
hunting sword.' 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 15. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the Castle, 
on Wednesday, 31st May 1916, at 7 o'clock in the evening, Mr. F. W. 
Dendy, D.C.L., a vice-president, being in the chair. 

Mr. R. Blair, one of the secretaries, reported that he had sent 
condolences, as directed at the March meeting, and had received 
acknowledgments of them. 

The following BOOKS received since the March meeting were 
placed on the table : 
Presents : The following were announced and thanks voted to the 

donors : 

From Mr. Geo. Neilson, LL.D., the author: (1) Huchown of the 

Awle Ryale, the Alliterative Poet ; (2) Sir Hew of Eglintoun, and 

Huchown of the Awle Ryale, a biographical calendar and literary 

estimate ; and (3) The Hellespont in Retrospect. 

From the Corporation of Colchester : Report of the Museum and 

Muniment Committee for year ending March 1916. 
From the Council of the Library Association : (1) The Athenaeum 
Subject Index to Periodicals, 1915 History, Geographical, Anthro- 
pology and Folk Lore ; (2) Economic and Political Sciences and 
Law ; and (3) Fine Arts and Archaeology, 2nd edition. 
From the ' Office National des Universites et Ecoles Frangaises ' : 

La Science Franqaise, 2 vols. 
Exchanges : 

From the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Science, U.S.A. : The 

Craniometry of Southern New England Indians. 
From the Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. : 

The Historical Background of Chaucer's Knight, by A. S. Cook. 
From the Surrey Archaeological Society : A rchaeological Collections, 


From the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History : 
Proceedings, xv, iii. 

From the Royal Numismatic Society : Numismatic Chronicle, 4 ser. 
no. 60. 

From the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 
Journal, xxxviu. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Assoc. : Journal, 6 ser., xvi, ii. 

From the British Archaeological Association : Journal, N.S., xxn, i. 

From the Society of Antiquaries of London : (1) Archaeologia, 66 
(1914-1915) ; and (2) Proceedings, 2 ser., xxvu. [This volume 
contains two articles of local interest ; the first (p. 132) by Mr. 
C. R. Pears, the secretary, is on the discovery of two pre-conquest 
'pillow-stones,' similar to those discovered some years ago atHartle- 
pool ; one of them is inscribed OSGYTH in Saxon letters and in 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 30 


runes. Of these stones and of one discovered a few years ago there 
are illustrations. The second paper (p. 205) by the Rev. Dr. 
Fowler, of Durham, is on three panels of 13 cent, painted glass in 
Lanchester church, representing (1) The Bethlehem Shepherds ; 
(2) The Adoration of the Image ; and (3) The Flight into Egypt. 
There are plates, reproduced from photographs, illustrating the 

From the Royal Society, Stockholm : Fornvannen, for 1915. 

From the Royal Canadian Institute of Toronto : Transactions, xi, i. 
Purchases : 

The Scottish Historical Review, xm, no. 3 ; The Museums Journal, 
xv, no. 10 ; Proceedings of the Imperial German Archaeological 
Institute, xxix, iii and iv ; a manuscript volume containing a 
complete transcript of the almoner's book of the convent of 
Durham, copied from the original in the library of bishop Cosin by 
the Rev. W. Greenwell ; and Notes and Queries for April and May. 


The following were announced and thanks voted to the donors : 

From Mr. Parker Brewis : A knitting sheath, 6 in. long. 

From Dr. Hardcastle : Another knitting sheath, 10 in. long, of 
different shape. 

Mr. Brewis remarked that there was not one example of these objects 
in the society's museum. 

By Mr. W. M. Egglestone : 
Sketch made by himself 
from the original object 
a shoe-buckle worn by 
Betty Deighton, of Rook- 
hope, Weardale, about 
1790. She was living at 
Castleside in 1871, and 
was then a very old 
woman. The buckle is 
made of steel, the insets 
polished and facetted. It 
is 2 ins. in diameter. 

The council having re- 
commended that as usual 
no meetings of the society or 
council be held in June, this 
was confirmed. 


Mr. W. M. Egglestone reported the discovery of stone axes* and part 
of a perforated hammer. The following are his notes of them : 

"No. 1 was found at the limestone quarry known as Rogerley, near 

Frosterley, some ten or more years ago by Mr. John Barker, manager 

lor Messrs. Pease & Partners, owners of the quarry, which is on the 

north side of the river Wear, the park of Rogerley lying between the 

river and the quarry. The finder informed the writer that it was found 

at a depth of 14 feet, but the covering appeared to have been a re-deposit 

1 gravel and soil. It is light grey in colour and made of whetstone or 

* See illustrations on opposite page. 

From drawings by Mr. W. M. Egglestone. 


pencil bed, a rock baked by heat, and its surface shows scattered small 
brown coloured spots evidently due to specks of iron. The weight of 
this rather small implement is 6 ounces, length 4| inches, widest part 
2 inches, and about 1 thick. Height above sea level about 600 feet 
or less. 

No. 2 is of a pattern similar to those found in the neighbourhood of 
Stanhope (see plate facing page 178 of this volume of Proceedings. 
It was found on the ridge known as White-edge, which lies between the 
two northern tributaries of the river Wear, Middlehope-burn which 
joins the Wear at Westgate, and Rookhope-burn which joins the same 
river at Eastgate, at a height of 1769 feet above sea level, and at a 
spot 5| miles west by north from Stanhope. The land where found 
was enclosed pasture, or fell land, and the exact spot was where sheep 
had worn out the soil, in fact the sheep laid bare the object, which was 
about eighteen inches or less below the grass turf. It is worthy of note 
that about 2|- miles nearly due north is the place where so many flint 
flakes and arrow heads have been found (Proo. 3 ser., iv, p. 205, 279 and 
v, pp. 106-115). Evidently there would be some association between 
the places when early man hunted in the Weardale forest. The 
implement under notice is 1& inches across and the butt end 1 inches. 
In Evans, Ancient Implements of the Stone Age, 2nd ed. 1897, p. 103, we 
find in no. 47 an illustration of an implement very like the Weardale 
one under notice, and of which Sir John Evans says: ' No. 47 exhibits 
a beautiful implement of a different character, and of a very rare form, 
inasmuch as it expands towards the edge.' This is stated to be in the 
Greenwell Collection, and was found at Burradon, Northumberland. 
It resembles another figured in Evans's book at page 131. 

No. 3. This is a very large stone implement and is thus described 
by Evans, p. 106: -'In the Greenwell Collection is another of basalt 
with straight sides, tapering from 2f inches at edge to If at butt, 9| 
inches in length and If thick, from a peat moss at Cowshill in Weardale."' 
I was informed later that this Cowshill axe was in Dr. W. Allen Sturge's 
collection. On writing to Dr. Sturge he very kindly sent me the im- 
plement for inspection, expressing, in the meantime, that he did not 
think the axe was made of basalt. I found it an excellent specimen of 
a prehistoric implement. It has a brownish grey or fawn coloured 
appearance owing to its being bleached by exposure in a similar way 
as flint flakes are bleached, showing that the axe had been exposed a 
long time. The writer agrees with Dr. Sturge that it is not made of 
basalt, but is a softish green stone similar to whetstone or pencil bed, 
a metamorphosed stone. As the great whin sill is exposed at Cowshill, 
it has probably influenced the idea of basalt, but pencil bed also exists 
at Cowshill both under and over the basaltic sheet. These whetstone 
beds, however, are paler than the implement under notice, but never- 
theless the implement is not made of basalt. The surface shows, similar 
to no. 1, brownish spots due to specks of iron. The writer made the 
sketch from the actual object. 

No. 4 is part of a perforated hammer axe made of micaceous grit or 
sandstone, which was found on the north side of Stanhope in 1910, in 
the neighbourhood of Collier Law, 1690 feet above sea level." 


The following communication from Mr. F. Gerald Simpson was read : 
' I have to report the discovery of two more Roman temporary camps 
on the line of the Stanegate, near Haltwhistle-burn. 


After I located the camp close to Sunnyrigg farm, on 21 Oct. 1915, 
the tenant, Mr. Thomas Armstrong, came to the conclusion that another 
field-work on his farm, hitherto unnoticed, was also of Roman date. On 
11 April, I examined the site. It is undoubtedly a Roman work. 

The camp lies about half a mile east-north-east of the farmhouse, and 
is nearly opposite Cockmount hill farm, across the valley, on the line of 
the Wall. 

It is the smallest camp yet discovered in the Wall district, being a 
square of only about 100 feet (measured to the centre-line of the 
ramparts). The rampart and ditch are, however, larger than those of 
the camp near the farm house. There are two entrances, one about the 
middle of the south front, and the other in the east front, about 35 feet 
from the north-east angle. Both entrances are defended by straight 
traverses of the usual pattern. 

The second site is very much larger, and appears to be of the same 
order as the large camp, of about 18 acres, also located on 21 Oct. 1915 
(cf. this volume, p. 126), which occupies the hill between Sunnyrigg 
and Fellend farms. It is, however, much worn down by cultiva 
tion and quarrying, except about the south-west angle, and the 
whole outline will only be recovered by excavation. It occupies two 
hill-crests, of the familiar wave-like formation of the district, and the 
trough between, along the bottom of which Wade's road now runs, 
a quarter of a mile eastward from the cross roads to Haltwhistle and 
Cawfields. The farm known as Milestone house is near the middle of 
the camp. 

The modern limestone quarry to the north of Wade's road has 
apparently destroyed the whole of the north rampart. About 200 
yards of the west rampart remain, with a probable entrance about the 
middle. There is a definite entrance, defended by a straight traverse, 
no less than 285 yards from the south-west angle, but the rest of that 
front, and the whole of the east front, are at present doubtful.' 


Mr. John Oxberry read the following notes : 

" I have recently had the opportunity given me of looking through 
several bound volumes of correspondence preserved by the Rev. John 
Hodgson. These letters were, of course, made use of by the Rev. 
James Raine when he was engaged in writing Hodgson's biography. 
He has skimmed the cream off them, but the exigencies of space, 
doubtless, debarred him from utilizing them as much as he would have 
liked, and as a consequence, there occasionally crops up in the corres- 
pondence a note or detail that is worth exhuming from the pages where 
it lies buried. 

The volumes are owned by our fellow member, Mr. J. G. Hodgson, 
the historian's grandson, who has generously permitted me to draw 
upon them for any matter they may contain that is likely to prove 
helpful or interesting to the society. As I have just said, however, the 
cream has already been skimmed off by Mr. Raine, and though there 
is much left of great general interest, much that gives us an insight into 
the life led, and the work done by a cultured clergyman and antiquarian 
student of a century ago, much that assists us in comprehending more 
clearly some of the characteristic conditions of the period the letters 
were written in, the time, perhaps, has hardly arrived when they can be 
drawn upon to any great extent on behalf of a society devoted to the 
study of antiquarian" subjects. Age has not sufficiently matured them 
as letters, and we must leave it to posterity to fully appreciate and 
learn from them whatever lessons they may have to teach. 


At the same time there are topics touched upon here and there that 
merit our notice even at the present day, and, availing myself of their 
owner's leave, I have taken copies of two letters and a circular, which 
I think are worth our attention, and may even be worth preserving in 
our published transactions, seeing that they throw what, to many of us, 
will be a few additional rays of light on the origin of our society, and 
that, furthermore, they undoubtedly serve as a sort of footnote to the 
initial sentence of the society's history as it is set forth in the valuable 
centenary volume of Arch. Aeliana (3 ser., x). 

Every beginning has its own beginning, its own special bit of proto- 
plasm, so to speak, from which it is evolved. In other words, there is 
at the back of every beginning an antecedent set of circumstances 
consisting of a train of human dreams, thoughts, and actions, vague and 
nebulous at first, perhaps, but out of which finally emerges what we can 
all recognise as a tangible starting point. This tangible starting point 
in the history of the Newcastle Society of Antiquaries occurred on the 
23rd of January, 1813. But the whole of the evidence available to us 
goes to prove beyond dispute that the germ of the movement which led to 
the formation of the society was born and bred in the active brain of 
John Bell, and the centenary volume does justice to the merits that 
rightly belong to him as the original projector. We know that on the 
4th November, 1812, he sent out circulars suggesting the desirability 
of establishing a society for the study of local antiquarian subjects ; we 
know that this circular aroused the attention of a few individuals whose 
tastes coincided with his own, and that during the two following months 
the matter was thought about and discussed by men like the Rev. John 
Hodgson, John Adamson, J. T. Brockett and others. The ultimate 
outcome of their conversations and interviews was, as we are told in the 
centenary volume, the convening of a meeting on 23 January, 1813, at 
which the projected society was duly formed. But the footnote, which 
the correspondence I propose to quote enables us to add to this state- 
ment, is that there was a preliminary meeting held on the 15th January 
1813, and incidentally it also enables us to realise a little more clearly 
the energy and enthusiasm that John Bell and his coadjutors displayed 
in their efforts to bring about the establishment of our Society. 

The first letter I shall quote, dated January 8th, 1813,* foreshadows 
the meeting which the circular immediately following, dated January 
16, 1813, shows us took place 

A Meeting of the Gentlemen wishfull [sic] of promoting the intended Society of Antiquaries 

in this Town, will take place at one o'clock, on Friday next (Jany. 15.) at the Chambers of 

Mr. Adamson, Solicitor, Mosley Street (late the Shakespeare Tavern), at which Meeting 

your Company is earnestly requested. 

Newcastle, 8th January, 1813. Yours respectfully, Jno. Bell. 

The Rev. J. Hodgson. 

The circular which, immediately follows is unsigned, but the next 
letter quoted from John Bell to the Rev. John Hodgson leaves no 
doubt as to who the sender of it was 

At a Meeting of Gentlemen held in this Town Yesterday Afternoon, they resolved to 
assemble at Loftus's Long Room, in Newcastle, on Saturday the 23rd instant, at One 
o' Clock, for the Purpose of incorporating themselves into a SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 
The object of this intended Society is to inquire into the general Antiquities of the North 
of England, and especially of the Counties of Durham and Northumberland. 
Newcastle, 16th. January, 1813. 

* Compare similar letters to Mr. John Adamson, Proceedings, 2 ser. vin, 68. 


I should like to direct your attention to a phrase in this circular which 
indicates that a decision to found the society had evidently been 
arrived at on the 15th January. The meeting of the 23rd January, it 
will be noticed, was called for a definite object. It was not called to 
discuss the desirability of forming a society, but for the purpose of 
giving those present an opportunity of "incorporating themselves into 
a Society of Antiquaries," if they felt disposed. And perhaps it may be 
desirable to say a word or two, before we leave the circular, with 
reference to the situation of Mr. Adamson's office where this pre- 
liminary, gathering was held. The Shakespeare tavern was situated on 
the south side of Mosley street, immediately opposite the old Theatre 
Royal, and from its name and situation it was no doubt started with the 
expectation of securing the patronage of actors and of theatre-goers. 
That the patronage did not come up to the expectation is evident from 
the fact that some time prior to 1812 it had ceased to exist as a tavern. 
It was here, then, in Mosley street, on a site now occupied by the 
National Provincial bank, that the first meeting took place of the little 
band of enthusiasts who were to make themselves responsible for the 
foundation of our society. 

The circular was issued on the 16th January, and on the 17th, Sunday 
though it was, and though he was addressing a clergyman, the anxiety 
of John Bell to advance their aim was not to be curbed, and full of his 
subject and desirous of smoothing the way to its attainment, he wrote 
the following letter which tells its own story and with which I shall 
conclude : 
Dear Sir, 

As I shall not have the Pleasure of attending the Meeting on Saturday next I would 
recommend that a Committee of three Persons be fixed on, or appointed prior to that Day 
so that they may be able to state to the Persons who may assemble, the purport of the 
Meeting and as someone there will be called to the Chair there should be some papers, or 
Propositions to lay before him to explain and put the same if necessary. I have sent about 
70 Circular Letters to some of the first Gentlemen of the County informing them of the 
Meeting and if the Meeting has not the Honour of their Company the Letter will still 
answer the purpose of letting them know that such a Society is in contemplation. If you 
will take the trouble to draw up any Resolutions you may have the use of the Edinburgh 
Rules. I shall committ a few ideas to paper against that Day and send the same to the 
Meeting. If you would write J. Adamson, Thos. Davidson, or J. Brumell to do the same, 
I think it would be the means of having a good set of Rules to go by. The Room at Lof tus's 
should be spoken for, so that no Disappointment could take place. 
Newcastle, With regards, 

17 January, 1813. Yours respectfully, Jno. Bell. 

The Revd. John Hodgson, Heworth, Gateshead." 

Mr. Oswald made a few remarks which he has since amplified into the 
following notes : The Newcastle Daily Journal reprints under the 
heading of ' A Hundred Years Ago ' extracts from the Newcastle 
Courant of last century. At the time of our centenary a paragraph, 
practically identical with the circular reprinted at the foot of page 
198, was reprinted from that newspaper of January 16th, 1813. 

Dr. Bruce, in Arch. Aeliana, 2 ser., xi, p. 158, says the meeting 
' took place in Mr. Adamson's office/ following, no doubt, Mackenzie's 
History of Newcastle, p. 486. We now know from Mr. Oxberry's 
researches that Mr. Adamson's office had previously been the 
Shakespeare tavern, but Parson & White's Directory of 1827 gives 
'Shakespeare tavern, Robert Gibson, 22 Mosley street' so that the 
name appears to have been resuscitated or transferred. 


Mr. Oswald has in his possession a quarto sheet, printed on both sides 
of the paper, headed : ' Statutes | of the | Antiquarian Society | of | 
Newcastle upon Tyne. Instituted January 1813.' And comprising, in 
addition to the statutes, lists of officers and ordinary and honorary 

Then follows : ' N.B. The first monthly meeting of the Society 
will be on Wednesday, the 3rd day of March next, at 6 o'clock in the 
evening, in the premisses (sic) below the Literary and Philosophical 
Society's room, Groat Market.' The sheet bears the imprint ' Printed 
by S. Hodgson, Union Street, Newcastle.' No date of the year appears 
except that of the society's institution. 

The list of ordinary members comprises 46 names. The solitary 
honorary member was Mrs. Atkinson, Temple Sowerby, the grand- 
mother of Mr. John Clayton. It would be interesting to have a com- 
plete and annotated list of the honorary members of the society. At 
times in its history they were very much more numerous than in recent 

Mr. Egglestone, Mr. Simpson and Mr. Oxberry were thanked for 
their communications. 


Mr. R. Welford has sent the following note of a document in his 
possession bearing the signature of lord chancellor Eldon : 

Commission in Bankruptcy issued to Robert Hopper Williamson 
and James Losh, esquires, and Thomas Davidson, Joseph Bainbridge, 
and Walter Heron, all of Newcastle, who, or the major part of them, 
having duly investigated the affairs of Edward Selby Pringle of New- 
castle, malster, hereby certify that the said Pringle made full surrender 
of his estate, effects, &c., &c. James Losh, Thos. Davidson, Walter 

25 May 1811. 

Whereas the usual notice hath been given in the London Gazette, 
and none of the creditors of the above named Edward Selby Pringle 
having shewn any cause to the contrary, I do allow and confirm this 


p. 1, line 22, for ' Jeseph ' read ' Joseph.' 
p. 9, line 23, for ' Svenige ' read ' Sverige.' 
p. 32, first line, read ' is an abstract of a deed.' 
'p. 45, line 6 from bottom for ' is ' read ' are.' 
pp. Ill, line 30, and 120, line 38 : In 1427 Rhodes became member for Newcastle. He 

died not in 1445 but in 1474. 
p. 116, in footnote for ' v ' read ' vi.' 

p. 168, line 22 for ' neice' read ' niece'; line 33, for ' ground ' read ' grounds.' 
p. 153, line 12 from bottom f or ' 3 ' read ' %.' 
p. 169, line 31 for 'inquisition' read ' inquisitions.' 
p. 172, line 19, for ' retried ' read ' retired.' and line 27, for ' Noreham ' read ' Norham.' 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 16. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the Castle, 

Newcastle, on Wednesday, 26th July 1916, at seven o'clock in the 

evening, Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson, a vice-president, being in the chair. 

The usual routine business having been transacted, the following 

ordinary member was proposed and declared duly elected : 

The Rev. Alexander Dunn, M.A., Swalwell Vicarage, R.S.O., 

co. Durham. 

As directed at the May meeting, Mr. Blair, one of the secretaries, 
reported that his colleague and himself had conveyed the congratula- 
tions of members to Mr. Welford, one of the vice-presidents, on 
attaining the age of 80 years. In reply Mr. Welford most heartily 
thanked his friends and colleagues for their kind congratulations ' on 
completing 80 years of age, nearly 40 of which I have spent in fraternal 
and genial intercouise with them. I believe I am now the fourth oldest 
member, my predecessors being Dr. Greenwell, 1 yourself Mr. Blair, and 
Sir George Hare Philipson. Ah well ! we four find 
A little more leisure to sit and dream, 
A little more real the things unseen, 
A little nearer to those ahead, 
With visions of those long loved and dead, 
And so we are going where all must go, 
To the place the living can never know.' 

In Mr. Welford's name, Mr. Blair (secretary) presented a stick made 
out of one of the black oak piles of the Roman bridge across the 
Tyne at Newcastle. It was given to him by the late Canon R. J. 
Franklin, formerly of St. Mary's R.C. cathedral church, Newcastle, and 
an active member of the society, in October 1905. It is silver- 
mounted, and has Mr. Franklin's name and also Mr. Welford's 
engraved on silver bands. The man who made and presented it to the 
former, in 1868, also gave him a pile with a shoe on it; the only one, so 
the late Dr. Bruce said, with a shoe on when drawn out of the river. 
Thanks were voted to Mr. Welford by acclamation. 
The following BOOKS, &c., were placed upon the table : 
Exchanges ; 

From the Royal Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, 

4 ser., no. 60. 
From the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 

Magazine, no. 124, vol. xxix. 
From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. : Report 

for year ending June 1915. 
From the Thoresby Society: Proc., xxm, i, 'Leeds Chapelries 

Register,' and xxiv, i, 'Miscellanea.' 

1 At the time of his death, in his 93rd year, on 13th May 1916, the late Dr. Gibb (elected 
in 1859), was the oldest continuous member. Though Mr. Greenwell was first elected in 
1845, he ceased for many years to be a member ; he was re-elected in 1877. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 31 


From the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History 

Society : Proceedings, for 1915, LXI. 

From the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire : Tran- 
sactions, LXVII. 
From the Royal Canadian Institute : Transactions, x, 1913-15, title 

page and contents. 
Purchases : 

A New English Dictionary, ix, Si Th. ; Surtees Soc. publ. for 1916, 
vol. 127, Miscellanea, u ; May' 's The Pottery found at Silchester (IQ1Q) ; 
The Scottish Historical Review, xm, iv (July 1916) ; Museums 
Journal, x, no. 1 (July 1916) ; and Notes and Queries for June and 
July 1916. 

The following were announced and special thanks voted to the donor 

by acclamation : 

From Mr. J. A. Irving, of West Fell, Corbridge : 20 knitting sheaths 
in wood, bone and metal (brass and steel) the finest specimens 
from his collection of about 100. The following are notes of them 
kindly supplied by Mrs. Willans, who has drawn a large number 
of these objects and intends, at an early date, to prepare a paper 
showing the evolution of the different types (see opposite plate) : 
1 3 of the ' spindle ' type. 1 and 2, 7 inches in length ; 3, 6J inches. 
4 5 of brass, heart shaped, about 6 inches in length. 

6 11 of the ' horn ' type. No. 6 being square in section, tapering slightly, and made of 
wood covered with strips of ornamentally pierced ivory, 7 inches in length. No. 7, 
8 inches long, of dark wood carved with a heart, rose, shamrock and thistle. No. 8, 
7 inches long, tipped at the working end with brass, the curved end terminating in a 
carved animal's head. No. 9, of dark red wood, with light wood inlaid in various devices, 
including hearts, cups or chalices, and diamonds, 7 inches long. No. 10, straight, 
but quite elaborately carved with incised heart, bow and arrow, &c., 6| inches long. 
No. 11, somewhat similar to the foregoing, inlaid with woods of two colours ; it has 
evidently had originally had a chain attachment, now missing (the chain and wool- 
holder in this case would have been carved out of the entire piece of wood, a not un- 
common design). As it is now it is 8 inches long. 

12 is in the form of a human leg, and was made about 50 years ago from a piece of old oak 

taken from the church at Kirkby Stephen. 6J inches long. 

13 is a realistic representation of a dolphin ; its curved shape would fit well to the knitter's 

side. There is a slanting cut across the back in which the apron string would rest. 
Length 6 inches. 

14, of brass, the working end fashioned into a dog's head, the curved end to slip under the 

waist-band, finished with an arrow point. Length 5 inches. 

15, a fine example of the ' clothes-peg ' type with curved under blade, elaborate chip carving, 

and the body of the sheath worked into a ' rattle ' or ' grille,' containing three loose 
wooden pea-like pellets. Full length 9 inches. 

16 is also of the ' clothes-peg ' type, but being of steel is very plain. Length 6J inches. 
1720 are of the so-called ' dagger ' type, no. 18 being the most remarkable of the four. 
This example has the whole of that side of the blade, which would be worn nearest to 
the knitter, carved to represent the scales, tail and head of a fish. No. 19 is a very 
good specimen of one of the early shapes in this type. 

By Messrs. W. Home & Son, of Leyburn : four knitting sheaths, 
three of wood, one of them with metal mounting, and the fourth, 
heart-shaped, of brass. They are shown on the plate facing 
p. 203, 14. The remaining two (5 and 6) are those presented 
to the society at the May meeting (see page 194) 
Messrs. Home were thanked for their exhibit. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vm. 

To face page 202 

Given by Mr. J. A. Irving (See opposite 



Mr. William Brown, F.S.A., sent the following records of presentations 
to benefices in the diocese of Durham during the Interregnum, extracted 
by him from the originals in the library of Lambeth palace ; with notes 
by Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson : 

1655, September 18. Presentation by the Protector of Edward William- 
son 1 clerk, to the rectory of Washington (vol. 944, fo. 18). 
1657, August 31. Presentation by Sir Charles Howard 2 of Alnwick 
abbey, knight, of Conyers Rutter, 3 M.A., of Magdalen college, 
Cambridge, to the rectory of Elsdon. (Signed) Charles Howard. 
Witnesses : John Hawlee, John Young, Na. Waterworth (vol. 

945, fo. 11). 

1658-9, March 23. Presentation by Walter Boothby of Tottenham, 
co. Middlesex, esq., of William Pell, 4 clerk, to the rectory of Easing- 
ton, co. Durham, void by the death of the last incumbent. (Signed) : 
Walt. Boothby. Witnesses : John Jolliffe, Robert Sharpe (vol. 

946, fo. 18). 

1 The Christian name of the ' Mr. Williamson ' who was ejected from the rectory of Wash- 
ington on St. Bartholomew's day, 1662, under the Act of Uniformity, has hitherto been un- 
known. He may have been the Edward Williamson who, writing from Newcastle, January 
4, 1664, to his kinsman Joseph Williamson, begs him ' to aid him if he should be troubled 
for teaching school,' for he is unwilling to go ' to London while he has liberty to teach school, 
nor do such things as open the door to preferment ' (Memoirs of A mbrose Barnes (50 Surt. 
Soc. publ.), p. 395). 

2 Sir Charles Howard, knighted on July 1657, was eldest son of Sir Charles Howard of 
Croglin, who had acquired the regality of Redesdale with the advowson of Elsdon by purchase 
from his kinsman, James, earl of Suffolk, or his representatives. 

3 In 1650 ' Mr. Thomas Pye, a preaching mynister,' was rector of Elsdon on the presen- 
tation of the earl of Suffolk, the patron of the benefice (' Oliverian Survey of Church Livings,' 
Arch. Ael., 1 ser. m, p. 4). Randal, in his State of the Churches, p. 44, asserts that ' Henderson, 
an intruder, [was] ejected for nonconformity' from the rectory of Elsdon, and that Jerome 
Nelson was instituted on 28 June 1662. The name of Conyers Rutter does not occur in 
local annals. 

4 William Pell, son of William Pell of Sheffield, was born at Sheffield in 1634. Educated 
at Rotherham grammar school and at Magdalen college, Cambridge, to which he was admitted 
29thMarchl651, aged 17; M.A. and scholar 1654,fellowl656, attaining great skill in the oriental 
languages in which he became ' fit to have been professor ... in any university in Christen- 
dom.' He was ordained by Ralph Brownrig, bishop of Exeter, and about the year 1657 
was nominated by Cromwell to be tutor of the intended college of Durham. Presented in 
1659 to the rich rectory of Easington, he was superseded at the Restoration by Dr. Gabriel 
Clarke, who, appointed to be archdeacon of Durham, with the annexed rectory of Easington 
in 1621, had lived to repossess his dignities. Pell's claim for consideration was recognized by 
the king, who, 20th July 1660, presented him to the rectory of Stain ton in the Street, from which 
he was ejected on St. Bartholomew's day, 1662, under the provisions of the Act of Uniformity. 
Calamy states that in preaching and praying he was excelled by few. 

In the month of February 1659-60, ' Mr. William Pell of Easington, minister, and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Lilburn, daughter of Mr. George Lilburn of Sunderland,' were married at Bishop- 
wearmouth, and of this union there was issue at least two daughters, viz : Eleanor, born 
18th November, baptized 4th December 1660, at Great btainton, and Elizabeth, born 30th July, 
baptized 3rd August 1662, at the same place. On his ejection from his benefice he seems to 
have continued for a time in the county of Durham, where his wife's relatives were influential 
and opulent. On 5th July 1674, the pluralist Denis Granville, who, through his marriage with 
the flighty daughter of bishop Cosin, had obtained the archdeaconry of Durham with the 
rectory of Easington, the rectory of Elwick, the ' golden stall ' of Durham, and the rectory 


1659, April 7. Presentation by the Protector of Mr. William Pell to 
the rectory of Easington. Fine impression of the Protector's 
seal, with six quarterings (vol. 947, fo. 20). 


The following notes by Mr. W. H. Cullen were read : 

" Some time back I took photographs of three altar tombs in the 
Hilton chantry in the priory church of St. Mary-at-Swine in Holderness, 
about seven miles from Hull. They are of the Hiltons of Swine, related 
to those of Durham. One, that of Sir Robert de Hilton, lord of Swine, 
and Constance his wife, said (Thompson's History of Swine, 1824) to 
bs of 1393, wears the collar of SS. The second is also of Sir Robert de 
Hilton and Maude his wife, of 1352, and the third is also Sir Robert de 
Hilton of 1321. No collar is seen on the two of earlier date. I sent 
copies of these to the Architectural Detail Photograph Club, and one 
member, Mr. Gill, considered that the dates of these alabaster tombs 
were generally put too early, and would more likely be after than before 

It seemed likely that the type of armour and the date of the collar 
of SS might be a means of getting at the probable dates. 

In a paper in the Clifton Antiquarian Club Proceedings, 1884-8, by 
Lieut. -Col. J. R. Bramble, are given illustrations of armour as: all mail 
c. 1280, plate and mail 1325, more plate and less mail 1390, all plate 1442. 
Plate made rapid strides in the early fourteenth century, e.g., John de 

of Sedgefleld, wrote from Durham to Mr. Secretary Cooke of ' One Pell, a preacher in the times 
of rebellion, whoe hath the confidence to sett up a congregation at our gates, and, though 
excommunicated, dares to christen children, and ventures on other sacred offices,' enquiring 
whether it was the king's pleasure that he and his fellow justices should ' proceed against 
schismaticks according to the last Act of Parliament.' 

In the event Pell was cast into prison, but ' removed himself to London by Habeas 
Corpus, and was set at liberty by Judge Hale.' He then at Hull practised physic and kept 
a school, in which about the year 1677 was entered Jonathan Harle, who, under his master's 
fostering care became ' a prodigy of classical learning ' and subsequently a physician and 
divine. Pell also preached publicly at Tattershall in Lincolnshire, performing at the same time 
the duties of steward to the earl of Lincoln, and thus obtaining freedom from arrest. After 
the Declaration of Indulgence by James n, in April 1687, Pell accepted a call to minister to 
a nonconformist church at Boston, where he remained for seven years. 

Meanwhile, Jonathan Harle, who had been Pell's favourite pupil for ten years, and who had 
wept over him ' at their parting, having become a probationer, had gone to Brigg in 
Lincolnshire to take charge of a nonconforming congregation, but having received a call to 
the pastorate of the nonconformist church of Morpeth, received ordination on February 21, 
169 in the same year accepting the charge of the famous Pottergate meeting at Alnwick, 
preaching at each place on alternate Sundays. 

Possibly to be near to doctor Harle, Pell, about the year 1694, left Boston and came to 
Newcastle as assistant to the very eminent doctor Richard Gilpin at the Close-gate meeting 
house. Here he laboured until his death, December 2, 1698, and four days afterwards was 
buried at St. Nicholas's, that great necropolis of Newcastle, as ' Mr. William Pell, a descent- 
ing minister, Close-gate.' 

On the 13th of the same month the aged Gilpin, writing to a friend in London, wrote 'It hath 
pleased God to take from me my dear assistant, Mr. Pell, by a fever. It is a sad stroke upon 
us all, but it falls at present most heavy upon me. Ever since his sickness it became necessary 
for me (such are our circumstances) to preach twice every Lord's day.' 

Mr. Pell's widow was buried January 30, 170 J (Calamy s Account ; Diet. Nat. Biography; 
Wclford's Men of Mark Memoirs of Ambrose Barnes; Dean Granville's Letters, &c., part n). 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 204 



(From photographs by Mr. F. Crossley of Chester.) 


(See page 206). 


(See page 207). 
(From photographs by Mr. F. Crossley of Chester.) 


Creke brass at Westley Waterless of 1325, and that 1370 saw the intro- 
duction of the camail. The tomb of Sir John Swineford, who died in 
1371, shows the type of armour with the collar of 'esses,' believed to be 
the earliest known example. 

The origin of the collar of 'esses' was not easy to find, there seemed to be 
a general opinion that it was introduced by John of Gaunt as a sign 
of the wearer's devotion to his service. A writer in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1842, states the chain was adopted by John of Gaunt as 
steward of England in right of his first wife, daughter and heiress of 
Henry, duke of Lancaster, in 1361. Sir William St. John Hope, in 
Heraldry for Craftsmen, says ' The collar was apparently invented by 
Henry iv before his accession in 1391-2. John of Gaunt took command 
of the English army in France in 1371-4, the Black Prince having 
returned home in ill health. John was known then to be ambitious, 
and it seems likely he may have devised the collar before he went away 
in 1371, even in 1361, and this would have allowed Sir J. Swineford 
to have received it before his death in 1371. 

The Rev. A. P. Purey Cust, dean of York, in The Collar of SS, a 
History and a Conjecture, says : ' The collar was designed as a symbol 
of revolt against Richard n, and when John's son, Henry of Lancaster, 
made a bold bid for the throne, the significance of the collar was shown 
by the fact that all those who wore it rallied round his son, not merely 
as their Seigneur but as their Sovereign.' Thus may not (S) stand for 
' Soveraine,' this word is emblazoned on the cornice of the canopy 
over the recumbent figures of Henry and his queen in Salisbury 
cathedral church. Mr W. Maitland says it was the symbol of the 
Lancastrian party, as the collar of ' Roses en soleil ' York roses and 
blazing suns alternately was that of the Yorkists. The SS collar was 
fastened by a pendant of a swan in reference to Lady Mary Bohun, 
while the Yorkist collar has a couchant white lion (house of March). 
With Richard in this was replaced by a silver boar. After Henry 
vn's accession the collar was revived, but with variations and different 
pendants. Except for the 1361 and 1371 references there seems no 
clue to the actual date of institution of the collar. In Rock's Church 
of our Fathers I found a very interesting note on this collar of SS. It 
says the York rose and the sun were strung into a collar and given by 
the king, Edward iv, in token of the victory at Mortimer's Cross over 
the Lancastrian party ; as early as the first year of Henry iv's reign, 
the followers of this king might always be known by their collar, 
which was the letter ' S ' multiplied many times and linked together. 

The collar of SS is an archaeological puzzle, and the following solution 
is offered. In his very interesting will of 1398 John of Gaunt made 
this, amongst other bequests, to his very dear son, Henry, duke of 
Hertford, who afterwards became Henry iv : 

' Je ly devise un fermail d or del veil manere, et escript les nouns de Dieu en chescun 
part de icel fermail, la quel ma treshonore dame et miere la Roigne (que Dieux assoile) 
me donna en me commandant que je la gardasse ovecque la benison, et vueille q'il la 
garde ovecque la beneson de Dieu et la mien ' (Test. Ebor., 4 Surt. Soc. publ., 231). 

This chain of gold, after the old manner, with God's name written 
on each part of it, seems to have been a kind of heir-loom in the house 
of Lancaster ; John of Gaunt's mother had it and left it to him with her 
blessing, and he bequeathed it likewise to his son Henry. 

It seems to have been part of the livery of Lancaster, as it is also 
given as being on some silver plate belonging to Edward in and Richard 


u t viz : ' Unc paire de basynys 1'argent ennorrez ove (une) coler 
gravez ove Ires de S del live de Mons'r de Lancaster t le covekit ove in 
corone desuis gravez ove Ires de S entoure t les Armes de Mons'r de 
Lancastr dedeins (Ant. Kalendars and Inventories of the Exchequer, 
in, 322). The name of God was written on every piece composing this 
collar, ' Sanctus ' contracted to a simple S. 

It seems very likely that in assuming an emblem of God's name 
they should take the ' S ' of the Sanctus repeated and weave 
them into a collar. It would certainly seem from this that the letter 
S was used in the livery of Lancaster, but it is not clear that the collar 
was used, though the will shows that John of Gaunt's mother had it 
whether she used it first or not. 

It may be that John instituted the use of it amongst his followers at 
the time such marks came into fashion, so that technically it is correct 
that he introduced it, as other writers say, but the original collar was 
received from his mother. Then Dr. Rock says that in the church of 
Ashby de la Zouch there is a figure of a pilgrim upon whose broad- 
brimmed hat the scallop shell is marked and the scrip is well indicated. 
This effigy must have been of one of the Lancastrian party, as on it is 
the celebrated collar of SS. Boutell (English Heraldry) says there is 
no certain origin for it, but the S is supposed to mean ' Soveraigne,' 
the motto of Henry iv. 

Mr. Oswald informs me that in that some effigies the man and his 
wife are shown with their right hands clasped. In Chichester cathedral 
church are effigies of Richard fitz Alan, earl of Arundel, and his 
wife, showing the hands clasped. He also says that the effigies of 
queen Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt, and her husband, in the 
abbey church, Batalha, Portugal, have their hands clasped, and also 
those of their son Duarte (Anglice Edward), grandson of John of 
Gaunt and his queen. The duke of Somerset was also a grandson 
of John of Gaunt, and his effigy in Wim borne minster clasps his wife's 
hand, and has the SS collar, while Mr. Ray says of the brass of 
Thomas Camoys and his wife, that the knight is holding his lady's 
hand, and they wear the SS collar. Do the clasped hands originate 
with John of Gaunt's family, or are they only occasionally found ? 
As regards Mr. McCall's explanation of S being the initial of the 
flower name, 1 I am unable to reconcile it with the extract from John 
of Gaunt's will, that the collar had ' the name of God on every part 
thereof,' and yet nothing but SS is on the collar. 

The following is a list of collars of SS 2 so far as I have been able to 
find them : 

Abergavenny. Sir Ralph Herbert of Ewyes, 1510. 

Acton church. Sir William Mainwaring, c. 1402, much worn (see opposite plate). 

Arundel church. Thomas and John, earls of Arundel, 1436 and 1416. 

Ashbourne, Derbyshire. Sir John Cockayne, 1449. 

Ashby de la Zouch, St. Helen's Church. The ' Pilgrim's tomb,' supposed to be that of 
Lord Hastings, beheaded in 1883. 

Barthomley, Cheshire. Sir Robert Fulleshurst, 14. 

Battle. Sir Thomas Browne, in garter robes, with a garter collar of roses and tassel knots, 
but no collar of SS. 

Bottesford, Lincolnshire. (1) Sir William de Roos, 1414 ; (2) John, lord Roos, 1421. 

Bromsgrove church. Sir Humphrey Stafford in complete plate, 1450 (alabaster effigy) ; 
and Sir John Talbot, lord of Graf ton, in chain and plate, 1550. 

Broughton, Oxon. Lady Wykeham. 

J See Churches of Richmondshire. 

2 See Arch. Journal, xxxix, 376, for Mr. Hartshorne's paper on the subject generally. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 206 



(From photographs by Mr. F. Crossley of Chester.) 
This plate given bv Mr. W. H. Cullen. 






Burton Agnes, Yorks. E.R. 

Charwelton, Northants. Sir Thomas Andrew (with collar) and two wives, 1564. 

Chiddingly. Sir John Jeffery, 3 1575. 

Dennington, Suffolk. William Philip, lord Bardolph, 1439, and lady Bardolph, 1425. 

Dodford, Northants. Sir John Cressey, 1444. 

Eastbourne, Sussex. Sir David Owen, 4 c. 1529. 

Elford, Staffordshire. Sir Thomas and lady Arderne, c. 1400 ; both wear collars of SS, 

their hands are clasped ; (2) Sir William Smythe (with collar) and two wives, 1525. 
Gloucester. Charter given by king Henry in 1399, shows a crown encircled by a collar of SS. 
Harewood church. Choir screen erected 1454-77 ; contains effigies of Henry iv and v, 

both with collars 
Higher Peover, Cheshire. (1) Sir Ranulphus Mainwaring, 1456 ; (2) Sir John Mainwaring 

and wife Johanna, both wear collars, 1480; (3) Sir Philip Mainwaring, with collar, 

and dame Ellen, 1648 (see opposite plate). 

Hoveringham church, Notts. Effigy ascribed to Sir Robert Grushill, c. 1377-9. 
Hurstmonceux, Sussex. Lord Hoo and his half-brother Sir Thomas Hoo, 6 c. 1480. 
London. Original collar bequeathed by Sir John Allen, 1535. 
Longford, Derbyshire. Sir Nicholas Langford, 1402. 
Lowick, Northants. Edmund Stafford, 1499. 

Macclesfield. Sir John Savage, 1492. SS are made backwards (see plate facing p. 206). 
Malpas. Sir Randal Brereton, with collar, and wife, 16 century (see opposite plate). 
National Portrait Gallery, London. Portraits of Henry iv and Sir Thomas Moore, 1527. 
Northleigh, Oxon. Lord and lady Wilcote, c. 1415, both with collars. 
Robertsbridge abbey. Sir Edward (?) Dallingbridge, 6 (builder of Bodiam castle), 1390- 

1400. Now in Lewes castle museum. 
Southwark cathedral church. John Gower, the poet. 

Spratton, Northants. Sir John Swineford, died 1371. The earliest example known. 
Staindrop church, county Durham. Ralph Nevill, first earl of Westmorland and his two 

wives, all with collars. The earl's is worn over the camail. 
Stanton Harcourt, Oxon. Sir Robert Harcourt, 1500 ]?]. 
Swine, E. Yorks. Sir Robert de Hilton, 1393. 
Tong church, Salop. (1) Sir Richard Vernon and wife Benedicta, 1451 ; both wear collars ; 

(2) Sir Richard Vernon, with collar, and wife Margaret, 1517 ; (3) Sir Henry Vernon and 

wife Anne, both with collars, 1525. 
Trotton church, Sussex. (1) Thomas Camoys 7 and wife Elizabeth, 1419, both wear collars 

and have hands clasped (brasses) ; (2) Lord Camoyo, K.G., 1424 (brass). 
Turvey, Bedfordshire. Sir John Mordaunt, with collar, and Edith Latimer, 1506. 
West Firle, Lewes. Sir John Gage, 1557. 8 

West Tanfield, Yorkshire. (1) Robert de Marmion ; (2) Sir John Marmion, 1387. 
Wimborne Minster, Dorset. John Beaufort, first duke of Somerset and his wife. Both 

wear collars and have clasped hands. 
Yatton, Somerset. 


Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., a vice-president, read the following 
' Notices of the Family of Williams of Newcastle, glass manufacturers': 

" In one of the Rev. John Hodgson's numerous note-books there is 
a statement that on the occasion of a shooting expedition to the moors 
of North Tyndale made by Lord Percy, afterwards second duke of 
Northumberland, in the month of August 1770, a site was selected for 
the shooting box now known as Kielder castle. The party comprised 
Lord Percy, Colonel Robert Farquhar, 1 Captain George Farquhar, 2 

3 See Sussex Arch. Coll., xiv, 242. 4 See Ibid., vn, 23. 5 See Ibid., LVIII. 

6 See Ibid., xn, 222 7 See Ibid., xx, 131. 8 See Ibid., xxxvn, 15. 

1 Colonel Robert Farquhar, of Whitton, was buried 30th November 1801. aged 77 
(Rothbury Register). 

2 Captain George Farquhar, of Holystone and Alnwick, died 9th August, 1759, aged 73 
(cf. Farquhar pedigree, Arch. Ael., 3 ser., vol. iv, p. 124). 


Mr. Grieve, of Swarland, 3 Mr. William Charlton, 4 of Lee-hall, Mr. 
Roger Hall, 5 of Catcleugh, and Mr. Charles Williams. When the last 
mentioned, who was secretary to the first and second dukes of North- 
umberland', was in pursuit of a black-cock, he came on a spot with the 
beauty of which he was so greatly struck that he drew his companions' 
attention to it. This was the place selected by Lord Percy for his new 
house, which was begun in 1772, and completed in 1775. 

Mr. Charles Williams was a member of a family well known in the 
eighteenth century as connected with the manufacture of glass on Tyne- 
side, but now almost wholly forgotten. Their history, so far as it can 
be recovered, is set out in the following notices : 
I. Thomas Williams, of Latch Moat, in Staffordshire, left, with other 

issue, two sons : 

i. Edward Williams, born circa 1685, of H.M. Customs, Newcastle. 
He married Hester, daughter of William Dawson of Newcastle, 
roper, and by her had issue, him surviving, a daughter Hester 
Williams. She, being ' a young lady of great beauty, merit, and 
fortune,' was married at St. John's church 6 on the 10th February 
1752, to William Charlton, of Lee-hall, in the parish of Simonburn. 
Her fortune comprised some property in Pilgrim Street. 7 William 
Charlton died on the 20th September 1794, aged 75, and his widow 
on the 6th October 1798, aged 71 ; both are buried in Alnwick 

ii. John Williams, stated to have been the youngest son of his parents, 
and born on the 14th September 1696, was educated at Stourbridge, 
in which town he commenced business as an iron founder in 
partnership with Edward Kendal. Coming to Newcastle about the 
year 1730 he entered into partnership with Mr. Cookson, and others, 
in iron foundries in Newcastle and Gateshead, and in collieries 
and blast furnaces at Clifton in Westmorland. On the 21st October 
1731, he married at St. Nicholas's, Margery, widow of Onesiphorus 
Dagnia, and daughter of George Forster of North Shields, master 
and mariner, by which marriage he acquired two-thirds of the 
bottle and plate glass works. 8 The remaining third share being 
held by Mr. George Spearman. 

The following abstract is from a document in the collection of Mr. 
Welford : 

1758, April 6. Indenture between James King of Newcastle, gentleman, 1st part, 
Matthew Ridley of Heaton, esquire, 2nd part, Sir Matthew White of Blagdon, bart., 
3rd part, John Cookson of Newcastle, gentleman, 4th part, Joseph Airey of Newcastle, 

8 Mr. Davidson Richard Grieve, of Swarland, died at his house in Soho Square, London, 
16th December 1793, aged 54 (cf. Grieve pedigree, new History of Northumberland, VH, 

* Mr. William Charlton, of Lee-hall, head of the protestant branch of the North Tyne 
grayne of Charlton, whose chief was, and is, Charlton of Hesleyside, formerly also of Charlton. 
He was son of Forster Charlton by his marriage with Grace, daughter of Sir William Loraine 
of Kirkharle, kt. ; he was a commissioner of the duke of Northumberland, and as such 
resided at Alnwick. As mentioned in the text, he married Hester, daughter of Edward 

6 Mr. Roger Hall was buried at Byrness on the 1st June 1782 (Elsdon Register). He wsa 
not the owner of Catcleugh, but a tenant of the duke of Northumberland (cf. Elsdon Lairds, 
Hist. Berw. Nat. Club, vol. xxn, p. 213). 

6 Newcastle Courant, 15th Feb. 1752. 1 Arch. Ael, 3 ser., v, 82. 

8 Notices of the connection of the Dagnias with the manufacture of glass may be found 
in Mr. Richard Welford's first instalment of ('Local Muniments,' Arch. Ael.^ 2 ser. xxiv, 


gentleman, 5th part, and John Williams of Newcastle, gentleman, 6th part. Whereas 
James King stands possessed of all that glasshouse near Newcastle commonly called 
the Salt Meadow bottle house for remainder of a term of 19 years commencing 11 Nov. 
1753, and said Matt. Ridley and others, his partners, are joint proprietors of another 
glasshouse nigh to the river Tyne called St. Lawrence bottle-house, and whereas said 
Sir Matt. White and his partners are joint owners of another glasshouse adjoining upon 
the Tyne called the Bottle-house in the Dock, and whereas said John Cookson and his 
partners are joint proprietors of another glasshouse adjoining the Tyne called South 
Shields glasshouse, and whereas said Joseph Airey and his partners are joint proprietors 
of another glasshouse nigh the Tyne called the Bill Key glasshouse, and whereas the 
said John Williams and his partners are joint proprietors of a glasshouse near New- 
castle called the Close-gate glasshouse. And whereas said James King, in consideration 
of 101 to be paid yearly by each of them, Ridley, White, Cookson, Airey and Williams 
hath agreed to lay down and cease working the said Salt Meadow glasshouse for the 
remainder of the said term of 19 years. Now this indenture, &c., that upon 1st May 
next, J. King will cease working said glasshouse for the said term and will pay the 
rents, land tax, poor cess and other payments which are and shall become due by virtue 
of his said lease, and keep the premises in repair, and Ridley, White, Cookson, Airey, 
and Williams will purchase of said King the whole stock of potts, materials, implements 
and utensils belonging to said Salt Meadow glasshouse at the time it is laid down at 
such price as two indifferent persons, one to be appointed by King and another by said 
Ridley and the others, shall appoint, and in case of disagreement they two shall choose 
a third person, and the judgment of any two of the three shall be final obligation upon 
all the parties. Witnesses : Henry Gibson, John Richmond. 

About the time of his marriage John Williams purchased property at 
Killing-worth, 9 the consideration being ^4600, and at that place, con- 
jointly with his friend, Mr. Peregrine Tyzack, another glass manu- 
facturer, he kept a pack of hounds. His wife, described as ' a lady 
greatly respected for an humane and benevolent disposition/ died on 
the 26th December 1755. 10 John Williams resided in a house without 
the Close-gate,' where he died on the 29th January 1763, and was laid 
beside his wife at Long Benton ; the obituary notice in the Newcastle 
Courant of the 5th February 1763, describing him as ' one of the pro- 

Ctors of the glass and pot houses, 11 and of the iron works in Cumber- 

A funeral escutcheon, with the arms of Williams impaling Forster, 
which formerly hung at the east end of Benton church, has not survived 
the attacks of successive ' restorers,' but on a mural tablet the following 
inscription may yet be read, though not without difficulty: 12 

' Sacred | To the Memory of John and Mary Williams | of Newcastle upon Tyne | 
Whose Remains Lay interred near this marble | The Revelations of Christianity 
directed their | Lives in the Will of Heaven and disarmed Death | of its Sting by the 
full assurance of a Glorious Resurrection | 

TT r died [heater-shaped shield] in j ..-go 

In grateful Remembrance of such excellent Parents | this is dedicated by | Charles 
Williams | 1788.' 

9 At the election of Knights of the Shire in 1748 John Williams of Newcastle voted in 
respect of Killingworth (Poll Book), and on the 30th of September of the same year, in con- 
junction with Mr. William Bigge, he obtained from the vicar-general of the bishop of Durham 
a faculty to erect a gallery at the west end of Benton church (cf. Besley, Long Benton, p. 33). 

10 Newcastle Courant, 27th December 1755. 

11 In 1778 the glass warehouse of Williams & Co. was without the Close-gate (White- 
head's Directory for 1778, p 25). 

12 Transcribed and communicated by the Rev. Mark Fletcher, vicar of Long Benton. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 32 


John Williams and Margery his wife had issue six sons and one 
daughter : 

i. John Williams, born 1st January 173, and baptized at St. Nicholas's 
on the 19th February, his godparents being Mr. George Forster, 
Mr. Edward Williams and Mrs. Margaret Dagnia, was educated 
at the Grammar School of Newcastle and at Healey, near Wake- 
field. His father gave him one-third of the glass-house and also 
the property he had acquired in Killingworth. He reconstructed 
and made considerable additions to the mansion house at Killing- 
worth, but about the year 1767 sold the property to George Colpitts 
for eight thousand guineas. Either he or his brother took an 
active part in the erection of the Assembly rooms of Newcastle 
in 1776. That he was a man of cultivated taste is shown by a note 
written by Richard Gough, 18 circa 1780, to the effect that a copy 
of Camden's Britannia, with doctor John Smith's additions to the 
account of the bishopric of Durham, ' was in the hands of John 
Williams, esq., of Killingworth, Northumberland, who carried it 
with him to the East Indies, where he lost his life about three years 
ago.' John Williams used as arms, quarterly 1 and 4 or a griffin 
segreant gules (for WILLIAMS of Lanywan and Dyferyn), 2 and 3 
gules a saracen's head erased argent, bound round the temples with 
a wreath argent and sable (for MERGITH of Wales, that is MARCHUDD 
AP CYNAN lord of Abergellen, founder of the vinth Noble Tribe 
of North Wales and Powys) crest, on a wreath a griffin segreant 
gules. u 

ii. Charles Williams, baptized at St. Nicholas's on the 17th March 173|, 
his godparents being Mr. George Forster, Mr. John Ward and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Forster. By his father's will he had an interest in the 
glass-house. At a meeting of the proprietors of the Assembly 
rooms of Newcastle, held on the 28th of February 1786, he was 
appointed to be Master of the Ceremonies at a salary of ^250 per 
annum. He was one of the gay company at the opening of the 
private theatre at Seaton Delaval 15 on the 29th December 1790, 
and took the part of Horatio in ' The Fair Penitent.' Mr. Henry 
Swinburne of Hamsterley, who was present at a repetition of the 
performance, describes Williams's acting as ' manly and clear,' 
though ' he brogued to excess and straddled a great deal.' Mr. 
Swinburne states that the tragedy was followed by a farce written 
by Williams and Mr. Spearman, which was a farrago of officers, 
nuns, lovers and conjurers, with many bacchanalian songs. This 
apparently was called ' You may like it, or let it alone.' Charles 
Williams was proficient in heraldry, and it is to him we owe the 
preservation of the roll of arms known as the 'Craster Tables.' 16 
As has been already stated, he became secretary to the duke of 
Northumberland, and dying at Alnwick castle on the 4th November 
1806, he was buried at Long Benton. 17 He bore the same arms 
18 Gough, British Topography (1780), vol. i, p. 330 (cf. Northern Notes and Queries, 
vol. i, p. 214). 14 Book-plate in possession of the writer. 

18 Swinburne, Courts of Europe, vol. n, p. 99. Richardson, Local Historian's Table 
Book, vol. ii (Hist.), p. 335. 

16 The 'Craster Tables' are printed in Arch. Ael., 2 ser., xxiv, 244. 

17 Cf. Obituary notice in Newcastle Courant, 8 November, 1806. There is a tradition that 
Charles Williams formed one of Sir Henry George Liddell's party to visit Lapland in the 
summer of 1786, but his name is not mentioned in the short notice given in the Local 
Historian's Table Book vol. n (Hist.), p. 305, nor yet in the fuller account in A Tour 
through Sweden, Swedish Lapland, Finland and Denmark, in a series of letters illustrated by 
engravings by Matthew Consett, esq. 


as his brother John, and as crest : issuing out of a coronet, a demi- 
griffin gules. 18 

iii. George Williams, baptized at St. Nicholas's, 13th January 173f, 
and buried on the following day. 

iv. Edward Williams, baptized at St. Nicholas's, 1st June 1736, his god- 
parents being Mr. John Ward, Mr. William Williams and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Forster. He is stated to have married Rebecca, daughter 
of Colonel Mallet, R.A., superintendant of the trigonometrical 
survey, and to have died in the month of January 1798. 
v. Thomas Williams, baptized at St. Nicholas's on the 20th March 173f , 
his godparents being Mr. Edward Williams, Mr. Edward Mountany 
and Mrs. Catherine Denton, is said to have become a merchant 
and to have died circa 1787. 

vi. George Williams, baptized at St. Nicholas's on the 10th July 1740, 
died in infancy, and was buried at the same church on the first of 
March following. 

vii. Anne, baptized at St. Nicholas's on the 21st September 1737, her 
godparents being Mr. Edward Williams, Mrs. Barbara Robinson 
and Mrs. Elizabeth Forster, was married on the 6th March 1766, at 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, to Francis Poole of Oxenden Street, 
Leicester Fields. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Brown, Mr. Hodgson and Mr. Cullen for 
their papers. 


The chairman, Mr. J. C. Hodgson, stated that the Rev. William 
Greenwell has found in his lodging at North Sunderland (where he went 
on the 10th July for a little sea. fishing) a copy of bishop Jeremy Taylor's 
Holy Living, published at London in 1710, with some autographs of ex- 
ceptional interest. The first in order of date is ' Dorothy Forster | 
Her Book | July ye 4th, 1714,' being indubitably the autograph of 
the beautiful Dorothy Forster of Bamburgh. The second is ' Theo- 
phila Davison, this book | was given to me by Mrs. Dorothy | Hog in 
ye year 1721' ; this was Theophila (died 1745, aged 61), daughter of 
Charles Turner, of Kirkleatham, and second wife of Thomas Davison 
of Blakiston, in the county of Durham. The third is ' Ex Libris W. 
Davison | 1732,' possibly the name of her son, William Davison, 
sometime rector of Scruton (born 1722, died 1792). The fourth is the 
book-plate of ' Wrn. Davison, Esq., Blakiston,' or, a fess wavv between 
three cinque/oils gules. The fifth is the autograph of ' Gco. Hodgson | 
Staindrop [ June 24 | 1830.' The volume now belongs to Mr. James 
Jackson, of North Sunderland. The ' Geo. Hodgson,' whose signature 
is in the book, was the father of the Rev. J. F. Hodgson, D.C.L., Vicar 
of Witton-le-Wear, ' though how he came by it, and hew and when 
it arrived at its present destination I know not,' writes Mr. Hodgson. 



No date [Edw. n.] William de Beryndon, Randolf Banderman and 
Alayn Milner de Appleby of Twedemouth, to the king, praying the 
royal confirmation of the lease they have taken of Thos. de Bamborough 
and Robert de Tughale of the king's four mills at Berwick which had 
been pulled down. Calendar of Royal Letters, vol. iv, no. 4613. 

18 Book-plate in possession of the writer. 


Mr. R. Welford kindly favours the editor with the following : 
" In the third series of our Proceedings, vol. in, page 14, the late F. R. 
N. Haswell exhibited a receipt, dated March 27, 1813, for a fine of Wl. 
for exemption from service in the militia, for which Thomas Mease of 
Stokesley had been balloted and found it inconvenient to serve. At 
the same time he explained from the Manual of Military Law the 
method of raising the militia by ballot, and the permission given to a 
balloted man to provide a substitute or pay a penalty. 

The subjoined is a copy of the notice served upon William Anthony 
Hails, a man who had been unfortunate in the Newcastle ballot of 1810. 
He was a somewhat notable personage in the town, having begun life 
as a working shipwright, and by his own exertions raised himself from 
a very humble position to that of schoolmaster, poet, critic, classical 
scholar and polemic writer. Bishop Barrington, of Durham, described 
him as 'the best Hebrew scholar in England,' and his attainments in 
Latin, Greek and Arabic were in no degree inferior. His remarkable 
career may be read in Men of Mark Twixt Tyne and Tweed. 

By virtue of a Mandate from the High Constable of this Town and 

j County to me directed and delivered, I do hereby give you notice that 

L you are chosen by Lot to serve in the Militia of this Town and County, 

I and that you are to appear at the Guildhall in the said Town and County, 

on Friday the thirty-first day of August instant at ten o'clock in the 

forenoon of the same day, before the Deputy-Lieutenants and Justices of the Peace for the 

said Town and County, to be then and there assembled, to take the oath in that behalf required 

and to be enrolled to serve in the Militia of the said County, as a private militia-man, for 

the space of five years, otherwise to provide a fit person (who shall be a man of the Town and 

County aforesaid, or of some adjoining parish or place, whether in the same Town and County 

or not, and who shall have not more than one child born in wedlock), to be then and there 

approved by the said Deputy-Lieutenants and Justices, who shall take the Oath in that 

behalf required, and be then and there enrolled to serve as substitute for the term of five 

years, and also for such further time as the Militia shall remain embodied, if within the 

space of five years, his Majesty shall order and direct the Militia, for which such substitute 

shall be enrolled, to be drawn out and embodied. 

Given under my hand the twentieth day of August, in the year of our Lord, 1810. 
To VVm. Anthy. Hailes, \ 

of the parish or Parochial I Francis Jackson, 

Chapelry of St. Nicholas, Serjeant at Mace. 


(The name, address and dates are filled in with a pen). 
Newcastle : Printed by Edw. Walker." 


Against the south wall of the nave is a small seventeenth century 
brass, thus inscribed : 

' Neare to this place lyeth the body of Mary, late wife of george Reeve goldsmith of this 
citty (and alsoe of spencer his father, and of katherin his mother), and of spencer his 
first sonne and of george his second S and of henry his third sonne and of spencer his 
fowrth sonne 

So that you see gaynst deaths all conquering hand, 
[Death's head Nor sex nor age agaynst his force can stand [winged 

and But ther's a tyme wherein our body's must hour-glass], 

cross-bones]. Revive agayne though now turn'd into dust 

She departed this life iuly 3th, 1664. 
The letters of the inscription have been filled in with a red material. 


The following deeds (and also that on p. 183) are included in a 
bundle of ten for sale by Mr. Geo. Tyrrell, bookseller, Park End 
Street, Oxford, for 40s. : 


Deed of 7 Sept. 18 James i, and year 1620, whereby John Harrison 
of Chester in the Street, co. Durham, yeoman, and Philip Harrison, son 
and heir apparent of the same John, and Catherine, wife of Philip, in 
performance of an indenture of even date made between them of the one 
part, and Ralph Maddison of Birtley, yeoman, and Thomas Maddison, 
his son and heir apparent, of the other, whereby they gave to the Maddi- 
sons a messuage in Birtley and a croft adjoining late in the occupation of 
Barbara Rotherforthe, widow, called or known by the name of Eure 
Closes lying in the western side of a road there leading between the 
town of Newcastle upon Tyne and Chester in the Street with all houses 
&c., holding them to the use of Ralph and T. Maddison of the capital 
lord of the fee, and they warrant the same. 

Signed by John, Philip, and Katherine Harrison, and sealed ; attested 
by Thomas Smythes, Wm. Pearson and others. 

Livery of seisin endorsed and attested by Cuthbert and Thomas 
Smyth, Guy Baynbrigge, George Gray and others. 


By Indenture of 10 March, 5 Wm. and Mary [1692] Between (1) Ralph 
Brandling of the Felling, co. Durham, esqr. and (2) George Airey of 
Gateshead, co. Dm., mercer, it was witnessed that Brandling in con- 
sideration of 5s. paid by Airey granted unto him all that his tenement 
or farmhold with the appurtenances commonly known by the name 
of Stewards Sheild Meadows in the parish of Stanhopp in Weardale, 
co. Durham then in the possession of Brandling his tenants or assigns 
together with all houses, edifices &c., &c., and all those his collieries, 
coal mines &c., &c., as well opened as unopened, and to dig and 
win out of all and every of the lands, &c., within the town, town- 
ship, village, hamlet, precinct and territories of Pellton in the parish 
of Chester in the Street, co. Durham, together with all houses, 
hovels, milnes, engines, drifts, &c., &c., and all reversions, &c. 
To hold the same unto Airey from the day before the date thereof 
for the term of a year paying therefore yearly to Brandling during the 
time and term of one year at the feast of St. Michael the Archangel 
one pepper corn, if lawfully demanded, to the intent by virtue thereof 
and of the statute Airey might ba in actual possession of the premises 
and be thereby enabled to accept of the grant of the reversion, &c. 
Signed by Ralph Brandling and sealed with a seal armorial, witness to 
the signing, Nich. Tempest, Robt. Leighton, Jesse Jenkinson. 


1538, Feb. 22. Castles in the north ; view taken Feb. 22, 29 Henry 
vm, by Richard Bellysys, Robert Collyngwood and John Horslye, esqs. 
Harbottell, Alnewyk, Bawmbough, Dunstanburgh, Warkworth. 

22 pages. Endorsed by bishop Tunstall. (The calendar gives a 
few lines to each castle.) State Papers, Dom., vol. xni, i, no. 335. 


In November 1915, several coins were picked up on the beach in- 
cluding two Roman denarii, one of Nero with reverse IVPPITER CVSTOS, 
Jupiter seated, the other of Domitian, with reverse PRINCEPS 
IVVENTVTIS ; and a London half groat of Edward IV (?). 



Writ dated 26 March, 21 Edward in [1347]. Inquisition held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
5 April, 21 Ed. in. [1347], before Robert Bertram, escheator. Jurors John de Faudon, 
Thomas de Horseleye South, Gilbert de Mitford, William de Hydewyn, Robert de Hydewyn 
Est, William son of Richard de Babyngton, Gilbert de Ovyngton, John de Felton, John 
Forester of Corbrigg, William, son of William de Babyngton, Gilbert de Vaux and Robert 
son of Robert de Hidewyn Est. 

William de Herle held . . . . in his demesne as of fee of Lord Henry, 
earl of Lancaster, as of his manor of Emeldon, the town of Edreston, and a third part of 
Neuton super moram by service of 6d. yearly for all service. They are worth yearly in all 
issues, according to their true value, 100s. 

William died 8 March last [1347] as they understand. 

Robert de Herle, chivaler, is his next heir and of full age and more. (21 Edw. in., 1st 
nos. 44.) 

Writ dated 12 October, 7 Edward in. [1333]. Inquisition held at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
on Saturday after the octave of S. Martin, 7 Edward in, after the death of Richard de 
Emeldon. The jurors say that the said Richard held in his demesne as of fee, certain tene- 
ments in Neuton on the Moor, of Henry, earl of Lancaster, as of 

by service of lib. pepper, price 8d., at Easter, yearly, and 2s. 6d. at the feast of St. Cuthbert 
in September, yearly. [Several words of each line here torn away ; the land next men- 
tioned is apparently in Waldon (? Woodon), not in Newton.] Agnes, aged 27 years, 
wife of Adam Graper, Maud, aged 23 years, wife of Richard de Acton, and Jacoba, 
aged 9 years, are daughters and heirs of the said Richard. (Date of death is not given. 
Division of land among the heirs.) For Richard de Acton and Maud his wife, certain 
lands and tenements in Neuton in Edelingeham (etc.). (Ibid., first numbers, no. 38.) 

Writ dated 25 March, 35 Edward HI. [1361]. Inquisition held at Dunstanburgh, 25 
April, 35 Edward in, after the death of Henry, duke of Lancaster. The jurors say 
that the said Henry was seised in his demesne as of fee, of the castle of Dunstanburgh 
and barony of Staunford with members and appurtenances. There is in Neuton on the 
Moor, a rent of two free tenants yearly, for castle-ward, 16s. at the two feasts of St. Cuthbert, 
and Qd. yearly at Martinmas and Whitsuntide. The said duke died 23 March last [1361]. 
He had two daughters, Maud, the elder, and Blanche. Maud married William, duke of 
Zeland (' Seland '), and lived with him beyond the sea, as the jurors understand, not returning 
to these parts, and therefore they know not at all whether she is still living and has an heir. 
The said Blanche is acknowledged as heir apparent of the said Henry, aged eighteen years ; 
she is married to John de Gaunt, duke of Richmond. (First numbers, no. 122.) 

Writ dated 10 April, 38 Edward in [1364]. Inquisition held at the king's castle of 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, on Friday before Whitsuntide, 38 Edward in., after the death of 
Christina, who was wife of William de Plumpton, knight. The jurors say that the said 
Christina held no lands in her demesne as of fee ; but she was formerly wife of Richard 
de Emeldon, deceased, tenant in chief, and held in dower by assignment of the king, of the 
inheritance of Maud and Alice, daughters of Agnes, eldest daughter and one of the heirs of 
the said Richard, and Maud who was wife of Alexander de Hilton, knight, deceased, formerly 
wife of Richard de Acton, and Jacoba, now wife of John de Striuelyn, knight, the other 
daughters of the said Richard, and co-heirs of the said Maud and Alice, one messuage, 
4J husband-lands in Neuton on the Moor, of which each land used to be worth yearly 5s., 
and now are utterly waste and are worth noting yearly ; they are held of John, duke of 
Lancaster, as of his liberty of Dunstaneburgh by service of doing suit at his court of Dun- 
staneburgh every third week. Christina died on Saturday after Christmas last [1363]. The 
said Maud, aged 46 years, Alice, aged 40 years, Maud, who was wife of Alexander de Hilton, 
aged 40 years, Jacoba, aged 34 years, are heirs of the said Richard de Emeldon and 
Christina, of the said inheritance. (Ibid., first numbers, no. 36). 


HAZON, ETC. (BACON v. LISLE) (See pp. 169, 170). 

Chancery Proceedings, 1726, br. 1005. Bill 15 March 1724/5. Plaintiff, John Bacon, 
esq., of Staward, Northumb. ; and defendants, Thomas Lisle, gentleman, Hannah Lisle, 
widow, and her daughter, Rosamond, an infant. 

Robert Lisle, being seised of the manor of Hazon, left it by will (here quoted) 1 to his 
brother Ralph, late husband of the said Hannah Lisle, defendant. The said Robert died 
without issue, and much in debt. To discharge his debts the said Ralph entered into an 
agreement with the plaintiff, dated 10 February 172 f, to sell the manor for 7300, but 
much of that sum was to be paid to Nicholas Burdon, who held mortgages on the estate, and 
Mary Lisle, widow of the said Robert, who had brought a suit to recover her dower from 
the premises. The said Ralph died in ' August last,' 2 and his younger brother, Thomas, 
defendant, claims the manor by a will of Ralph's and demands the full sum of the plaintiff, 
without allowing for those already paid. The plaintiff disputes the will. 
Answers : 

Thomas Lisle claims the estate by a will of Ralph's, which he quotes, and also payment 
of a debt of 150 which was lent to the said Robert Lisle by John Lisle of Elyhaugh, gent., 
this defendant's father-in-law, during the said Thomas's minority. Hannah Lisle, widow 
of the said Ralph Lisle, and her daughter Rosamond, 8 an infant, by her mother and 
guardian. They deny the will which Thomas the other defendant quotes, but say that 
Ralph died before the articles of purchase between him and the plaintiff were completed. 

Schedule of the debts of Robt. Lisle. 

1724, A.f. 323. Order for Hannah Lisle, widow, defendant, to take out a commission 
to assign a guardian for Rosamond Lisle. 

1725, A.t. 290. If the defendant shows no cause for stay of publ. by 2nd day & night 
then publ. is to pass on a joint commission. 


In del nomine amen. Per presens publicum instrumentum constet 
omnibus manifeste quod anno ab incarnacione domini secundum 
cursum et computacionem ecclesie anglicane millesimo trecentesimo 
quadragesimo octavo indie c[i]o[n]e quintadecima Pontificatus sanctissimi 
in Christo patris et domini domini dementis divina providencia pape 
sexti anno sexto mensis maii die xvn in civitate Dunolm' in mei notarii 
publici subscript! et testium infrascriptorum presencia constitutus 
personaliter Willelmus Alman de Dunolm' clericus procurator Johannis 
de Mitford Dunolm' dioc' pauperisclericicuiper sanctissimum in Christo 
patrem supradictum de beneficio ecclesiastico cum cura vel sine cura 
spcctante ad collacionem presentacionem seu quamvis aliam dis- 
posicionem religiosorum virorum prioris et conventus ecclesie Dunolm' 

1 1719, 12 March. Will (referred to above) of Robert Lisle of Hazon : I give my brother 
Ralph Lisle all my lands, hereditaments and real estate whatsoever (except Hazon Mill) 
which I give to my Uncle Ralph Lisle (during his natural life only) to have and to hold to 
my said brother Ralph, his heirs and assigns for ever. I give to my brother Thomas Lisle 
my lease of Elford, etc. Executor: My brother Thomas Lisle. (Chan. Proceedings 
1714-1758, No. 1005, Bacon v. Lisle). 

1723, 26 Aug. Will of Ralph Lisle of Hazon : I bequeath to my brother Thomas Lisle 
my messuages, lands and tenements in Hazon or elsewhere and all other my lands, tythes, 
tenements and estate in the county of Northumberland to hold to him and his heirs for 
ever. Executor : my brother Thomas Lisle. Witnesses : Francis Forster, John Forster 
John Hope. (Chan. Proceedings, 1714-1758, no. 1005, Bacon v. Lisle). 

(The father of the brothers is not mentioned in the wills, which are here given almost 

2 1724, August 11, Mr. Ralph Lisle, lievtenant, diedMorpeth Register. 

3 1724, Rosamond, daughter of Mr. Ralph Lisle, born 11 September, baptized 8 October 
Morpeth Register. 


extitit provisum in forma qua pro pauperibus clericis beneficiandis 
sedes apostolica scribere consuevit. Attendens ut asseruit vicariam 
ccclesie de Biwell Petri dicte diocesis fuisse et esse vacantem et ad 
presentacionem dictorum religiosorum spectantem asseruit palam et 
publice ac eciam protestans fuit quod dictam vicariam acceptare 
non intendit nee vult virtute grade supradicte set omni acceptacioni 
eiusdem renunciavit atque cessit nomine domini sui supradicti. Pro- 
testans tamen quod cum aliud beneficium quod ad presentacionem 
dictorum religiosorum spectare dinoscitur et sub ipsius gracia cadere 
poterit in eventu vacaverit si visum fuerit expediens domino suo 
supradicto et sibi ipsius nomine illud acceptare intendit virtute gracie 
sue superadicte pro loco et tempore oportunis. Acta sunt hec sub anno 
[etc.]. Presentibus discretis viris magistro Hugone de Tesdale reverendi 
viri domini Archidiaconi Northumbr' offic' et domino Johanne de 
Sculthorp rectore ecclesie de Misen* Ebor' dioc' testibus ad premissa 
vocatis specialiter et rogatis constabat de interlineare in verbo illud 
ante sigillum mei apposicionem. 

Written by John, clerk of Thomas de Hakthorp. 

Endorsed '1348, Instrumentum de protestacione cujusdam per papam 
ad beneficium, etc.' Locellus xxxvn, no. 82.. 

The following extracts from the Newcastle Courant and Journal have 
been forwarded by Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., a vice-president 
(continued from p. 172) : 

To be sold a copyhold estate in the township of Newton Cap, of about 85 acres. Apply 
Mr. Wm. Smith, butcher, Newcastle, the owner. Courant, 11 June, 1774. 

To be sold, an estate at Kingswood, parish of Haltwhistle, 119 acres. Apply to Mr. 
Surtees of Newbiggin near Hexham ; Mr. Philip Gibson, attorney at law, Newcastle. 
All persons to whom Mr. Wilson of Kingswood stands indebted to send a particular of 
their demands to the said Mr. Surtees or Mr. Gibson. Ibid., 18 June, 1774. 

Theophilus Dunn, at the Scotch Arms in Morpeth, begs leave to acquaint the nobility, 
gentry, and others travelling that road, that he has fitted up the said inn in the most 
commodious manner, &c. Ibid., 25 June, 1774. 

To be sold a freehold estate at Durham Field, in the parish of Shotley, 123 acres. Apply 
to Mr. Robert Vazie of Hexham. Ibid., 2 July, 1774. 

To be sold a freehold estate at Ancroft Greens, with stone mansion house and 172 acres 
of land. Mr. Adam Sibbet of Shoreswood or Mr. Edward Sibbet of Ancroft Greens will 
show the premises. Apply to Mr. Clement Yelloly, of Detchant, or Mr. Adams, attorney, 
in Alnwick. fbid., 9 July, 1774. 

Newcastle, August 18, 1774. Anthony Nichole, wharfinger, successor to the late John 
Graham, begs leave to solicit the favours of the public and his late masters' friends in 
that business, having the support of many of the principals interested in the trade to London 
and other ports, &c., &c. Journal, 27 August, 1774. 

To be sold the manor of Ponteland with Lance Jones's farm, 100 acres ; George Lums- 
den's farm, 107 acres ; Edward Charlton's farm, 21 acres ; John Potts's farm, 136 acres ; 
Gil. Cargey's farm, 316 acres ; J. & T. Lumsden's farm, 537 acres ; Wm. Lumsden's 
farm, 573 acres, &c., &c. /^. 

Mr. Alfred Brewis points out that the year 1674 in Proceedings, 
3 ser., n, plate facing page 204, is not the date of the uniform of the 
fth Foot but the year in which the regiment was raised. 

* Mr. W. Brown, F.S.A., informs me that this is Misson, near Bawtry, Notts, in the 
ancient diocese of York. ED. 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 17. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the Castle, 
Newcastle, on Wednesday, 30th August 1916, at 7 o'clock in the evening, 
Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A., a vice-president, being in the chair. 

The ordinary routine business having been disposed of, the following 
BOOKS, &c., received since the July meeting were placed on the table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. T. Porteus : (1) Howard's ' Old Houses in Oxford ' 
(overprint from the Proceedings of the Oxford Archaeological 
Society) ; (2) Bankruptcy proceedings four parchment docu- 
mentsagainst (a) Edward Appleby, late of North Shields, 
' porter merchant, dealer and chapman/ 31st August, 26 Geo. in 
[1785], and (b) commission of same date, signed by lord Thurlow ; 
and (c) Jacob Bell of Low Lights, North Shields, ship builder, 14th 
December, 27 Geo. in ; and (d) commission of same date also 
signed by lord Thurlow. 
Exchanges : 

From the Yorkshire Archaeological Society: Their Journal, part 93. 

From the Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society : 
Transactions, 4 ser., v, ii. 

From the Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society : Tran- 
sactions. XXXVIII. 

From the Royal Irish Academy : Proceedings, section c., xxxin, 
nos. 1-5. 

From the Cambrian Archaeological Association : Archaeologia 
Cambrensis, 6 ser., xvi, iii. 

From the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. (Bureau of 

American Ethnology) : Bulletin, no. 62. 
Purchases : 

Record Series, i-xxxiv (Yorkshire Archaeological Society) ; The 
Museums Journal, xvi, no. 3; Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Deutschen 
Archdologischen Instituts, xxx, iv ; and Mitteilungen, part xxx; 
and Notes and Queries for August. 
DONATION : for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. A. P. Bolland : A rubbing, made by himself in April 1903, 
of the name ANDRA BARTON, carved on a sandstone rock which lies 
off the Northumbrian coast in Embleton bay and known as ' Andra 
Barton stone.' It is generally covered with water, but owing to 
exceptional tides it was bare when he took the opportunity of 
making the rubbing. ' The Andra Barton in question is the 
celebrated Andrew Barton who was a famous Scottish naval 
commander and freebooter in the time of James iv, of Scotland, 
and who was killed on the 2nd August, 1611' (See Dictionary of 
National Biography, in). The illustration on the plate facing 
p. 218 is a reproduction of the rubbing. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vii] 33 



By Mr. Oswin J. Charlton, the celebrated ' Charlton Spur/ the subject 
of the well known Northumbrian tradition, 'that when the larder 
was empty a dish was placed on the table, and when the cover was 
raised if there was nothing on the dish but the spur, it was a sign 
that another foray had to be made upon the neighbours. The 
tradition has been mentioned by Sir Walter Scott and other 

Mr. Charlton said ' that the spur had last been shown at a meeting 
in March, 1891, and in the intervening quarter of a century many 
members had joined the society who had never seen it, so he had 
obtained permission from the present owner, his cousin, Capt. W. H. 
Charlton of Hesleyside, to exhibit it that night. The spur was fully 
described in these Proceedings, 2 ser., v, p. 14, but he might say that 
the date of it was almost certainly 1580-1600. 

Mr. Charlton hoped that, as only a somewhat rough woodcut of the 
spur had as yet appeared in the Proceedings, a plate of it from a photo- 
graph might be published. 

Thanks were voted to Mr. Charlton by acclamation. 


Mr. J. C. Hodgson read the following paper : 

" At this time, when the word reafforestation is on the lips of every 
landowner, it may not be unprofitable to recall the memory of one, who, 
in the eighteenth century, made some name for himself, especially in 
the county of Durham, as a planter of trees. . 

Thomas White, generally described as of Woodlands, in the parish 
of Lanchester, was born circa 1736, but neither the place of his nativity 
nor that of his education has been ascertained. The Rev. William 
Greenwell has the tradition that, in early manhood, he was a landscape 
gardener in Dublin. It was at Tickhill, in the West Riding of York- 
shire, that his eldest son was born, circa 1764, and he was described as 
of West Retford in Nottinghamshire in 1773, when he purchased land 
at Butsfield. He seems to have continued to reside at Retford until 
about the year 1786. 

By an Act of Parliament, obtained in 1773, the very extensive 
wastes in, and belonging to, the parish of Lanchester, comprising over 
16,000 acres, were enclosed and divided between the bishop of Durham, 
as lord, and the free and copyheld tenants of the manor. In order to 
defray the charges of procuring the act, and for the purpose of ad- 
ministering it, the commissioners appointed to carry the act into 
execution were empowered to sell various parcels. Of these Thomas 
White became a principal purchaser. 1 The sterile and poverty stricken 
nature of the ground, when in its original state, may be imagined, when 
t is stated that for the fee simple of 227 acres, 3 roods and 24 perches, 
tithe free, White paid no more than 260J. For another parcel, com- 
prising 300 acres, sold by the commissioners ' to provide a special fund 
for indemnifying such damage as owners of allotments might sustain 
by the working of mines belonging to the see of Durham.' he covenanted 
for himself and his heirs, to pay a perpetual rent-charge of 30/. per 
annum, or two shillings per acre. The last named parcel was sold 
under the authority of a second Act of Parliament, obtained 19 George 
in, for the cost of procuring which Thomas White undertook to pay. 

1 C/. Granger, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Durham, London, 1794 ; 
Bailey, General View of the Agricufare of the County of Durham, London, 1813. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc. t 3 ser. vn. 

To face page 218 



From a rubbing by Mr. Holland. 

'THE CHARLTON SPUR' (?ec opposite page). 
From a photograph by Mr. Parker Brcwis, F.S.A. 


Thomas White, writing from Retford on the 31st January 1786, 
communicated to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manu- 
factures and Commerce, an account of what he had done up to that time 
for the improvement of his property : 

As I had long entertained a favourable idea, founded upon observation and experience, 
of the great profits, as well as national utility of planting ; and being determined to go upon 
a large scale, both for tha important article of shelter, as well as for the great saving in 
point ot fencing ; my plan being to plant a thousand acres, I spent some time in looking 
out for a proper subject ... I was at length happy enough to find a subject that promised 
all those advantages, the quantity of acres excepted . , . The ground, . . . whilst in a 
state of nature, was covered over with ling, fern, broom and bad grass, and rushes in the wet 
places ; the high parts of it very bad land, of a channelly quality, and not many inches 
from a grit-stone rock ; lower down the hills, the land is of better quality, affording a 
tolerable depth of soil, but was then very cold and swampy, for want of draining ... I 
then began to plant [in 1776], making choice of the autumn, for the high and barren parts ; 
and the spring for the lower and deeper land. On the former subject, I chiefly confined 
myself to the planting the hardy natives of mountainous countries, such as the larch, 
pine and fir kind, birch, geentree, and mountain-ash, with some others, all which, for the 
sake of shelter, I planted at two feet asunder. Upon the lower and more fertile ground . . . 
I planted trees of a more permanent growth, most of which would produce a new succession 
from the root after cutting, such as the oak, ash, elm, sycamore, beech, and western plane ; 
and in the moist ground, the alder, poplar, and Norfolk willow. These trees were planted 
at proper distances, to make a timber wood, and in the intermediate spaces, by way of 
shelter as well as profit, all the mountain kinds, as above mentioned, were introduced. 
. . . Out of 527 acres, my small farm included, there is not a yard square of my whole ground 
but what is occupied by some useful or ornamental plant ; there having been planted 
and replanted above four million of trees. 9 
From the above named society 3 White received : 
In 1778 a gold medal for planting 10,400 Lombardy poplars.. 
Do. do. do. 13,000 larch. 

Do. do. do. 100,000 Scotch fir. 

Do. do. do. 15,000 spruce. 

Do. do. do, 3,000 silver fir. 

Do. do. do. 2 acres and 2 roods with occidental plane. 

In 1779 do. do. 7,000 Norfolk willow. 

Do. do. do. 35 acres with ash. 

In 1786 do. do. (in the year 1784) 10,000 English elm. 

In 1787 do. do. (in the year 1785) 37,230 alders. 

In 1788 a silver medal do. 50,000 oaks. 

The planting began in the year 1776. 

In addition to his plantations, White built himself a good dwelling 
house, to which he added gardens and orchards, dug fishponds, or 
small lakes, fed by bringing again into use an ancient Roman aqueduct, 
and established a small home-farm. To this property, which for Poor 
Law purposes was included in the township of Butsfield, he gave the 
name of Woodlands, reminiscent of a place of that name near Lucan, 
in county Dublin, belonging to an Irish family of White perhaps known 
to him in his youth. In this outlay White did indeed ' cast his bread 
on the waters ' to ' find it after many days,' for Mr. Greenwell has been 
told that from the annual fall of timber his heirs received an income of 
1,500/. per annum. 

2 Transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, 
v, pp. 5-36. 

3 Ibid, vol. ii, pp. 2, 3, 4, 11 ; iv, pp. 3-5, 231 ; v, pp. 225 ; vi, pp. 214 


The Rev. John Hodgson, the historian of Northumberland, resided 
at Lanchester in the years 1804, 1805 and 1806 ; at the first as a school- 
master, and subsequently as curate of the chapelries of Esh and 
Satley. While there he composed some poems which were printed 
in 1807, by his friends, D. Akenhead and Sons. The volume, which is 
dedicated ' To T. White, senior, and W. T. Green well, esquires,' con- 
tains a poem, in blank verse, on the Roman station of Longovicum, 
then belonging to Mr. William Thomas Greenwell of Ford, and another 
poem entitled ' Woodlands/ In the latter the poet sings the charms 
of a place where not thirty years before 

Nothing but heath, agrostis, hardy plant, 
And rush, delighting in the foulest swamps, 
Covered the spot, which now employs my song. 
It was a dreary scene, when oft at night 
Th' unsteady glare, that mocks the traveller's eye 

Shot gleaming round 

Spread, like a mantle, o'er yon sloping hills 

The forest now appears 

the sapling oak 

Unfolds his princely honors ; and the lime 
Weds his young branches to the shady beech. 
Clust'ring and dark, the Caledonian fir 
Puts on a brighter hue. The lofty spruce, 
That on Norwegian hills, by twilight seems 
A sable pyramid of dizzy height, 
. ' Extends the branches of his gradual wheels, 

And throws his length'ning spears into the sky, 
. The larch, fair native of the towering heights 

Whence storm fed Po 

. comes to kiss the blooming flowers 

Of Parma's pastures .... 

Tis luxury now the deeply shaded aisles 

Of spruce to tread ; 

See ! from the heaving bosom of that grove, 
How modestly the mansion raises up 
Its roof of sober blue .... 
Deep in th' unruffled bosom of the lake 
In simple elegance the front is seen ; 

. . . o'erhung 

With loftier trees, the rural buildings throw 
Their sunny roofs, impendent o'er the sky. 

In a business capacity White was in the habit of taking contracts for 
planting, at the first at the rate of 4/. per acre ; afterwards, owing to the 
advance in price of labour, at 6/. per acre. In 1788 and 1789 he planted, 
for Mr. Richard Slater Milnes, 225 acres at Foyston, in Yorkshire, with 
200,000 larch and 20,000 English elm. 4 In general he favoured 
mixed plantations, tho' on swampy and rocky land, like his own at 
Butsfield, or Woodlands, he chose larch and fir. 

Thomas White I was buried at Lanchester on the 30th July 1811 ; 
his age, as given in the register of burials of that parish, being 75 years. 5 

* Ibid., vol. vin, pp. 10-12. 

6 His will has not been found in the Probate Registry at Durham. 


In the Newcastle Conrant of the 3rd August there is an appreciation of 
his character : 

Died, much lamented, on the 27th inst. Thomas White, esq., of Woodlands, in the county 
of Durham, designer of grounds, whose exquisite taste and skill in his profession, and 
convivial and pleasing manners, will long be remembered by his numerous friends and 
employers ; and his beautiful residence, formed by his industrious hand from a bed of 
heath, will be a lasting testimony of his enterprizing and persevering spirit ; for the planting 
of which the Society of Arts and Sciences presented him with nine gold and two silver 
medals ; and part of a larix tree, the produce thereof, at his particular request, was con- 
verted into his coffin. 

He left (perhaps with other) issue a son also named Thomas, and two 
daughters; Anne, who died on the 12th January 1813, aged 44, and 
Eleanor, who was married at Lanchester on the 24th April 1810 to 
Charles Mason White, sometime of H.M.S. Excellent, but, at that time, 
residing in the city of Durham. 

Thomas White n, who, as has been already mentioned, was born at 
Tickhill about the year 1764, was associated with his father in business. 
Amongst other woods that he planted was that of Lindcrtis in Angus. 6 
He married, at Lanchester, on the 22nd July 1799, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Robert Surtees of Cronywell, who resided at Upper-houses in the 
parish of Lanchester, by his wife Anne, daughter of William Greenwell 
of Ford. After his marriage he seems to have continued to make his 
home with his father, and at Woodlands his children were born. 

Two years after his father's death, in a letter dated 10th September 
1813, he gave an account to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Manufactures and Commerce, of the method adopted by his late father 
for the management and thinning out of his woods. On the 25th May 
of the same year he received the society's lesser gold medal for his 
successful experiments in the substitution of larch bark for that of oak 
in the tanning of leather. 7 

Thomas White n died on the 7th September 1836, aged 72, and was 
buried at Lanchester, near his wife, who had died 9th September 1829. 

15th August 1836. Will of Thomas White of Woodlands, in the parish of Lanchester , 
esq. I give to my eldest daughter, Anne White, my silver tea urn, coffee pot, tea pot, three 
waiters, two sugar basins, butter boats, large castors, [forks, spoons, &c.] and all my 
gold and silver medals. It is my will and desire that none of the above mentioned articles 
shall be melted down or in any way altered or disposed of out of my family. I give my 
household goods and furniture at Woodlands to my eldest son, Thomas White, clerk, for 
his own use and benefit. 

I charge my lands of Woodlands and elsewhere in the county of Durham with the pay- 
ment of 100J. to my son, John Surtees White, also to raise 1300?., the interest on which 
is to be paid weekly to my youngest son, Edward White, during his life, and after his death 
I give the said sum of 1300Z. to my sons, Thomas and Robert White, and to my daughters, 
Anne White and Mary Wilkinson. 

I give the residue of my real and personal estate to be divided into nine parts, or shares, 
viz. : to my son, Thomas White, three-ninths parts ; to my daughter, Anne White, three- 
ninths parts ; to my daughter, Mary Wilkinson, wife of Octavius Robert Wilkinson, of Eaton 
Socon, in the county of Bedford, two-ninths parts ; and to my son, Robert White, one-ninth 
part. Executors : My son, Thomas White, the said Octavius Robert Wilkinson, of Eaton 
Socon, gentleman, and John Greenwell, of Broomshields, esquire. 

Proved at Durham, September 1836, by the three executors. Personal property 
sworn under 2000/. 

6 Transactions of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, 
voL xxxi, pp. 91-105. 7 Ibid., pp. 22, 81-105. 


Thomas White n left issue four sons and two daughters, viz.: 

i. Thomas White in, born 4th February, baptized 23rd October 1802, 
scholar of Queen's College, Cambridge, B.A. 1825, ordained deacon by 
the archbishop of York, 1827, and priest by the bishop of Lichfield 
in 1829. He was residing at the time of his marriage at Ashby, in the 
parish of Bottesf ord , Lincolnshire, and in 1 836 at Copt hill, in the parish 
of Stanhope. He was perpetual curate of Kirk Hammerton in 1845, 
and was presented in 1855 to the rectory of Cawthorp, in the diocese of 
Ripon, which benefice he seems to have continued to hold down to 
1881. He married, firstly, at Lanchestcr, 25th June 1834, Miss 
Anne Elizabeth Molesworth, who died 17th February 1866, aged 62, 
by whom he had issue 8 ; and secondly, his kinswoman, Jane, widow 
of Michael Darling, and daughter of Edward Searle of Colchester, by 
his wife Anne, daughter of Alan Greenwell of Ford. The Rev. 
Thomas White is stated to have died at Doncaster in 1896. 

ii. Robert White, born 29th June 1805, baptized 23rd January 1806, 
an architect in the city of Durham, named in his father's will, after- 
wards went to Australia. 

iii. John Surtees White, born 18th October 1806, baptized 15th Sept- 
ember 1807, an attorney in the city of Durham, was residing in 
Gilesgate, when on the 25th June 1834 he married, at Lanchester (on 
the same day as his brother's marriage) , Sarah Bowlby, third daughter 
of John Bowlby, registrar of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. 
He subsequently emigrated to Australia, where descendants of the 
marriage are said to be still living. 

iv. Edward White, born 1st June, baptized 13th June 1809, was a 
sailor in the merchant service, whom Dr. Greenwell well remembers 
' mounting his horse and tumbling off on the other side of the horse.' 

i. Anne, born 15th, baptized 28th December 1800, to whom her father 
gave his gold medals and his plate, at one time resided at Durham, 
and died unmarried. 

ii. May, born 4th May, baptized 28th December 1803, was married 
20th October 1830 to Octavius Robert Wilkinson, a solicitor, then 
of St. Neots, Huntingdonshire, afterwards of Eaton Socon, Bed- 
fordshire, brother of Mr. George Hutton Wilkinson, of Harperley 
After passing through the hands of Mr. John Smith and Mr. Jonathan 

Richardson, Woodlands was purchased in 1872 by Mr. W. B. Van 

Haansbergen, who has added to the property very considerably by 


Mr. Nicholas Temperley, who is a member of the Council of the 
Royal English Arboricultural Society, said ' that at the present time the 
nation, by reason of the world-war, is finding its great want of com- 
mercial timber, and there is a very apparent necessity for a large increase 
in the area of land to be planted with trees. It is very appropriate that 
we should be now listening to this description of the extensive scheme 
of afforestation by an early pioneer in that work in a remote part of 
the county of Durham. It would be exceedingly interesting and useful 
to know the after-history of the plantings of Mr. White, how the various 
species succeeded, and what sort of financial and other results were 
obtained. Some of the many kinds of trees Mr. White planted, such 

8 The well informed writer of an article in the Consett Guardian, of December 19th, 1902, 
lent me by Mr. Welford, states that the Rev. Thomas White had issue by his first marriage four 
sons and one daughter, viz : Thomas, who died in North America ; Charles, Robert and 
Gilbert, who emigrated to New Zealand ; and Mrs. Robinson of Hunstanton, Norfolk. 


as the occidental plane, were hardly likely to produce much useful 
timber in our northern latitudes. If information could be obtained from 
the present owners of the estate on these points, it would be useful in 
making new schemes of planting to-day. This matter of afforestation 
has been advocated for Great Britain for several years. Some steps 
have been taken by the establishment of forestry schools and demon- 
stration areas for the training of scientific and practical foresters ; 
advisory officers have been appointed to assist private owners with 
advice, but the great work of afforestation has yet to be undertaken. 
A lesson may be found in Mr. White's early efforts in arboriculture 
that may stimulate us to-day to do our duty promptly, vigorously and 

Mr. W. W. Gibson remarked that it might interest Mr. Temperley 
and others to learn that on the Woodlands estate there is now a large 
acreage planted, though he could not say how much of the modern 
planted area represents the same area as was planted by Thomas White. 
A good deal of the land now planted is fit for nothing else, so that here 
at any rate the land is being put to the best possible use. 


Mr. Joseph Oswald read the following : ' The plaster has now 
been removed from the walls, and this has disclosed the existence of a 
stoup on the east side of the south door into the church, and another 
on the east side of the door opposite to it, now leading into the vestry ; 
also a piscina in the south wall of the nave, about four feet west of 
the chancel arch. The latter, of which the springing courses are now 
uncovered, has been of two chamfered orders, with curved stops, and 
a hood mould stopped by a carved head. The north wall is clearly of 
two periods ; the lower part is inferior in quality to the upper part, 
being of irregular unlevel courses ; where the change of masonry takes 
place there is a course of large stones. A modern fireplace was dis- 
covered in the north wall of the chancel under the eastern window on 
that side, just outside of present altar rail. The east wall is of different 
date from the north and south walls and imperfectly bonded with 
them ; there are bad rents at both angles owing to the east wall going 
over to the east. The basin of the piscina, illustrated on plate facing 
p. 34 and on p. 35 of this volume, can now be seen to have been made 
out of the top stone of a door or window jamb having carved angle 
capital and impost moulding. The latter has been chiselled off, except 
where it has been altered so as to form the projecting lip of the basin. 
When the photograph opposite p. 34 was taken the plaster had not 
been removed sufficiently to reveal this.' 

Mr. Hodgson and Mr. Oswald were thanked for their communications. 

COLLAR OF SS (see pages 204-207). 

Mr. F. Crossley of Chester, who kindly allowed eight of his fine 
photographs of effigies to be reproduced, and who contributed materially 
to the list printed on pages 206-207, has, with Mr. Oswald and Mr. 
Ray, since favoured the editor with the following additions to it : 

Ash, Kent. Sir John Goshall, temp. Ed. in. 

Ashwell Thorpe, Norfolk. Sir Edward Thorpe, 1418. 

Baginton, Warwickshire. Sir William and lady Bagot, 1407. 

Brington, Northants. Penelope, lady Spencer, 1667- 

Bromham, Wilts, Sir Roger Tonchet, 1457. 


Bury St. Edmunds. John Baret, 1 146 . 

Canterbury Cathedral. Queen Joan of Navarre. 

Croft, Yorks. Around two coats of arms of the Clervaux family are collars of SS. 

Deane, Northants. Sir Robert Brudenel, chief justice, 2 1531. 

Digswell, Herts. Sir Thomas Peryent and his wife, 1415. 

Dorchester, Oxon. Sir John Dray ton, 1411. 

Dunster, Somerset. Sir John de Mohun. 

Fawsley, Northants. Sir Richard Knightley, 1537. 

Great Addington, Northants. Sir Harvey Vere, 1516. 

Green's Norton. Sir Thomas Greene, 1457, and Philippa Greene. 

Gunby, Lincolnshire. Sir Thomas Massingberde, 1405. 

Hackington St. Stephen's, Kent. Sir Roger Manwood, chief baron of the Exchequer. 

Horton, Northants. William, lord Parr, 1546. 

Little Castreton, Rutland. Sir Thomas Burton, 1382. 

Little Horkley, Essex. Sir Thomas Swynborne, 1413 

Marholm, Northants. Sir John de Wittelbury, c. 1410. 

Methley, Yorks. Sir Robert Waterton and wife. 

Porlock, Somerset. John, 4th baron Harington of Aldingham, 1417. 

Salisbury. (1) Robert, lord Hungerford, c. 1459 ; (2) Thomas, lord Hungerford, c. 1459 
(3) Sir John Cheney, 1509. 

Sawbridgeworth, Herts. John Leventhorpe, 1433. 

Southampton St. Nicholas's. Sir Richard Lyster, chief justice, 1554. 

Teynham. John Frogenhall, 1444 (?) (brass). 

Thanet St. Laurence. Nicholas Manston. 

Upton, Northants. Sir Richard Knightley, 1537, and Jane Knightley, post 1537 

Wetheral, Cumberland. Sir Richard Salkeld, 1501. 

Yatton, Somerset. A judge (? Sir Richard Newton, 1449). 

Mr. Hartshorne (in Arch. Journal), after mentioning the various 
supposed meanings of SS, says " there is a good deal to be said in favour 
of ' seneschallus.' In support of ' Sanctus ' there is also something 
to be urged, for church vestments were not unfrequently powdered 
with S's for ' Sanctus.' " He quotes as the earliest recorded description 
of the collar, the wardrobe account of Henry of Lancaster (1391-2), 
and mentions the regulations for its use in 2 Henry iv, and that it 
was frequently conferred on foreign envoys. 

Dr. R. B. Hepple, of South Shields, states that Mr. Inderwick, in The 
King's Peace, has ' five or six pages devoted to the subject. He (Inder- 
wick) recounts several possible and more or less probable theories of 
its origin. All seem to agree that it was first used by John of Gaunt. 
'Admitting this/ Mr. Hepple continues, ' I suggest that the embroidered 
SS represents the word 'serviens/ the initial and final letters being ' S.' 
There is a decided psychological probability. John of Gaunt's brother, 
1 In his will he mentioned, as a bequest, ' my collar of the king's livery ' (N & Q., 1 ser. 
n, 475). The collar of SS is referred to Ibid., 1 ser., n, 89, 110, 140, 171, 194, 248, 280, 329, 
362, 393, 475 ; in, 42 ; iv, 147, 230, 236, 345, 456 ; v, 16, 38, 81, 182, 207, 255 ; vi, 182, 
352 ; vii, 297, 584 ; viii, 398 ; x, 357. 2 ser. xi, 438 ; xn, 35. 4 ser., n, 485 ; iv, 527 ; 
ix, 527 ; x, 93, 280. 6 ser., n, 225 ; in, 86, 231, 9 ser., vi, 149. See also Gent. Mag., 
xvn and xvm (1842). 

On 3rd November Christopher Tyldeslegh, goldsmith of London, was paid 3851. 6s. 8d., 
'for a collar of gold operato cum hoc verbo Soiteignez et litteris de S et X,' &c., delivered 
to the king at Winchester Rot. Exitus, Mich. 8 Henry iv [1406]. In her will of 26th August, 
1463 (30 Surt. Soc. publ., 258), Eufemia Langton gave 'altari B. Mariae Virginis infra cime- 
terium ecclesiae parochialis de Schirburn in Elmet . . . unum coler de S deauratis in parte 
argenti et in parte auri.' 

The chief judges of the Courts of King's bench, Common pleas, and Exchequer wore 
the collar of SS. 


the Black Prince, adopted the motto ' Ich dien,' ' I serve.' Is it not 
likely then that John should adopt the Latin participle representing 
the actual principle of service ? Also a fitting emblem for kings and 
their chief servants (officials) in later times ; for it was clearly attached 
to the holders of certain offices.' 


The following are additional epitaphs from churches near Bath 
relating to natives of Northumberland and Durham, collected by Mr. 
J. C. Hodgson (continued from p. 190) : 


Sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Denison, widow of the late 
Thomas Denison of Leeds, in the county of York, esq., who died at 
Bath, 2nd of November 1815, aged 82 years, and was buried in the 
adjacent church yard. Deprived of sight, suffering for nearly .... 
years, she in a high degree exhibited the cheerful fortitude and pious 
resignation of the true Christian. 

She was the only surviving child and sole heiress of Langdale Sunderland, collector of 
H.M. Customs, Newcastle, descended from the ancient Yorkshire family of Sunderland 
of Sunderland, by his first wife, Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Burdon, and daughter of 
Henry Forster of Cleadon, co. Durham. She was married December 21st 1756, at St. 
John's church, Newcastle, to Thomas Denison, by whom she had, with other issue, a son, 
Robert Denison of Kilnwick Percy. 

To the memory of Ellen, the wife of Richard Pemberton, esq., of 
the Barnes, in the county of Durham, who died 21st September 1837, 
Also of her father, Capt. Robert Jump, R.N., who died 23rd . . . 1837, 
aged 77. 

Richard Pemberton, third son of Richard Pemberton of Barnes in the parish of Bishop- 

wearmouth, born 4th April 1782, married 4th November 1830, Ellen, eldest daughter of 

Captain Robert Jump, and had issue. 

In memory of Anne Liddell, daughter of Sir Henry G. Liddell, bart., 

late of Ravensworth Castle, co. Durham. She died April 1st, 

MDCCCXLIII, aged LXV years ; and of Charlotte Amelia Liddell, youngest 

daughter of Sir H. G. Liddell; she died Aug. 3rd, MDCCCL, aged LXI years. 

These ladies were the unmarried daughters of Sir Henry George Liddell of Ravensworth, 

sixth baronet, who died in 1791, by his marriage with Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 

Steele of Chichester. 

In memory of General Robert Donkin, a native of Morpeth, in 
Northumberland, who died March 6th, 1821, aged 94 years. Caroline 
vidua moerens posuit. 

Robert Donkin, son of Aynsley Donkin of Morpeth, attorney, was born March 19th t 
and was baptized there April 6th, 1727. Entering the army in 1746 he served successively 
at Belle Isle, in Flanders under General Wolfe; was aide-de-camp and secretary of General 
Rufane ; as major of 44th regiment he served in America from 1775 to 1783. He married, 
in 1772, Mary, daughter of the Rev. Emanuel Collins and grand-daughter of Major Samuel 
Collins of Chew Magna, by whom he had issue two sons and two daughters. His son, Sir 
Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, K.C.B., colonel llth foot, and subsequently a major general, 
sometime acting governor of the Cape of Good Hope, and successively M.P. for Berwick 
and Sandwich, died Ma}' 1st, 1841, leaving issue. Sir Rufane Donkin's Talavera medal 
was sold at Chichester in 1901 for 95 guineas (cf. Times, 12th December, 1901). Miss 
Mary Russel Mitford, in a letter dated July 17th, 1818, remarks that old General Donkin 
had managed to outlive the ' year and a day ' required to qualify his widow for her pension, 
and supposes he may ' die as soon as he please.' 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 34 


Sacred to the memory of Mary, the first wife of Robert Donkin, 
esq. (a general in His Majesty's service), and daughter of the Revd. 
Emanuel Collins, A.M., who departed this life Dec. 16th, 1815, aged 
70 years. 


Near this place are deposited the remains of Thomas Charles Bigge, 
of Benton House in the county of Northumberland, esq., who departed 
this life October 10th, 1794, aged 57 years. 

In memory of Charlotte Eleanor Bigge, daughter of Thomas 
Charles Bigge, of Benton House, in the county of Northumberland, esq., 
who died at Clifton, 27th June 1800, aged 19 years. 

In memory of Mary Anne Bigge, daughter of Thomas Charles Bigge, 
of Benton House in the county of Northumberland, esq., who died at 
Clifton, June 9th, 1805, aged 27 years. 

Thomas Charles Bigge, of Long Benton, was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where 
he matriculated 31st March 1757, aged 18 ; high sheriff of Northumberland, 1771 ; married 
6th Nov. 1772, at St. Andrew's church, Newcastle, Jemima, daughter of William Ord 
of Fenham, by whom he had, with other issue, the two daughters named in the text. 


The following is the letter in extenso referred to on page 164 : 
Ever Hon'd and Rev'd Sir, Easington, Nov'r 4th, 1682. 

I know that it will bee as difficult a Thing to give a Prudential Account to the world, 
as it will bee to satisfye mine own Conscience, if I should wave any Proposal that you shall 
make mee in soe friendly and Christian a manner, as you have done in this Dispute betwixt 
Dr. Davies and myself. Wherefore, tho' I had resolved ag'st any further Reference, since 
Dr. Davies hath chosen the Law for his Refuge (being firmly persuaded that I can honestly 
and prudently Defend myself against the Dr's utmost assaults, all the Guilt of any Scandal 
that might Ensue lying wholy at his Door) yet I shall bee Counselled by you to Referre 
this Buisinesse again, if you shall presse mee thereunto after the serious Considerac'on 
of this Letter, and obliging mee by an Answer to this following Quaery : Namely : Whether 
a Man bee bound to keep his word (or p'forme a rash Contract, tho' it bee under Hand 
and Seal) to his owne Ruine. That it is of indispensable obligac'on to keep ones word to 
his own Hindrance, I never doubted, and I think I have given a Notorious Evidence to 
the world of my tender Regard to any obligac'ons Dr. Davies could pretend to, by letting 
him receive for several years, about 1 three hundred and fifty pound a year out of my 
Revenue (and after such a Separac'on from him, when hee could not bee much more service- 
able to mee than another Man) til I and my wife were Reduced to live on two hundred 
pound a Year, and constrained to let out a great Part of my Revenue in Annuitycs and 
Rent Charges at 20 p. cent., from w'ch I am not yet clear. But to perform for ever a 
Contract, w'ch was in itself certainly unjustifiable, and not fit to bee made, because it obliged 
mee to more than it became a wise Man to give, or good Man to receive, I am not yet Con- 
vinced. Sir, in Reality the Contract is of such a Nature, and tends soe far towards my 
Ruine, that without some such great Addic'ons to my Revenue, as I neither Deserve, nor 
Desire, it would Incapacitate mee for ever to come out of Debt. And if the Dr. would 
have been Contented to have stayd, til some such extraordinary Providence had Inabled 
mee to p'forme my rash Ingagem't or have put mee out of Debt, (w'ch surely methinks 
after his Receipt of near four thousand pound from a Friend plunged over Head and Ears 
in Debt, hee might have done) we had never Quarrelled. 

Sir, I have a great Deal to say for myself (not withstanding all ill Appearances) and do 
not doubt at all, but to Convince you, or any wise, and Unbiassed p'son that could attend 
the Examinc'on of this Affair, and hear a History of twenty years standing, concerning 
o'r Friend'pp and Acquaintance, that my Defence is honest and X'tian, and that I could 
1 250/. p. Annum for Salary from 68 to 74. 1001. p. annum Advantage in Renting my 
Revenue, for ye same time. [In margin.] 


w'th more Reason and Conscience Require Dr. Davies to refund a thousand pound, than 
hee Demand one hundred more from mee. Certainly the Case is such, that if ever Man 
could honestly Defend himself against Hand and Scale, I can at this present. And I am 
persuaded that I can as Lawfully doe it, as I could sue a Man for my Purse, to whom I 
had, for fear, yielded it on the Highway. But that a Person occupyed soe piously and 
publickly as you are (or indeed any other extraordinary Person qualifyed to decide this 
extraordinary Affair) should be able to Allot soe much Time, as a just and Equitable 
Determinac'on betwixt us, will Require, I do despair of. And in good Truth here is the 
very Reason, why I am so backward to Consent to a Reference. The Buisinesse I fear will 
bee Hudled over, and never Examined to ye Bottome, and soe must Infallibly goe ag'st 
mee w'ch I am not yet able to bear, for it would break my Back a second Time. I can 
hardly find any Person here in this Country (where o'r Carriage to one another since Sixty- 
two, is publickly known, and soe lesse Pains in Examinac'on requisite) that will afford so 
much Leisure, as to search it to the very Bottome, and Examine all Passages betwixt us, 
from fifty-nine to eighty-two, w'ch if a Referree does not doe, hee does doe nothing ; and 
if such a Person cannot bee Discovered here, hee will bee more difficultly found elsewhere. 
When the Buisinesse was Referred the other year, in this Country, to two Civillians, Mr. 
Cradock and Mr. Basire (who were as good friends to us both, and proper persons as could 
bee discovered among Lay-Men) it had quite Tyred out both them and ourselves, and 
yet was not attended unto, as such an affair of Importance ought to bee. Here is (as I 
suspect) the Ground (and for all my Suspic'ons concerning Dr. Davies I have reason) 
that the Dr. presseth so much for a Reference elsewhere. I am at a Lock, and Inveigled 
into soe Lamentable a State (whether by the Dr. or myself it Matters not) that unlesse 
the Prudence and Warinesse and tender Regard of the Referrees to mee, bee as unparalelled 
as my Kindnesse has been to my once Bosome friend, tho' present Antagonist, it is a hundred 
to one but that it goes against mee. Whereas if it could bee fairly and Deliberatly examined 
(and soe to bee, this Affair among strangers, would Require some Years, unlesse they could 
soe attend to it, as to doe nothing else) by Judicious, Upright, and Unpartial Men, able 
to Discerne into the Natural Tempers and Complexions both of the Dr. and myself, and 
the Circumstances I was in, when I signed y't paper, it is a hundred to one but that it would 
goe for mee. But if it should bee Decided for mee, and the Dr. Disappointed of his expec- 
tac'ons, I am afraid of some very sad Consequence ; I mean, in plain English, that hee 
will not be able to beare it ; but that soe great a Disturbance to him, might cause him to 
Relapse into his old Distemper ; I mean a fit of Frenzy ; which to consider, and con- 
tribute thereto, would bee as great an Affliction to mee, as the Losse of my Cause, tho' 
that would bee to mee in some kind Insupportable. Soe far am I from being unchristianly 
Imbittered against the Dr., tho' Unhappily Ingaged, and necessitated to Defend myself 
against him. This last particular, I conceive not proper for his View, (but in that, and 
all Things, I shall submit to yo'r Judgm't) and indeed I would not willingly have menc'oned 
it to any body, but y't now I think it is necessary. This is not only my Fancy, but the 
Judgm't of sober Men in this Country, friends to the Dr., who observing him while hee was 
in these parts, imoderatly bent upon a hasty Determinac'on, and observing him to walk, 
during his Stay here oftentimes in very Melancholy Postures, came to mee in private , 
and advised me to Comply w'th the Dr. upon that Account, least his Disappointm't might 
have the afores'd Effect And really Sir, were I not Involved in a considerable Debt 
(wherein my kindnesse to Dr. Davies above all other Things had long detained mee) I 
had merely to prevent those fears, granted the Dr's Desires, tho' I thought them most 
unreasonable and highly imodest. But Sir, I have now soe deep a Sense of my great Sinne 
of having continued therein so long, notwithstanding I have been Possessor of for Twenty 
years together, a thousand pound a Year (w'ch is the greatest Crime, I blesse God y't the 
world can lay to my Charge) that I dread all Approaches thereunto, and do give as much 
Check as I can, to my Easy, and facile Nature, w'ch hath been one great Cause of all the 
Scandal I have given upon the former Account. Sir, if you could but come to a right 
understanding of all Intrigues betwixt us, and see my honest Heart, in Reference to Dr. 
Davies, you would, I am confident not only approve of what I have done, but advise mee 
in my present State, to a Non-Complyance w'th his Expectac'ons. In order whereunto 


I am willing to take a Journey purposely to Cambridge, provided I can bee allowed a Year's 
Space before I doe the same ; and submit to an Interrogac'on by you, by virtue of yo'r 
Priestly Office, on my Knees ; and if Dr. Davies will doe the like and you bee pleased, for 
the Churches Sake, as well as o'rs to take y't Trouble on you, it will bee the most Effectual 
way that I know of, by God's Blessing, to prevent the Scandal that may Insue from this 
unhappy Contest. We have both soe high a Venerac'on for you, that, after you have 
Qualifyed yourself, by Sifting into the Bottome of this Concerne, to direct and advise us 
what Course to steer, wee shall neither of us dare, I think, to oppose o'r Judgm'ts to yours. 
And the whole Buisinesse Sir will rest, I conceive, on the Veracity and Sincerity of ye 
Persons, whereof I think you as good a Judg as any in England. If all the Stresse bee laid 
upon the former Contract, tho' Signed w'th Hand and Seal (w'ch obligeth the Dr. and 
mee to a high Measure of Repentance) I must certainly bee greatly oppressed, who am, 
notwithstanding my great Revenue, more Indigent than Dr. Davies, being stil strugling 
with a considerable Debt, w'ch my open Handednesse to Dr. Davies more than any Man , 
hath Considerably Increased. In a word, if you knew mee, and my condic'on, you would 
in an extraordinary Manner pitty mee, and severely Censure Dr. Davies for Insnaring mee, 
or (if that expression bee too harsh) for suffering mee to Insnare myself, soe Lamentably, 
whilst hee was my only Guide both in Sp'r'lls and Temporals. Beseeching God not to lay 
this Sin to Dr. Davies's Charge, in Egregiously abusing the Power I gave him, over my 
Soul, as well as my Estate (or to Convince mee of mine if I am in the wrong). I subscribe 

Reverend and Dear Sir, Your most obedient and faithfull Humble Serv't 

Denis Grenville. 

The following abstract in English by Mr. Craster, is from a Latin 
deed in Dr. Burman's collection : 


Deed-poll whereby Christopher Hilton of Burton, co. Westmorland, 
esqr., in pursuance of covenants contained in indentures made between 
the said Hilton of the one part and George Fletcher of Hutton Hall, co. 
Cumberland, bart., John Lowther of Sockbridge, co. Westmorland, 
bart., John Dalston of Accornbanke, and Launcelot Machell of Crack- 
anthorpp, co. Westmorland, esq rs , of the other part, dated 10th 
January, 1660, 12 Charles n, grants to the said Fletcher, Lowther, 
Dalston and Machell his manor of Burton in Westmorland, the half 
of his manor of Hilton Bacon and his manor of Ormside, alias Ormshead 
magna in Westmorland, to hold to the uses expressed in the said 
indenture, and appoints John Crackanthorpp of Newbiggin and William 
Fairer of Warcopp, co. Westmorland, gent n , his attorneys to give 
seisin : dated 23rd Jan., 12 Charles n, 1660. Signed ' Christo. Hilton ' 
seal wanting. Endorsed with names of witnesses, ' Ro. Hilton, Edw. 
Nevinson, John Thwaites, elder, John Thwaites, junr., William Fairer.' 

The deed is further endorsed with a memorandum that on the 4th 
Feb. 1660, 12 Charles n, the said Crackanthorpp and Fairer, as attorneys 
of the said Hilton, entered into a close called the Horse Close, parcel of 
the manor of Burton, and into a parcel of land called the Flatts, parcel 
of the moiety of the manor of Hilton Bacon, and into the mansion-house 
of Ormeside, and gave seisin of all the premises within mentioned to 
Reginald Steadman of Warcopp, co. Westmorland, yeoman, as 
attorney of the within named Fletcher, Lowther, Dalston and Machell, 
Witnesses, ' Edward Mowson, cl., Jo. Thwaites, elder, Leonard Smith, 
William Fell, Jo. Thwaites, younger.' 

The knitting sheath presented by Mr. P. Brewis on 31st May 1916 
(p. 194), bears the inscription ' Eliz. Right, Tow Law, Sept." 22nd, 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 18. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the society was held in the Castle, 
Newcastle, on Wednesday, 27th September 1916, at 7 o'clock in the 
evening, Mr. Nicholas Temperley, a member of the council, being in 
the chair. 

After the usual routine business had been transacted the following 
BOOKS, &c., received since the August meeting, were placed on the 
table : 
Presents, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. James Elliott : Documents relating to the Foundation and 
Antiquities of the Collegiate Church of Middleham, by the Rev. 
W. Athill (Camden Soc. publ.). 
From the Rev. G. V. Collier, F.S.A. : Two old newspapers, The 

Newcastle Chronicle for 27th May and 3rd June 1769. 
Exchanges : 

From the Sussex Archaeological Society : Collections, LVIII. 
From the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland : Journal, XLVI, i. 
From the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, U.S.A. : 
Transactions, xxi: ' Rural Economy in New England at the 
beginning of the Nineteenth Century.' 
Purchases : 

The Museums Journal, xvi, no. 4. 

By Miss S. A. Gibson : A knitting needle holder of mahogany, 

11 ins. long, with moulded ends, 2J ins. 
Miss Gibson was thanked. 

COLLAR OF ' ESSES ' (continued from p. 225). 

Ingenious antiquaries at all times, especially during the 18th and 
19th centuries, have given rein to their imaginations ; for instance, 
in the cases of inclination of chancels, 1 low side windows and cross- 
legged effigies, amongst others. May not the collar of ' esses ' be another 
instance, and after all turn out to be merely ornamental or artistic ? 
Colour is given to this from the fact that the ' esses ' are sometimes 

*The deviation of the axis in the churches of the middle ages had no symbolic 
significance. It is met only when the choir has been rebuilt after the lapse of centuries. 
The direction of the east had been taken at the rising of the sun at the equinox : 
whence came an error, so long as the Julian calendar lasted. Thus for the church of 
Magdeburg, founded in 947, at the time of its reconstruction in 1207, when the direction 
of the east was taken, there was an error of 10 days, and the axis deviated towards the 
north. In many churches, the ancient nave has remained ; its axis is not then that of 
the choir.' Zeitschrift fiir christliche Kunst, Feb. 1912. 
[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 35 


reversed. In Roman times this S-shaped ornament was in use for 
brooches, and some 50 or 60 years ago the same S-shaped device was 
made use of for buckles for boys' belts, which were similar to the 
buckles used on the belts of soldiers of the present day. 

The following are additional churches in which .effigies are to be 
found with SS collars 2 , communicated by Mr. W. G. Collingwood, 
F.S.A., Mr. Cullen, Mr. Vaughan and others: 

Arundel, Sussex (p. 206). Thomas Salmon and wife. 

Ashby de la Zouch (p. 206) : for ' 1883 ' read ' 1483.' 

Ash well Thorpe (p. 223) : for ' Edward ' read ' Edmund de.' 

Bakewell, Derbyshire. Effigy of a man in plate armour. 

Burnham, Norfolk. Sir William Calthorpe, 1420. 

Canterbury. Cathedral : (1) John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, 1410 ; (2) Thomas, duke 
of Clarence, 1421. St. Stephens : Sir Roger Manwood, chief baron of Exchequer, 1592. 

Casterton, Little (p. 224), to be read, instead of Little Castreton. 

Cheadle, Cheshire. 

Darfield, Yorkshire. Man in plate armour (with collar) and wife, ' probably a Bosvile 
or Fitzwilliam ' (Hunter, n, 117). 

Dudley, Worcestershire. Effigy of a woman. 

Easebourne, West Sussex, to be read instead of ' Eastbourne ' (p. 207). 

Great Addington (p. 224) : for ' Hervey ' read ' Henry.' 

Giggleswick, Yorks. Knight in plate armour, supposed to be Sir Richard Tempest, 1488. 

Greystoke, Cumb. Effigy c. 1440 (? John, 16th baron Greystoke). 

Harewood, Yorkshire (p. 207) 8 : (1) Man and wife, crest of Redman, probably Sir Richard 
Redman, 1426, and Elizabeth his wife (Whitaker's Laid, and Elm., I, 170) ; (2) Sir 
William Ryther, 1440, and Sybil his wife ; (3) Sir Richard Redman, 1450 ; (4) Sir 
John Nevill, 1482 ; (5) Sir William Gascoigne, no collar, but his belt is studded with SS. 

Hereford Cathedral. Lady Delamere, 1435. 

Horkesley, Little (p. 224), to be read, instead of Little Horkley. 

Methley, Yorkshire (p. 224). Robert Waterton and wife Cecilia with collars, c. 1444. 

Mottram, Cheshire. 

Owston, Yorkshire. Robert de Hatfield and Ada his wife, both with collars, c. 1417 (brasses) . 

Routh, Yorkshire. Sir John and lady Agnes Routh, c. 1410-20, both with collars. 

Ruabon St. Mary's, Denbighs. John ap Ellis Eyton and his wife ; former only with collar. 

Selby, Yorkshire. Effigy of a man. 

Shene, Surrey. Oakwood chapel : Edward de la Hale, 1431. 

Swarkeston, Derbyshire. Richard Harpur, judge of court of Common Pleas, temp. Eliz. 

Swine, Yorkshire. Sir Robert de Hilton, c. 1390. 

Thurlaston, Leicestershire. Knight and lady. 

Trotton, Sussex (p. 207) : for ' Camoyo ' read ' Camoys.' 

Wadworth, Yorkshire. Edmund Fitzwilliam and wife Maud, 1430 and 1433 Hunter, 
I, 51). He wears collar. 

Wentworth, Yorkshire. In old church : knight in plate armour, said to be a Gascoigne. 

Workington, Cumb. Effigy of Sir Christopher Curwen, 1450. 

2 Dugdale gives a portrait of Sir Simon Burley, K.G., 1388, by Hollar, shewing him with 
collar. See under London, p. 207 ; the original collar was bequeathed to the lord mayor. 
' Collar of SS . . . originally worn as a badge by the adherents of the House of Lancaster 
(New Eng. Diet.) ; 1532-3, ' That no manne, onelesse he be a knight . . . weare any coler 
of golde named a coler of S ' (Act 24 Hen. vin) ; 1598, ' . . . a collar of esses . . . 
being the ornament of a knight,' &c. (Speght, Chaucer's Works) ; per inf. Mr. Collingwood. 
In Hone's Every Day Book, 11, 536, there is a note on the collar. The writer states that at 
the marriage of prince Arthur, in 1507, ' Sir Nicholas Vaux wore a collar of Esses, which 
weyed, as the goldsmiths that made it reported, 800 pound of nobles.' 

8 Mr. Vaughan, who has recently visited the church, could not find the screen supposed 
to have been erected 1454-1477. 


The following are abstracts of other local deeds which Mr. Tyrrell of 
Oxford has for sale (continued from p. 213) : 


1737, May 10. Deed made between (1) Wrn. Richardson of New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, joiner, and Hannah, his wife, and (2) John Cutter, 
of the same, glazier, whereby in consideration of 65/. and 5s. paid by 
Richardson to Cutter the latter granted to him a moiety of premises, 
malting, &c., in the Dog bank, otherwise All Hallow's bank, Newcastle, 
in the occupation of Margaret Dobson, widow, and then of Robert 
Vipont, Bounded by All Hallow's church stairs near the choir door 
on the E., by a passage or Dog Lope lying between a burgage belonging 
to Wm. Gibson, distiller, and the said burgage thereby granted messuage 
on the W., by All Hallow's bank on the S., and by All Hallow's church- 
yard on the N. Signed and sealed by Richardson and his wife, and 

Memo, endorsed, of enrolment on 16th May 1737, in the town court 
before Nicho. Fenwick, mayor, W m Ellison, Robt. Sorsbie, aldermen, 
Matt. Bell, jun r , sheriff, and six others ; and sealed with town seal. 


1732, June 1. Indenture whereby Thomas Harrison of Dryburnside, 
-co. Durham, yeoman, sole executor and devisee of John Sedgw r ick, 
late of Dryburnside, gentleman, and Elizabeth, wife of said T. Harrison, 
John Grin well of Saint Sepulchre's, within the city of London, gentle- 
man, cousin and heir of Peter Grin well, late of Wolsingham, co. Durham, 
yeoman, deceased, William Etterick of Sunderland-near-the-sea, said 
co. of Durham, esquire, eldest son and heir of Walter Etterick, late of 
Sundcrland, gentleman, deceased, and also cousin and heir of the said 
John Sedgwick, deceased, and John Bowman of Stanhope, tailor, 
demised for a year at a pepper corn lent the messuage called Dryburn- 
side and several closes of ground called or known by the names of the 
Holme field and Gray park in Dryburnside and Stanhope par. in 
Weardale. Signed by all parties, John ' Grinwell ' signs John ' Green- 
well.' 1732, June 2, the reversion of the same premises was conveyed. 


18 James I [1621] July 7. By indenture made between (1) Robert 
Ponshon of Pelton, co. Durham, yeoman, and Thomas Ponshon, his 
son, and (2) George Hall also of Pelton, yeoman, it was witnessed that 
in consideration of 120/. paid to Ponshon he demised to Hall all those 
2 closes of meadow and pasture grounds at Pelowe in the same county, 
then in the occupation of Hall, the pasture close called the half-lyngey 
close and the meadow close' called the half-meadow field lying at the 
east end of the pasture close and all and singular woods, mines, &c., &c., 
with right of way on horse or foot through the grounds in Pelton from 
the high street lying on the outside of the said grounds thereby demised 
and thence to and from Pelton, to hold the same for the term of 2000 
years. Covenants for quiet enjoyment by Hall, without disturbance 
by him or by Sir Bertram Bulmer, and for better assurance ; and 
reciting that there was a free rent of 5s. issuing out of the Pelaw lands 
which were the inheritance of the said Bertram Bulmer, knight, for the 
use of tha.' gramer schole ' of Houghton, and also a free rent of 6s. pay- 
able to the lord bishop of Durham and his successors, and reciting that 
former purchasers of other parts of the said premises had provided for 
the contribution amongst themselves of so much of the said rents; it was 
agreed thereby that Hall should also contribute in like manner and he 


undertook during the term to uphold the premises. Signed and sealed 
by ' Robert Ponnshone,' in the presence of 'W. Smyth, Rob't Hawkes- 
worth, Christopher Hutchinson, Will'm Baker, Phillipp Hales [mark], 
John Sparke [mark], Geo. Clerk.' 

Memorandum endorsed that the persons mentioned thereunder 
held several parcels of the lands in Pelowe which were Sir Bertram 
Bulmer's and were ' to pay the renits following : Robert Marley 4s. Sd. 
or more ; Anthony hallyday 2s. ; John Layng Sd. ; Will'm Grenewell 
2s. ; Alexander wakefield Is. 8d. ; John Cooke, Is. Id. ; Richard 
Sampson Is Sd.' 

Robert Ponshon declared before the same witnesses that on signing 
thereof the persons above named were every one of them to pay the 
sums set down. 

The following extracts from the Newcastle Courant and Journal have 
been sent by Mr. J. C. Hodgson, F.S.A. (continued from p. 216) : 

To be sold Newmoor-house, with about 300 acres of land, in the chapelry of Long 
Framlington, now in the possession of Miss Jane Manner, Miss Elizabeth Manner, &c. 

Courant, 17 September, 1774. 

To be let the Salmon fishery on the Tyne, belonging to the freehold manor of Ovington. 
which fishery is below Bywell locks and extends near two miles in length. Enquire of Mr, 
Adams of Alnwick, the owner. Ibid. 

To be sold a freehold estate at East Shaftoe, in the parish of Hartburn, 500 acres. 
Shafto Vaughan, esq., the owner, will show the premises. Journal, 24 September, 1774. 
To be let, a stock farm at Rookhope, in the parish of Stanhope, belonging to John 
Hopper, esq., of Black Hedley. Also the estate of Black Hedley, Northumberland. Also 
grazing land at Raydale and Burdale, in the parish of Aysgarth. Apply to Mr. Hopper 
at Stanhope. Journal, 29 October, 1774. 

To be peremptorily sold to best bidder, by the assignees of Messrs. Samuel and Matthew 
Newton, bankrupts, an undivided moiety of Twizell, parish of Chester-le-Street, with the 
adjoining farm called the Hagg ; colliery under copyhold and leasehold and freehold 
lands of the Bishop of Durham in Bedlingtonshire ; one third part of Bryan's Leap Colliery, 
county Durham. Also the reversionary interest of the said Samuel and Matthew Newton 
in the other undivided moiety of Twizell and Hagg, expectant on the death of a lady 
without issue ; also the reversionary interest of the said Samuel and Matthew Newton 
in Coldpig hall and other freehold estates of Mr. William Newton, deceased. 

Ibid., 17 December, 1774. 

To be sold Norham Mains, now let under lease to Mr. Jonathan Middleton at 645 per 
annum. Also Murray's Hall Farm, let under lease to Messrs. John and David Gibson 
at 242 per annum. The whole comprises 1,300 acres and is bounded by the river 
Tweed. Enquire of Robert Fenwick, esq., at Lemington ; Collingwood Forster, esq., 
at Alnwick, &c. Ibid., 17 December, 1774. 

To be sold Bell-shield in the parish of Elsdon, now let at 42 per annum. Mr. William 
Anderson of Horsley in Reed Water, the owner of the estate, will shew the same. 

Courant, 17 December, 1774. 

To be sold an estate in West Rainton, county Durham, containing 176 acres, held by 
lease of the Dean and Chapter of Durham. Apply to John Clutterbuck, esq. Ibid. 


' Three manuscript volumes have been presented to the Society 
[of Genealogists of London] by Mr. W. H. Bramwell two volumes of 
Parish Registers of Hurworth-on-Tees, Durham, and one volume of 
the Parish Registers of Eryholme, Yofks. The dates covered in the 
former registers are 1579-1599.' Report of Society given in The 
Antiquary, n.s., ix, 468. 


p. 220, line 6 from bottcm, for ' Foyston ' read ' Fryston.' 
p. 222, line 7, for ' Cawthorp ' read ' Cowthorpe '; and line 32, for ' May ' read ' Mary.' 





3 SER., VOL. VII. 


NO. 19. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Society was held in the Castle, 

Newcastle, on Wednesday, 25th October 1916, at 7 o'clock in the 

evening, Mr. N. Temperley, a member of the council, being in the chair. 

After the usual routine business had been transacted the following 

ordinary member was proposed and declared duly elected : 

Arthur E. Taylor, Jesmond Road, Newcastle. 
The following BOOKS, &c., were placed upon the table : 
Present, for which thanks were voted : 

From Mr. C. H. Blair : ' Durham Seals,' vi (overprint from Arch. 

Ael., 3 ser., xm). 
Exchanges : 

From the Royal Numismatic Society : The Numismatic Chronicle, 

4 ser., no. 62. 
From the Royal Irish Academy : Proceedings, xxxm, sec. c, 

nos. 6-11. 
Purchases : 

The Scottish Historical Review, xiv, no. 1 ; and Notes and Queries 

for the month of October 1916. 

By R. Blair : (1) a bow-shaped knitting sheath of mahogany, 5f ins. 
long ; round the hole for the needle is a small ornamental piece of 
brass, diamond-shaped ; and (2) a silver knitting needle holder, of 
Dutch make, 9| ins. long and -^ diameter at ends, with a double 
line going spirally round from end to end. It has two loose ends, 
each 1J ins. long. 


The council reported that as Mrs. Telford, owing to ill-health, had 
been compelled to give up her office of caretaker and had quitted the 
Blackgate last Monday, they had appointed Mr. and Mrs. Ryan to the 
charge of Castle and Blackgate, including attendance at the museum 
and library, at a weekly wage for Mr. Ryan of 25/- and a bonus of 5/- 
a week during the war, and of 10/- to Mrs. Ryan, with rooms, lighting 
and firing. Such appointments to be subject to a month's notice on 
either side. 

The action of the council was confirmed. 

Mr. C. H. Blair moved that the thanks of members be given to Mrs. 
Telford and her daughter for their services as custodians of the Black- 
gate for so many years. Mr. Brewis having seconded, the resolution 
was carried unanimously. 


Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) announced that the council had 
decided that during the dark nights, future meetings of the council and 
of the society, beginning with the November meetings, be held at 
[Proc. 3 Ser. VH] 36 


4-30 p.m. by the council and at 5 p.m. by the society, and not as at 
present. (The annual meeting to be held as usual at the statutory 
time, 1 p.m. on the last Wednesday in January). 


Professor Wight Duff exhibited the following lantern-slides represent- 
ing subjects from parts of Greece and Turkey visited by him : 

1. Chart showing range of important 

' Aegean ' finds. 

2. Entrance to harbour of Candia, Crete. 

3. Throne room in palace of Knossos 

in course of excavation. 

4. The throne at Knossos. 

5. Theatral area at Knossos (partially 


6. Side-gallery with large store-jars. 

7. Column with mark of the double axe. 

8. Fresco from Egyptian tomb showing 

Mycenaean costume ; fresco from 
palace at Knossos showing cup- 
bearer ; Cretan pithos, etc. 

9. Hills round Mycenae. 

10. Entrance to Tholos-tomb, Mycenae. 

11. The so-called ' Treasury of Atreus ' 

(a Mycenaean tomb). 

12. Scene of the excavations inside ' the 

Lion Gate,' Mycenae. 

13. The Gate of the Lionesses, Mycenae. 

14. Gallery at Tiryns. 

15. Gold Cup from Vaphio, near Sparta. 

16. Mycenaean gold vases. 

17. Representative Mycenaean pottery. 

18. Mycenaean frieze design. 

19. Gold diadem from a Mycenaean grave. 

20. Gold mask from a Mycenaean grave. 

21. Stele exhibiting Mycenaean lion-hunt; 

Lion hunt dagger blade ; Signet 
showing cult of Double Axe ; A 
Mycenaean shield. 

22. The approach to Hissarlik (Troy). 

23. A ramp at Troy (' second city '). 

24. A Trojan wall-tower (' sixth city ') 

25. The ' Great Treasure ' from Troy. 

26. Athens from Mount Hymettus. 

27. The Acropolis with so-called 

' Theseion ' in foreground. 

28. A restoration of the Acropolis. 

29. Propylaea and temple of Nike 

Apteros (present state). 

30. Victory fastening sandal, from balus- 

trade of temple of Nike. 

31. Propylaea northern porch. 

32. Parthenon western end. 

33. N.W. corner of Parthenon (restored). 

34. Parthenon eastern end from within. 

35. Parthenon Stylobate and drums of 

fallen columns. 

36. Parthenon an aisle. 

37. Slab from N. frieze of Parthenon 

(Acropolis museum). 

38. Group of gods from E. frieze. 

39. Group of the Fates from E. pediment. 

40. 41. Roman copy of Athene Parthenos 

of Phidias (front view and right side). 

42. Parthenon (interior restored). 

43, 44. Theatre of Dionysus, Athens ; 

Stage-wall and auditorium. 

45. The Erechtheion. 

46. Caryatid from porch of Erechtheion. 

47. Portrait-bust of Pericles. 

48. Athens Street of Tombs. 

49. Sepulchral toilet scene. 

50. Sepulchral parting scene. 

51. Olympieion. 

52. Theatre at Epidauros in Peloponnese. 

53. Olympia Excavated temples and 


54. Olympia Restoration of pediments 

of temple of Zeus. 

55. Olympia General view of temples 


56. 57. Hermes of Praxiteles (4th cent. 

B.C.). and head. 

58. Excavated precincts of Eleusis. 

59. Eleusis Hall of the Mysteries of 


60. Mount Parnassus. 

61. Mount Parnassus and Delphi. 

62. Delphi Portion of excavations as 

left by the French. 

63. Bronze charioteer found at Delphi. 

64. Budrum, the ancient Halicarnassus. 

65. Myndos Gate, Halicarnassus. 

66. Chariot-group of the Mausoleum. 

67. Restoration of the order of the 


68. Pergamum Acropolis and ancient 


69. Pergamum Site of the famous 


70. Group from the Pergamene Altar. 

71. Ephesus mosque. 

72. Base of sculptured column from 

Temple of Artemis, Ephesus. 

73. Ephesus Stage of the ancient 


8 w 


Professor Wight Duff, in addition to commenting upon the slides 
seriatim, contributed the following notes : 

" There is an appropriateness in exhibiting a set of slides illustrative 
of Hellenic civilization at a time when Greece occupies the attention 
of Europe and when her attitude is one of international importance. 
A sense of something pathetic accompanies a glance backward from a 
divided country, which has failed in keeping its obligations, to the 
ancient Greece which stood in the vanguard of civilization, and which 
in the fifth century B.C. faced tremendous odds in defending the liberties 
of Europe against the mighty empire of Persia. 

With regard to the slides" themselves, apart from the explanation 
accompanying the exhibition of each, it may be well to add some 
connecting remarks. They are chosen to represent a few sites of 
Hellenic civilization, which I have myself visited, belonging to four 
periods ; and there is this amount at least of quite modern interest in 
them that the first of these four periods is illustrated from M. Venizelos's 
homeland Crete ; while the second period, the ' Mycenaean ' or 
' Homeric,' draws some of its illustrations from the Troad, close to 
Kum-Kaleh, of which we frequently read during the recent operations 
in the Dardanelles. , 

The four periods of Greek civilization which I have selected for brief 
illustration in these slides are : 

1. Cretan or ' Minoan ' for two millenia or more up to about 

1400 B.C. 

2. ' Mycenaean ' or ' Homeric ' coinciding partly with later Minoan 

and lasting till about 1000 B.C. (reflected in Iliad and Odyssey). 

3. The zenith of typical Hellenism especially the fifth and fourth 

centuries B.C. 

4. The Hellenistic period from the time of Alexander the Great. 
In connexion with the first of these periods any full discussion would 

require a series of lectures to itself, and in any case piust seem less 
necessary at present than at other times in view of the recent references 
to the Minoan civilization of Crete by its own investigator, Sir Arthur 
Evans, when he spoke in Newcastle as president of the British Associa- 
tion. The main results of his excavations at Knossos became familar 
to many from his annual reports in The Annual of the British School 
at Athens, and have been summarized and criticized in various works. 

The great fascination of the first two periods lies in their having been 
added to the pages of history within recent times by scientific excava- 
tion. They are both trophies of the spade, and that in .inverse 
chronological order ; for the excavations at Hissarlik and then at 
Mycenae, in the seventies of last century, may be said to have made 
Homer real, and the discoveries in Crete, from 1900 onwards, added 
millenia to earlier Greek history and proved Aegean civilization to 
have been within the range of Egyptian influence. In both cases the 
mythical was proved to be historic. 

This elevation of legend into fact, this rehabilitation of mythology 
has never appeared more wonderful than in the case of Crete. The 
poet of the Odyssey had sung of ' a land called Crete in the midst of the 
wine-dark sea, a fair land and a rich, begirt with water,' and around 
this isle a forest of romantic legend had grown up to enchant the mind. 
Here Zeus himself had been cradled ; here, said another tale, the 
god had been buried : hither had he carried Europa from Phoenicia 
to be the mother of Minos ; here had that same Minos borne sway, 
one of the mighty sea-kings of the world, and destined to be judge in 
the other world after this life ended ; here Daedalus, the cunning 


artificer, had wrought marvels in architecture and other arts, including 
the conquest of the air ; . here lurked the half-bestial monster of the 
Labyrinth, the Minotaur, preying on the dreadful tribute of youths 
and maids ; and here, for love's sake, Ariadne had given the clue to 
Theseus for his guidance through the maze. 

All this seems mere fancy, likely enough to remind one of the de- 
claration of Callimachus which St. Paul endorsed, that 'the Cretans are 
always liars.' Yet one of the strangest fruits of scientific investigation 
has been to win reverence for the legendary. Nowhere has myth 
been more justified than in Crete ; for the excavations have restored 
to the island its property in Zeus, in Minos, and in the Labyrinth. 

The general impression left on my mind from a single visit to Knossos 
is that of a widely spread palace planned for luxury rather than for 
defence, and so reliant on the protection of a navy that, unlike the 
fortress of Mycenae, it could dispense with walls. Here were spacious 
well-paved courts, surrounded by blocks of gypsum that formed the 
lower portions of palace walls ; and from a long main corridor branched 
off many galleries lined with huge earthernware store-jars fit to illustrate 
the tale of 'Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.' Passages, rooms, courts 
and staircases might well have given rise to that sense of confusion 
which created accounts of the maze of Crete, the Labyrinth of the 
ancient world. And it has been submitted though not universally 
accepted that the word ' Labyrinth ' means ' the House of the Double- 
axe ' the 'labrys' sacred to Zeus, whose sacred mark is to be seen on 
various pillars in the palace. 

Into the details of its theatral area, its ring for sports with the bull, 
its clay tablets with both pictographic and linear writing, and its 
frescoes, there is not space to enter. One could dwell with interest on 
the representations of agile toreadors, and the flounced skirts of the 
ladies at court ; but the most attractive fresco of all is that of the 
cup-bearer a youth, life-size, holding a long and graceful goblet, the 
blues and reds of which probably mean silver and gold. His limbs are 
moulded with skill, and his sharp-cut profile possesses a strange realism 
as of a portrait of one of this powerful race of the second millenium B.C. 
The brilliancy of colour is amazing, and the decorative effect of the 
chequered loin-cloth and of the ornaments worn round the neck, arm 
and wrist, is peculiarly alluring. 

But I must pass to the second age, into which this first period shades 
by a gradual transition, so that some would prefer to abolish the term 
' Mycenaean ' altogether and couple the period with the latest Minoan. 
In the case of Crete it was legend, in the case of Mycenae and Troy it 
was poetry, that was proved to have historical foundation. Grote and 
his contemporaries had regarded the Homeric poems as fancy, and 
Troy and the Trojan War as mythical creations ; it was Schliemann's 
faith that led him in 1870 and succeeding years to excavate Hissarlik, 
in Asia Minor, and find there eight or nine superincumbent settlements, 
of which the ' Sixth City ' is now considered to belong to the Mycenaean 
age and to correspond to the Ilion of Homer. At Tiryns and Mycenae, 
in Greece, excavations gave a new sense to ' Cyclopean ' masonry, and 
threw fresh light on the plan of Homeric fortress-palaces, on the manner 
of life therein, and on the modes of disposal of the dead. Homer's 
epithet ' rich in gold,' applied to Mycenae, received verification in the 
wealth of the precious metal recovered from the graves inside the 
renowned Lion Gate. 

In the third of the periods which I have selected, one meets with the 
most characteristic civilization of the Greeks, and it is best represented 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Newc., 3 ser. vii. 

To face page 236 




A. WALL OF 'SIXTH CITY' OF TROY (with set-back). 




by the achievements of Athens, especially during the fifth century, B.C., 
in history, politics, architecture, sculpture and literature. The defeat 
of Persia, the defensive naval league of the Aegean, the first imperial 
democracy, the works of Phidias and his school, the best Greek tragedies 
and comedies and histories belong to this century and are among 
Athenian glories. Athens, howe.ver, was not the monopolist of Greek 
glory : Corinth stood for wealth and commerce ; Delphi for moral and 
religious power ; Olympia for athletics ; and other centres of influence 
might be mentioned. But I am at present specially concerned to note 
that the art of this period, the highest attained by Greece, possesses an 
unrivalled dignity and restraint. Both the architecture and the 
sculpture of the fifth century are marked by a quiet power, an obser- 
vance of the golden mean and an avoidance of the emotional, and these 
qualities are less present in the succeeding century, noble as some of 
the work of the fourth century is. In an original of the fourth century 
such as the Hermes of Praxiteles, found at Olympia, there is already 
more suggestion of the emotional than would be common in the Phidian 
sculpture ; the deep-set eye gives a far off look and indicates that 
infusion of the sentimental and that loss of repose which the Euripidean 
drama betokened in literature. 

Finally, in the Hellenistic age the tendency towards display in art 
becomes pronounced. The former simplicity has gone. The artist 
accentuates the feeling which he desires to represent, and he covets the 
elaborate, and sometimes the grandiose. The features of this later 
period may be seen in examples of art from Ephesus, Pergamum and 
Halicarnassus. At Ephesus the highly sculptured pedestals of columns 
from the temple of Artemis are a departure from such ancient simplicity 
as characterizes the staid Dorian columns of the Parthenon or Propylaea. 
At Pergamum (where ' Satan's throne ' was, in the eyes of the early 
Christian objectors to the paganism of Greek sculptures) the Battle of 
the Giants, round the base of the great Altar of Zeus, contains figures 
showing in their features more emotion than would have been betrayed 
in the previous age. The movement towards elaboration may be seen 
in the design of the Halicarnassian Mausoleum of the middle of the 
fourth century, B.C., whose restoration must be in part conjectural, 
but which, with its imposing proportions, was built by queen Artemisia 
to commemorate her dead consort, Mausolus, and became first one of 
the ' Seven Wonders of the World/ and then in the middle ages a quarry 
from which the knights of St. John could build the castle of San Pietro 
(whence the Turkish name of ' Budrum ') . Or the two styles may be 
exemplified by contrasting the almost severe outlines of the bronze 
charioteer from Delphi with the obviously striking attitude of the 
Hellenistic statue of Poseidon holding the trident in the National 
Museum at Athens. The Poseidon is thoroughly symptomatic of this 
single characteristic in the art of the time on which I am for the 
moment laying stress the change from the restrained to the relaxed, 
from the simply and strictly dignified to the cleverly spectacular." 
Professor Wight Duff was thanked by acclamation. 


The following letters 1 of Mr. John Bell to Mr. Charles Roach 
Smith, 'are from a large collection of letters (from the Halliwell- 
Phillips sale) belonging to Dr. Burman, of Alnwick. The last letter 
of the series bears date ' July 1st 1857.' Almost all of Mr. Bell's 
letters are dated from High Street, Gateshead : 

1 See Proc. 3 ser. iv, 188, 211, 212, for notes of other letters of the series. 


June 27th, 1844. 

Your letter of the 8th Instant has my best thanks and if you have done me the unlocked 
for honour of proposing my Name as an Honorary Member of the British Archaeological 
Association be so good as to say what I should, or must do to merit a good Name with the 
Body. Do they give any Diploma like our society. I also beg to thank you for the account 
you give me of the Pachas Medal, but the price^is at least 4/- too dear. 

You Mention the Vandalism of a party in the Newcastle Town Council in demolishing 
the Virgin Mary Hospital, but that is not all, the same party have sold the fine old oak 
Carvings (with which the Mansion House Rooms were lined) to a stranger for 240, had 
they called an Auction and sold them off piece meal they would have raised three times 
that sum, they have not begun to pull the carvings down, but the bargain is concluded. 
One of the chief instigators of both pulling the Hospital down and the sale of the rich 
old Carvings is ... junior Secretary, and another of the same party in the Town Council 
has gutted the Curious Old House (see figure 5 of the Plate of Views and Sections at page 
622 of Brand's History of Newcastle), and made it into a Gig or Cart House, making an 
Ugly gate way through its front ! . . . 

You ask if our Society possess any specimens of Fresco paintings. We have not any, 
and should think that they would be worth having. 

I did not reply to yours of the 20th July respecting the Fresco paintings for the Society, 
as the Monthly Meeting was almost just at hand. It was held last Tuesday at which I 
read your Letter, on which Mr. Adamson took down your address (No. 5 Liverpool Street, 
City) as he intended to set off for Town in a week or two, and would call upon you and 
bring any thing down, which you might have for the Society. I presented the No. of the 
Numismatic Chroncile sent to the Society through Mr. I. H. Burn and feel obliged to 
that Gentleman for his polite attention. Mr. R. Shanks of Risingham in Northumber- 
land has found another inscribed stone LEG. vm. vie. p. P.P. in the Roman Station at 
Habitancum, near to where he opened the Baths out, it, and a little figure, I have begged 
for the Society as an addition to his former donations from that station. He also found 
a circular piece of Samian Ware which had been the bottom of some vessel, and has the 
Potters Stamp upon it, but the Hole through it has destroyed all but the letters at the 
begining and end. I take it to have been the whirl of a spindle, and have looked through 
Montfaucon in search of that article, and find in plate 62, fig. 9, page 219, vol HID, folio 
MDCCXXII, Book v (weavers) something that leads me to say that the 'Romans used the 
spindle. I have two British ones which I have found myself when surveying in Ploughed 
Fields, of the same size and shape, but made of a whitish sort of Freestone, you mention 
one in the Collectanea, page 85 (No. m) plate xvn, fig. 9. 

May 3rd, 1848. 

Yesterday Evening was this Months Meeting of the Newcastle Antiquarian Society, 
at which I had the pleasure of proposing a Set of the Archaeologia Aeliana should be 
sent to the Archaeological Association, which was unanimously responded to, so as soon 
as I can get them looked out, it will add to my pleasure to send them off to your care, this 
I expect will be within a week, and the sending of this parcel, will enable me to forward 
to you a parcel which I have had made up for you for some time, but I fear not yet the 
Ballads and Histories you asked for on Mr. Halliwells account. I have got them all folded 
and pressed by a Bookbinder, and they only require sorting. I have two volumes of 
8 page Ballads bound in old fashioned Calf, each about an Inch thick or more, and about 
one half of the Contents are Ballads printed by I. White, who died in 1769 and T. Saint 
who died in 1788. These cost me 16/- in 1815, in which year I gave them away, and in 
1837 they again passed into my hands, having in the mean while passed through those 
of a Saint, who abstracted a dozen or more leaves out of them, which contained what he 
called " Naughty Songs," but I think they are still worth what I originally gave for them. 
About a fortnight back I had Mr. Charles Newton of the British Museum at my House 
he came down to examine our Roman Altars and my having accurate drawings of the 
whole enabled him to do so in one half the time it would have done as he had only to 
compare my drawings with the originals and then sit down and study the drawings, so 


I shewed him some of the Lions of ' Canny ' Newcastle during which he had more ups 
and downs than he had had all his life, he also saw some of my Collections, and as far as 
I could judge, he was at least amused with what he saw, and heard amongst the Johny 
Raws of the North. We have workmen going on with the Restorations of the Old Castle, 
it progresses slow and satisfactory and will look well in the long run our Society may get 
into it by the next Anniversary. Enclosed is a sketch of an Article in my Collection 
which I would thank you to stand godfather to, and give me its Name and Use. [A drawing, 
in pencil, follows, of a bronze bell-shaped vase, having two holes in the bottom, with 
handle and a pointed baluster-like stem. It is said to have been found in the Roman 
Station of Habitancum. No dimensions are given.] 

September 26th, 1848. 

I had the pleasure of receiving yours of the llth Instant at Whixley from which place I 
got home on Saturday Evening last when I found the Worcestershire Chronicle of the 
23rd August and its supplement of the same date with the account of the ArcBaeological 
Meeting for which I feel particularly obliged, I also got yours of the 20th Instant. In 
yours of the llth Inst. you say that we should publish oftener than we do. We are battled 
by the New Members that we do so little that way, and want us to change the Size of the 
Archaeologia to a 12mo. or 8vo. or some cheaper size than a 4to. which it now is. That 
size Originated with me, and it must go on untill I am put out of the Way, altho' it is much 
dearer than any thing of the Tom Thumb or Spelling Book size, another party are boring 
me to go and live in the Castle, as soon as the Society gets into it but two Words are Want- 
ing before my Consent Will be got, were I to do so, I would never be free of all the fiddle 
faddle Members of the Concern, under the Mark of wanting a Book changed in the Library 
bring lots of how de ye do friends to Gallop through the Castle, taking my time up. I 
thank you for handing my letter from Whixley to Mr.T. H. Burn of Great Newport Street, 
who answered it by sending me something altho I was in disgrace quite unknowingly 
with him, but the Act of Parliament I wanted could not be had. Yours of the 20th Instant 
Commands my best attention for the kind offer of sending some Samian Ware for either 
the Society or myself but being too great a Wellwisher to the former I beg of you to think 
of it and never mind me and I am sure that if you were to add to the societys Collection 
I should feel as much gratified by the Members admiring what you send, as if the present 
was for myself. You mention Mr. Brocketts name I sent him the prospectus of Rich- 
boro' I got in yours at Whixley, and as I have a copy of my sons account of the same station 
would you be so good as to put my Name down as a Subscriber. When I was at Boro- 
bridge last week I saw the Wall placarded with posting Bills respecting a Guide Book 
to the New discoverys in the Roman Station of Aldborough, close adjoining to that Town 
but I was too closely engaged with others to go to the publishers to see the Book, intending 
to do so before I left, but leaving with part of the same Company it must rest untill I go 
back. I understand that Mr. Newton of the British Museum is now engaged in writing 
an account of the Roman Station of Stanwix belonging to the duke of Northumberland, 
Mr. Newton came from Stanwix to be present at the Banquet of the Antiquaries in the 
Castle of Newcastle upon Tyne and I dare say was much pleased, by the bye did I send you 
either of the Newspaper accounts of the Banquet which I had printed from the Newspapers 
for if I did not I will do so, if you mention it when next you write. 

February 3rd, 1849. 

I have been so much engaged with the Plans, &c., of the Survey I made in Yorkshire in 
last September that I have not been able to write to any of my friends which must plead 
my seeming inattention to you. I enclose you two letters which have been in my desk at 
the Society totally forgot until I was putting the Desk in order for any change which may 
take place. I send you a reduced copy of a rubbing I made from an inscribed stone found 
in the middle of December at Sandhoe near Hexham FVLGVR | DIVOM 2 which we have 
added to our Collections, and also copies of two Inscriptions found at Walwick Chesters 
(Cilurnum) near Hexham, rubbings of which were sent me. The Society has got removed 
into the Old Castle of Newcastle upon Tyne where the Roman Altars and inscriptions are 
2 See Lapid. Sept. no. 104, p. 57. 


stuck up just as it pleased the fancy without the least regard as to the locality where they 
were found, or yet to gratify the donors of them were they ever to come to see them, but 
there are none of them stuck up with their Heads downwards. In 1845 there was a Sad 
blunder made in the Society, it is a Rule that there is an admission Fee of Two Guineas, 
and one Guinea the subscription for the current year, making three Guineas which when 
paid the New Member receives a set of the Publications of the Society which amount 
to about Six Guineas, Mr. Adamson as Treasurer was in advance on account of Printing 
&c., and as a relief he made a proposition to admit members without any admission fee 
and they to receive only such publications as came out afterwards. On this proposition 
passing into a Rule we admitted Sir Cuthbert Sharp and since then Dr. Charlton, Mr. 
Bruce a schoolmaster, young Richardson and two or three other youthful Companions of 
the last named Gentleman, and his father M. A. Richardson these thinking that they are 
as fit to govern the Society as the founders of it are determined to put them out, and them- 
selves in, Bruce tkinks that he should be a Vice-president so when Monday comes they 
are going to try it on. 


' And what have those two troopers to do here to-day ? 
The duke of Northumberland's pipers are they.' 

From Hone's Every Day Book, n, p. 1654. "The writer of the six- 
columned article on the fair signs it J N J K N. The date of the 
volume is 1826 ; it has as a frontispiece an engraving of a ' clog almanac.' 
At p. 690 is a note of ' His Grace the Duke of Baubleshire,' who died 
at Durham in 1796; at page 679 a notice of William Emerson of 
Hurworth; at p. 1217 of ' Baron Brown, the Durham poet ' At p 
)43 reference is made to the Sockburn falchion and the ceremony in 
connexion with it. 






3 SER., VOL. VII. 1916. NO. 20. 

The ordinary meeting of the Society was held in the Castle, New- 
castle, on Wednesday, 29th November 1916, at five o'clock in the 
afternoon, Mr. F. W. Dendy, D.C.L., a vice-president, being in the 

After the usual routine business had been transacted the chairman 
expressed the regret that the Society felt at the death of their 
colleague Mr. W. W. Tomlinson 1 who had been a member for nearly 
thirty years and during a great part of that time a member of the 
council. The deceased gentleman had made for himself, said Dr. 
Dendy, a name in the north of England by his careful and complete 
and much-used Guide to Northumberland, and his thorough and masterly 
History of the North Eastern Railway. He concluded by moving 
that a letter expressing the deep sympathy of members be sent to 
Mrs. Tomlinson, the widow. 

The motion was carried in silence, members rising to their feet. 

The following ORDINARY MEMBERS were proposed and declared 
duly elected : 

1. Guy Hunter Allgood, of Titlington Hall, near Alnwick. 

2. Robert A. Bolam (Col.), 3 Queen's Square, Newcastle. 

Mr. R. Blair (one of the secretaries) read a letter from Miss Telford 
thanking the society for their sympathy on account of her mother's 
illness and consequent quitting of the Blackgate. 

The following BOOKS, etc., received since the October meeting, 
were placed on the table : 

Present, for which thanks were voted : 

From Armstrong College : Calendar for 1916-17, 

Exchange : 

Fr<*m the British Archaeological Association : Journal, xxu, ii. 

Purchases : Notes and Queries for November, 1916. 

Mr. J. C. Hodgson, V.P., read two papers by himself on (1) ' John 
Brand, the historian of Newcastle, and his foster parents ' : and (2) 
' The South Charlton prehistoric burials ', for which thanks were 
voted by acclamation. 

The chairman stated that as it was the apparent wish of members 
both papers would probably be printed in the forthcoming volume 
of Archaeologia Aeliana. 

J Mr. John Oxberry has undertaken to prepare for, and read an obituary notice 
of Mr. Toinlinson at the (February meeting oif the Society. 

[Proe. 3 Ser. vn] 37 



Mr. Thomas Ball read the following notes on the oldest register 
belonging to Escombe church 2 : 

" Through the courtesy of the Rev. R. E. Ragg, the present vicar, 
I have been permitted to make a verbatim copy of the register. 
The greater portion is in good and clear writing and considering the 
age of the manuscript, with the exceptions of some small portions, 
is still in good preservation and legible. Some of the scribes have 
succeeded in making a few names go a long way in filling a page ; 
others, on the other hand, have made full use of their material by 
crowding the pages with matter. Escombe does not appear to have 
neglected the injunction of 1538 of Thomas Cromwell ' That there 
should be a book kept in every Parish wherein should be specified 
the names of as many as be wedded, buried and christened.' I 
find that the earliest legible date in the register is 1543 in the list 
of marriages, which begins on page 51. The register commences 
with baptisms on 17th April, 1546, or three years later than the first 
entry under the heading of marriages. This date for baptisms, 
however is the first entry on page two. Unfortunately all the 
names on page one have been obliterated with the exception of 
odd letters and marks. The following inscription has been written 
across the page : ' BAPTISMS, MARRIAGES & BURIALS from 1546 to 
1741. Robt. Thompson Minister. June 20th, 1838.' Mr. Thompson 
in naming 1546 as the date when the register was begun, had 
probably overlooked the fact, that the first entry under the head- 
ing of marriages is 1543 or two years earlier than the date he 
gives. But seeing that page one contained 20 entries and that the 
date for the first entry on page two is 1546, it seems reasonable 
to assume that the register was begun even earlier than 1543. By 
comparing the entries on page 2 it is seen that numbers from 21 
to 32 occupy three years and eight months, the dates being respect- 
ively April 1546 to Dec. 1549. From numbers 33 to 44 the dates 
are missing, therefore the first twelve entries only can be taken as a 
guide in arriving at an approximate date for the first entry on the 
first page. The register possibly commenced about June 1539, just 
after the passing of the order of 1538. In any case, the missing twenty 
entries on page one obviously indicate that the register was begun 
in obedience to the edict of Henry vin in 1538. The undated entries 
on page 2, numbers 32 to 44, provide cause for further comment, as 
the succeeding number 45, begins page 3, and with this entry the 
dates reappear in 1576, between this date and the preceding entry 
1549 a period of 27 years occurs during which time only twelve un- 
dated entries are made in the list of baptisms. By examining the same 
period in the list of marriages it is to be noticed that between the dates 
1555 and 1572 no names are recorded. There is then here also, an 
interval of 17 years. There are two alternatives as explanations of 
this long interval during which no entries occur: (1) it is probable 
that the register had been neglected or irregularly kept, (2) it may 
possibly be that the first register had been mutilated or partially 
destroyed, and that the present register is a copy up to 1576 of an 
older register. By a close examination of the entries number 33 
to 44 there is good reason to believe that this is what has actually 
occurred. Number 33 is complete with the exception of two letters 
and the date ; but as the numbers ascend, more and more letters are 
2 See Arch. Ael., 2 Ser. vm, 281, and XVI, 1, for Mr. Longstaffe's account of the 
early church at Escombe. See also Transactions of the Durham & North'd Arch. 
Soc. in, xi. 


gradually lost, until at number 43 we only get on the first line, the 
name ' Ralph C. ' and on the second line the word ' Baptized ' while on 
number 44 ' John,' only occurs on the first line, and on the second 
line just the letter ' W.' The edict of 1538, for the adoption of parish 
registers, was re-promulgated ten years subsequently ; and again a 
third time in the reign of queen Elizabeth in the year 1559. It is 
scarcely credible that the Escombe register would be neglected or 
irregularly kept for such a long period as 27 years in the case of 
baptisms or 17 years in the case of marriages, so it would appear 
that the register was copied in 1576. I have purposely omitted an 
interval which also occurs in the list of burials, during the same 
period. Here number 18 is dated 1551 on page 65, while number 
19 is dated 1571 or an interval of 20 years. The evidence, therefore, 
appears sufficiently weighty in favour of the register having been 
copied. The register of 79 pages is on vellum and measures 10 inches 
by 5 inches, and covers a period of 200 years approximately from 
1540 to 1740. Escombe is a small village and was probably smaller 
in past years than it is now, which probably accounts for the small- 
ness of the register. The present parish contains 15000 souls but it 
embraces a large area, altogether out of proportion to the village 
which contains about 300 or 400 people at most. The total number 
of entries is 1364 which are made up as follows : baptisms, 726 ; 
marriages, 166 ; and burials, 472. During the ministry of the late 
vicar, the Rev. J. E. Kemp, the register was neatly bound in leather 
and a wooden case provided for its reception and safe keeping. 

"'A large number of names occur once only ; fewer names oftener. 
This may indicate a gradual and continual migration from this 
small village. On the other hand, new names frequently occur, 
again pointing to a continual immigration ; still there was a constant 
floating population ; at the same time, a number of names are more 
constant ; these names occur from 10 to 59 times, they all, however, 
eventually disappear. One name greatly exceeds all others by its 
frequency. It is the name of Todd, repeated no less than 168 times, 
it occurs at number 21 in the list of baptisms. This name also occurs 
at page 2 under the heading of marriages and again at page 3 under 
burials, dated respectively 1546 baptisms, 1545 marriages, and 1544 
burials. Still this isolated case seems to have just about disappeared 
by the close of the register. In baptisms it occurs between two other 
names, dated respectively 12th August, 1739 and 9th Dec. 1739. 
Curious to learn whether this name was still represented or not in 
the village, I made enquiries from the present oldest inhabitant, a 
Mr. Kirby, the sexton, who has held that office since 1861, but 
he does not recollect any one of that name. A study in the spelling 
may be of interest ; my observations, however, will be with a few 
names only, as an illustration showing the variety of ways in which 
names were spelt at Escombe during the period of this old register. 
It has already been stated that the name of Todd occurs most 
frequently. This simple name is written in four different ways, Tod, 
Todde, Todd and Toodd. Another name which occurs 45 times is 
written in five different ways thus, Hodgshon, Hodgson, Hodshon, 
Hodghon and Hogon. Peel is still more pronounced as it occurs 
but 13 times, Peale, Pele, Peel, Pell and Peell. Another name is 
entered eleven times and is written thus, Willey, Wiley, Wyley and 
Wili. Another with eight entries as follows, Pearsone, Pierson, 
Pereson and Pearson. While yet another with seven entries is 
written Taylyer, Taylor, Talor, and Taler. As these few examples 
could be greatly increased, it seems reasonable to assume that the 


difference in spelling is due to the different successive clerks and the 
evolution of spelling. The register contains records of several 
bequests by will for the poor of the parish. A William Trotter in 
1633, bequeathed twenty shillings ; the same will provides a second 
twenty shillings on behalf of his wife Marie Trotter. A Mr. Bell left 
ten shillings to the poor in 1634, and in 1674 a Bryan Pearson gave by 
his last will forty shillings to the augmentation of the poor stock 
of Escombe. These sums appear to have been exhausted by 1699 
or twenty-five years after the last will was made. At any rate this 
supposition would appear to be so by the following appendices which 
are attached to a number of names under burials beginning 1699 : 
' Being very poor and receiving noe alms.' There is only one record 
of Escombe being officially 'visited', by archdeacon Robert Booth 
of Durham :' Memorandm, that on Friday the Thirtyeth day of 
Aprill Ao Dom, 1697 : the Honble Robert Boothe Archdeacon of the 
Archdeaconry of Durham with the Revd. Hamond Beaumont Officiall 
visited this Chappell personally, & found all things therein in good 
& decent order except the whitening which the Chappellw'dens. are 
enjoyned to gett done & certifye it at the next Michaelmas visitation.' 
It is curious that the last page 79 does not end the register. At the 
bottom of this last page the following occurs : ' Turn back & you 
will find at the end of Marriages ye Register for Bu ials from the 
time here ending.' This is a slight error as marriages terminate at 
page 50. Between page 50 and burials there are two pages of 
baptisms. The list of burials is resumed on page 53, in 1681, and 
terminates on page 63 in 1740." 

Mr. Ball was thanked for his notes. 


Mr. C. Hunter Blair read the following ' Notes on a Precedent or 
Oath book ' in the library of the society : 

" An interesting local book in manuscript has recently been found 
in one of the many ' oubliettes ' of the keep. I have been unable 
to find out how or when it came into the possession of our society 
but its discovery seems worthy of a note in our Proceedings. The 
book contains a collection of precedents, forms and the various oaths 
to be administered to the officers of the old corporation of Newcastle 
from the mayor downwards. It has evidently been made for use 
in the office of the town clerk and dates from the early years of the 
eighteenth century. It may well be the ' book of oaths in the Town 
Clerk's office in Newcastle ' referred to by Brand (Newc. n, 357, 
note y) and the original form from which the oaths printed in the 
Appendix to the report referred to below, were copied. It is written 
upon paper, in a fine legible hand and is bound in parchment. There 
is a name, unfortunately scratched out and illegible, on the fly leaf 
at the beginning ; the signature ' Geo. Cuthbertson ' is on the fly-leaf 
at the end. The forms of the different writs, Warrants, certificates, 
bonds, &c. required by the statutes of that day are to be found in 
any legal reference book and have no particular local historical 
interest. The various Oaths of the corporation officials, appointed 
under the Charter, are given in full. They are recorded in print in 
Appendix in of ' A Report of the Official Examination into the exist- 
ing state of the Corporation of NewCastle-ttpon-Tyne, A.D. 1833.' 

1 He was elected town clerk 4 Oct. 1742, resigned 1750, ahd Was succeeded by his 
son of the same hahie. (brand, 11, 215). 


The method of election and the duties of the various officers are 
also described at length in that report, copies of which are in our 
library at the Blackgate and in the library of the Literary & Phil- 
osophical Society. I have transcribed such of the contents as seem 
of special interest and have not been printed elsewhere. A consider- 
able part of the book is unindexed. These entries are of later 
date, and are written in various different hands, some I think, by 
George Cuthbertson. They are of the same general kind as the 
indexed portion, the whole forming a very complete reference book 
of ' common forms ' with typical examples of writs and other docu- 
ments used in the legal business of the old town and corporation. 


The earliest 1 reference to the races I have found is in Arch. 
AeL, 2 ser. I, 210, note 15, where in a letter dated 17 March 1621 Sir 
Henry Babington asks Sir Edward Radclyffe of Dilston for a sub- 
scription ' for the horse race for Sir John Fenwicke whose year it is 
to bring in the plate.' The receipt for 5 (Sir Edward's subscription) 
adds that the race was held ' at Killingworth. ' From the form of 
the request and of the receipt, it is evident that at that time the race 
meeting was already an established annual event. The meeting was 
held on Killingworth moor, and there is a view of it taking place in 
the map of the River Tyne dated A.D 1654 inserted in Ralph 
Gardner's England's Grievance Discovered &c. (Arch. AeL, 2nd ser. 
xin, 295). This map shews no stands, but the pos'ts mentioned 
in Article 1, are clearly shewn. The course appears to have extended 
from a little west of the village of Murton to about half a mile east 
of the church of Benton. In 1721 only the county plate was run 
for at Killingworth ; the other races being on the town moor where 
thenceforward they were all held. As stated in the heading to the 
' Articles ' the races were run during the week following Trinity 
Sunday, but the feast of the Trinity, being one of the moveable 
church festivals, the yearly alteration in date was found inconvenient, 
and in 1751 it was decided to hold them in Midsummer week. For 
a fuller account of this great Newcastle holiday see article by John 
Hodgson Hinde in Arch. AeL, 2nd ser. iv, 229. 

The following ' articles ' are not dated but, judging from the 
handwriting which is the same as dated entries in the immediate 
context, they were made in either 1714 or 1715. Mackenzie states 
that in the latter year a town plate value 25 was run for. 

Newcastle / Articles to be observed and kept for Newcastle prize w'ch shall 
Upon Tine. ^ be rid for yearly upon Thursday after Trinity Sunday. 

1. Every horse gelding or mare that rideth for this prize shall be ledd out 

between nine & ten of the Clock in the forenoon and shall be ready to 
start at eleaven of the Clock the same day, at the Starting post on the 
Northside of the stand, and to run to the other Start post on the South- 
side, the second heat to begin where the first ended, and so to runn to the 
Starting post, changeing their beginning and ending every heat. 

2. Every horse etc. that rideth for the prize shall be bridled and sadled and shall 

ride with a rider weighing ten stone weight fourteen pound to the stone, 

3. Every horse etc. shall ride three heats about all the posts that are sett up, 

and shall not rubb above halfe an hour betwixt every heat. 

1 A set of ' Articles ' for the plate run for in the Isle of Man in 1687, is printed 
in the notes to chap. XI of Scott's Peveril of the Peak, 


4. What horse etc. soever that rideth not within a sixteen score post or fflagg 

of the foremost horse att the end of the first heat and twelve score the 
second and last heats shall not be admitted to ride any more but shall pay 
as in the eighth article is expressed. 

5. Whosoever after the first heat giveth unto his horse any kind of food more 

than fair Water (if either owner Serv't or party) then he shall neither win 
prize nor betts. 

6. Every horse etc. that runneth for this prize shall have everyone two tryers 

& shall put thirty shillings stake into the Clerk of the Race his hands, who 
shall be answerable for the same, and shall sett the owner of every horse's 
name downe, his horse's name, his collbur and the Ryder's name ; & to 
take & receive from the tryers every horse's place, att the end of every 
heat, the thirty shillings to be divided by ten shillings an end, from every 
horse, for the foremost horse, the second horse excepted, who shall alwayes 
save his stake, and likewise the freemen of Newcastle are exempted from 
putting in thirty shillings stake for their own proper horses. 

7. After all the three heats are runn the s'd Tryers haveing weighed all the 

Ryders and declared what horses, geldings or mares, are by these articles 
judged out of distance in every heat shall judge & declare the places of 
every other horse, gelding or mare for the plate ; adjudgeing & giveing 
it to that horse gelding or mare w'ch shall have wonn two heats, or, if 
none of them (not adjudged out of distance as above) have wonn two heats 
then to that horse, gelding or mare, w'ch wonn the last heat of the three. 

8. To the intent to make fair rideing & for the further ordering how the Stakes 

& mulct shall be disposed of, It is therefore concluded that if more horses 
ride than two, then every horse shall put in three pounds into the Clerk 
of the Races his hands, who shall pay the same, as is hereafter expressed 
(vizt) if three horses runn, the last & hindermost horse shal pay every 
heat twenty shillings to the second horse, & if four horses runn, then shall 
the two last pay to the two foremost, twentyshillings a horse every heat 
& so if there be more horses than four, then according to this order, every 
three or four hindermost horses shall pay to the three or four foremost 
horses twenty shillings a piece every heat, onely in this case where there 
is an odd horse that rideth, then the first shall have nothing in regard he 
hath ten shillings an end of every horse save onely the second, as is sett 
downe in the sixth article. 

9. And it is concluded that every horse that is thrust out of distance according 

to the heat, he that is thrust out shall be deemed an hindermost horse & 
shall pay the foremost horse (as is before expressed) but in case there be 
more horses thrust out of distance in any one heat, than there are horses 
that are enabled hereby to win twenty shillings an heat, and formerly 
deemed foremost horses according to their number that shall ride, then 
those horses that are thrust out of distance shall onely make up so much 
money among them, as shall pay to the foremost horses twenty shillings 
an horse every heat. 

10. Whosoever doth stopp or stay any of the horses that rideth for this prize (if 

he be either owner Serv't or party) and it appears to the Judges, he shall 
neither win prize nor betts. 

11. Whereas severall times heretofore severall ill practices have been used in 

running for & winning the s'd plate. Its therefore concluded and ordered 
that the s'd plate shall not be runn for & wonn or carryed away unless 
three horses att lowest belonging to distinct & severall persons be entred 
booked & run for the same according to the s'd articles, and if any Rider 
lay hold or strike any of his fellow Riders, he shall neither winn prize nor 

12. Every Ryder that wanteth any more than one pound of his weight after he 

hath runn shall neither win prize nor betts, 


13. Every Tryer may weigh any of the Ryders att the end of any of the heats, 

and if he be found fraudulently to have cast away any of his weights & 
want more than his pound allowance, he shall neither winn prize nor betts. 

14. All differences that shall or may arise shall be referred to three gentlemen 

who shall be elected for that purpose by Mr. Mayor, Recorder & Aldermen 
(who are the founders of the s'd prize) if it please not the s'd Mayor, Record'r 
& Aldermen to take it upon themselves to hear, end & determine, all or 
any controversies y't may arise, ere they go off the feild. 

15. That horse etc. that deserveth best according to these articles shall win the 

prize, giveing thirty shillings to the Clerk of the Race. 


The Right Worshipful 1 . . . Mayor of this towne & the Aldermen his brethren 
do give you to understand y't the faire of this town doth begin att twelve of the 
Clock of this present day & shall continue from the same time for eight days next 
after, and therefore it shall be lawful for all manner of persons dureing the time of 
this faire to come to this Towne w'th their goods to sell & it is straightly charged 
& comanded y't no person of w't estate or quallity soever, be so hardy dureing 
the time of this fair to weare or carry any manner of weapons ab't him except he 
be a Knight or an Esq'r of honour to have a sword borne after him, and you are 
further to understand that a Court of py-powder 2 is to be kept dureing the time 
of this faire, (That is to say) one in the forenoon & another in the afternoon, where 
all persons both poor & rich may have justice duely administered unto thm accord- 
ing to the Lawes of this Land & custom of this towne. 

Note there are two fairs in the year (vizt) Lamas and St. Lukemas. 3 
The following oaths of officers of the corporation are not printed 
in the report before referred to (p. 244). 
The oath of the Metters. 4 

You shall duely & truely from henceforth do & serve in the office of a Metter 
& true mete & measure give to every party & delivery make of all manner of 
graines merchandises & victualls to all the King's people after the ancient custom 
of this town. And shall mete Barley 18 Bowles for a Chalder & two thereof 
heaped. And you shall know no deceipt in deliverance of graines victualls & 
merchandizes for singular Lucre either to the Seller or the Buyer but if you know 
any you shall give notice thereof to the Mayor, Aldermen or Sheriffe whereby it 
may be corrected <fe amended. You shall not occupy your craft in places suspected 
in prejudice of the King or this town, & you shall see on your part that the 
porters occupy their craft duely & truely. And all other articles shall you do 
well & faithfully as well to the poor as to the rich & you shall not mete with any 
false rowell nor with any other deceiptfull measure. And you shall not mete 
apples or onions without the barrell or firkin or halfe firkin for defrauding of the 
Merchant. So help you God. 
The oath of a Metter for Keels & boats. 

You swear you shall well & truely measure all such keels & boats that are to 
carry coles on board any ship or vessell as you shall be appointed by the Mayor 
of Newcastle for the time being or the Collectors of the forraigne Customes of 

1 Then held in the Flesh Market on the east side of Middle street, which ran 
north and south between the Bigg market and St. Nicholas's church. 

2 The court of Piepowder (Curia pedis pulverisati) was a court held during fairs to 
do justice between buyers and sellers and for the redress of disorders incident to 
such places. It was so called because the fairs were usually held in summer when 
the suitors would have dusty feet. 

3 In this market (i.e. Flesh Market) is kept two faires in the year for nine day 
together ; one of them at that remarkable time of the year, the first of August ; the 
other is held the eighteenth of October, upon Saint Luke's day (Chorographia 
p. 26, Charnley's reprint). 

4 Brand (vol. n. p. 357) includes the Mettors in the ' Bye Trades ' of the town. 
He states that a copy of their Ordinary is enrolled in the books of the Corporation, 


Coales <fc not to measure any keeles or Boats unless two Councillors att least (ot 
more as shall be directed) to be present whereof one to be att the appointment 
of the Collectors aforesaid or more in case of more Councillors then two at measure- 
ing thereof which keels <fe boats shall be measured after the usual manner (that 
is to say) with one half wett & the otter halfe dry coles allowing 21 Bowles 6 
heaped of the accustomed measure to every Chalder & duley share & divide the 
Coles betwixt the buyer & the seller from the Bowles side att the measuring thereof 
as also justly & duely prick & mark the said keeles & boats as they ought to be 
so as their due measure may be knowne. 80 help you God. 

The oath of the Troner or Poisor of the Weigh house. 6 

You swear that you shall well & truly do & execute the office & place of Troner 
& poisor in this port of Newcastle-upon-Tyne in all & every ports, places & Creekes 
to the same port belonging & do equall just & right to all His Majesty's subjects 
in the due execucion of the said office & place without favour, hatred, love of 
affection to any person whatsoever & keep a true & due account of all wares & 
things necessary & convenient to be registered & kept by any such Tronor or 
poisor & all other things belonging or appertaining to the said office you shall 
truely do & perform. So help you God. 

The oath of a searcher for Leather qr Wares. 

You swear that you shall well & truely do & serve in the office of a Searcher & 
Tryer of Leather & Wares made of leather within this County for one year ensue- 
ing after your best Witt & cunning. And you shall not for any favour or affection 
forbear to present all Defaults and you shall not take above the accustomed fee 
for searching & trying of the Leather or Wares made of leather according to the 
Statute. So help you God. 

The oath of a Tryer of Shoes & Leather. 

You swear that you shall try & examine all leather or wares made of leather 
which shall be presented unto you this day & what wares are not well & truely 
made & wrought or made of leather not well & sufficiently tanned & well & suffi- 
ciently curryed according as is appointed in the Statute for that purpose provided. 
And all stjcli wares as are not allowed to be sold or exposed to sale in the time of 
year as in the said statute is appointed, & allowed directed & sett forth. All the 
said Wares & leather you shall find for the use of our Soveraigne- Lord the King 
& of those in the Statute mentioned. So help you God. 

An account of Gloves usually given by the Sheriffe att Assises (viz.) 

Two Judges \ a doz. pair each Two Bullers-one pair each 

Clerk of Assize \ a doz. pair Two Groomes-the like 

Each Serj't att Law 2 pan- Two postillions . the like 

Kings Councell, favorite 2 pair Mr. Ashurst's man 1 pair 

& Recorder each Two Marshalls men 1 pair each 

Associates 2 pair each Two Cryers men the like 

Mr. Ashurst 2 pair Under Cooks 

Each Marshall two pair 4 Clerks of Assizes 1 pair each 

Two Cryers the like Clerk of Indictm'ts one pair 

Two Clerkes the like. Sumpt. & Bailiffe 1 pair each 

Two Stewards the like Mr. Metcalfe 

Tipstaffe & Cook one pair each Sheriffes Clerk 2 pair 

Two Coachmen the like T^wne Clerk one pair 

c Brand states that in A.D. 1600 coals were brought down from the pits in wains, 
holding 8 bowles each all measured & marked. (NewcastL II. p. 272). 

6 Tronage was the duty or toll for weighing wool & other goods, from trona the 
Tron or beam for weighing, hence troner the officer who weighs at the Tron. 
Poisor has the same meaning, unfortunately it has become obsolete. The common 
weigh-house of the town was under the Guild Hall on the Sandhill. (Chorographia ; 
see also Brand, Newcastle, n, 149). 


The following petition records a catastrophe to the fishing popula- 
tion of Hartley in February 1714. It illustrates the slow and cumbrous 
methods by which subscriptions were collected from the charitable, 
for a great calamity with which the ordinary Poor Law was unable 
to cope. There were then few or no charitable funds or institutions 
to which the sufferers could apply. The days of bazaars, collections, 
flag days and tag days, were still far distant. 

A Peticion for obtaining a cert, in order to gett a briefe for fishing men's 
Widdows whose husbands were drowned. 

To the Right Worshipfull her Majesty's Justices of the peace of the County of 
Northumberland in Quarter Sessions assembled. 

The humble peticion of the Inhabitants of the parish of Earsdon in the s'd 
County : 
Humbly Sheweth : 

That on the 15th day of February last past (A.D. 1714) in the morning 7 fishing 
boats or cobles belonging to Hartley in the said parish witli 26 men on board 
put out to sea in calm & seasonable weather to follow their employment but a 
violent & sudden storm arising the said 26 fishermen together with their said 
boats, netts, tackle & furniture thereto belonging were entirely lost & destroyed 
by the violence of the said storm by reason of which great loss there is left in a 
miserable & starving condition 14 Widdows & 41 children belonging to the said 
persons so cast away besides 14 Widdows and their children who were employed 
& maintained by & under the said persons who were cast away, who are wholly 
unable to subsist but must unavoidably perish. The said parish of Earsdon & 
the inhabitants thereof not being able to support & maintain the said poor persons 
& their numerous families without the help & assistance of your Worshipps & other 
well disposed persons. 

Your petitioners therefore humbly pray that your Worships will grant the said 
poor people a certificate at this General Quarter sessions in order to obtain a 
Briefe from the Queen's Majesty to receive the charity of all well disposed 
persons for their relief & maintenance. 

Then follows a certificate from the Justices to Simon Lord Harcourt baron of 
Stanton Harcourt Lord High Chancellor & an affidavit sworn by a gentleman of 
Hartley Panns at the Quarter Sessions held at Morpeth 7 April 1714 Before John 
Douglas, John Ogle, Edward Delavall. 
A Warr't. for raiseing Recruits. 

Northumberland. Wee whose names are hereunto subscribed Com'rs with others 
authorized & app'ted for putting in execution in the s'd County a certain act 
of parliam't made in the 7th year of the reigne of our Soveraigne Lady Queen 
Anne of great Brittain &c intituled an act for the speedy & effectuall recruiting 
her Maj'tyes Land fforces & Marines, for the service of the year 1709 Doo 
in her s'd Maj'tyes name & by vertue of the power and authority to us by the 
s'd act granted hereby require & command you & eacli of you to make search 
or cause search to be made in all places within yo'r charge & Division for all 
such abled bodyed men as do not follow nor exercise any lawfull callings or 
Imploym't or have not some other lawfull & sufficient support or maintenance 
and him and them (except such only as have a vote or votes in the election of 
any Memb'r or Memb'rs to serve in parliam't) to take & bring before us or 
any three or more of her Maj'tyes Com'rs for the s'd County on Tuesday 
the 8th day of March inst. between the hours of 10 & 12 in the forenoon att the 
Moothall near the high Castle of N.U.T. and from that time forward till the 
1st day of March 1709 on Monday in every week att the place & between the 
hours afores'd to the end such pson & psons may be examined (& if judged 
to be within the description afores'd) may be listed & delivered into her 
Maj'tyes service as the s'd act directs, and you are to command all Church 
Wardens, overseers of the poor, petty Constables & other her Maj'tyes officers 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn] 38 


and also all or any of the other inhabitants within^ your charge and Division 
to make the like search & to be aiding & assisting to you in the due execucon 
of this Warr't. and you the s'd offlc'rs are all to attend & be present att the 
times and places afores'd. to be examined touching the premises & to receive 
such farther orders & directions as thought needfull for the better recruiting 
her Maj'tyes Land forces & Marines & for the more effectually putting the s'd 
act in execution & hereof you or any of you are not to faile as you will answ'r 
the penaltyes in that behalfe in the s'd act expressed, w'ch is 10 a piece upon 
each & every of you the s'd offic'rs omitting or neglecting to do yo'r duetys 
herein & also 10 apiece upon every other psons. that shall conceal any such 
abled bodyed man as is here described, or that shall do any other thing to 
prevent obstruct or hinder any of you in the due Execucon of this Warr't. 
Given under our hands & Scales att the Moothall near the high Castle of New- 
castle U.T. the 1st day of March in the 7th year of her s'd Maj'tyes reign &c 
Anno Domini 1708 

To Mr. A. B. of &c high Constable, &c. & to all Church Wardens 
overseers of the poor petty Cons. & other her Maj'tyes omc'rs 
there or elsewhere in the s'd County These. 

For every such able bodyed man so described as above that shall be brought 
in, listed & delivered over, the Constables or officers that bring him in, shall 
have 20s. & also 6d per diem for keeping him till that time & the poor of the 
parish where he comes from shall have 3 then paid by the Rec'r Generall or 
his Deputy or the sub TelFr of the Land taxe. 

A Certificate from Justices of a person listing himselfe as a Soldier. 
Northumberland. These are to certifye that pursueant to an act of parliam't 
made &c A.B of C in the s'd County this day came here before us three of her 
Maj'tyes Com'rs for putting the s'd act in execucon in the s'd County & 
volluntarily listed himselfe a souldier in her Maj'tyes service under the comand 
of Capt'n C.D. (in his own Company in Coll. F's. Regim't of foot) who was 
app'ted to receive such recruites & had the s'd A.B. then & there listed & 
delivered over to him & the s'd A.B. had then & there p'd to him by Mr. L.C. 
one of the Deputy receiv'rs. of the Land taxe for the s'd. County upon a Warr't. 
for y't purpose the sume of 4 of lawfull &c. & had the 14th <fe 23rd articles of 
Warr ag't Mutiny and desertion then & there read over to him the s'd A.B. 
as Witnesse our hands &c. 

A Cert, of a p'son brought in by the Constable. 

Northumberland. These are to certifye that pursueant to an act of parliam't 
made &c A.B. of C in the s'd County a pson not following nor exercising any 
lawfull calling or Imploym't. nor having any lawfull & sufflc't support and 
maintenance was this day brought before us three of her Maj'tyes Com'rs for 
putting the s'd act in execucon in the s'd County by D.E. & G.H. Constables 
of H in the parish of I. in the s'd County & upon examination doo find & 
judge the s'd A.B. to be such pson as is intended by the s'd act to be listed 
& delivered over as a souldier to K.L. a Capt'n in Coll M's Regim't of foot who 
was app'ted to receive such Recruits & then & there rec'd him the s'd A.B. as 
a Souldier to serve her Maj'tye in his own Company in that Regim't and the 
s'd A.B. had the 14 & 23 articles of Warr ag't Mutiny & desertion then & there 
read over to him and Mr. L.C. one of the Deputy Receiv'rs of the Land taxe 
for the s'd County upon our Warr't for that purpose then & there p'd to the 
s'd Constables D.E. & G.H. 20s for takeing & bringing in the s'd A.B. before 
us & shillings for keeping him days before he was brought in & delivered 
over & also to N.O. & P.Q. Church Wardens or overseers of the poor of the said 
parish of I. 3 for the better enabling y'm to maintain their poor especially 
the poor relations of the s'd A.B. in the s'd parish as Witness our hands &c. 

Mr. Blair was thanked. 



The following notes by Mr. John Oxberry on "The Whites of 
Woodlands and the Rev. John Hodgson ' were taken as read : 

'* The Rev. John Hodgson was a young man of twenty-four when 
he settled at Lanchester. This was in the beginning of the year 
1804. His strength, he had found, was unequal to the task of carry- 
ing out the duties attached to the post of schoolmaster at Sedgefield, 
and failing health compelled him to seek at Lanchester a situation 
more commensurate with his physical powers. He remained at Lan- 
chester for a little over two years, filling during the greater portion 
of the time he spent there, the dual positions of village schoolmaster 
and curate of Esh and Satley. He was an ardent admirer of nature, 
a keen student, a lover of literature, and the possessor of a poetical 
temperament which found expression in many an original composition 
in rhyme and blank verse. The choicest of his poetical efforts were 
ushered into the world from the Newcastle printing house of his 
friends the Akenheads, in 1807, under the title of Poems written at 
Lanchester, by John Hodgson, Clerk. This little volume, the precursor 
of the large literary output which the people of the north of 
England owe to his superlative industry and talent, was dedicated 
to T. White, senior, and W. T. GreenweU. Who T. White, senior, 
was Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson has told us in the paper he read at 
the August meeting of our Society ante, page 218. Mr. White's 
companion in -the dedication of W. T. GreenweU, was one of the 
early members of our Society, elected in December 1913, and was 
the father of another of our members, the Rev. Dr. GreenweU, who 
is happily still with us, and whose venerable age and great services 
to antiquarian, archaeological, and ethnological research have made 
his name known and honoured wherever there is a student with 
tastes akin to his own. 

In his preface to the little book of verse he issued, the Rev. John 
Hodgson says that during his residence at Lanchester the relaxation 
his health required from professional employment, ' was chiefly 
sought for in the society and hospitality of the families in the neigh- 
bourhood, in wandering into the fields, in botanical recreations, in 
searching for antiquities about the Roman station, and in occasional 
attempts at poetry.' His one small volume of verse enables us to 
form an estimate of the quality of Mr. Hodgson's ' attempts at 
poetry ' during this period of his career, and though he modestly 
styles his early investigations of the problems of archaeological and 
historical interest that presented themselves at Lanchester, as * search- 
ing for antiquities about the Roman station,' we know from the part 
he played later in elucidating the history of Northumberland, and 
from the numerous papers he contributed to the antiquarian lore of 
the North of England, how deeply inspired he was with the spirit of 
research, and how thorough and painstaking were the methods he 
adopted in the efforts he made to find out where the truth lay. 

jBut the relaxation of his Lanchester days which concern us most 
at the moment is that which he found in the society of the more 
cultured and educated of his neighbours. One of the friendships 
that helped to give pleasantness to his days during a considerable 
portion of his life originated during this period, and arose, through 
his intimacy with the family of Thomas White, the arboriculturist, 
and creator of the Woodlands. Several of the letters he received 
from members of the White household have been preserved, and are 
sufficiently permeated with the personalities of their several writers, 


as well as tinged in thought and expression with the idiosyncracies 
of the period when they were written, to cause it to be worth our 
while, if not to produce them in full, at any rate to quote exten- 
sively from them. 

The female sex has almost invariably proved itself best fitted to 
excel in the composition of interesting and readable letters. There 
are, of course, the exceptions of Cowper, and Horace Walpole, and 
a few similar male gossips who rival woman's very highest efforts 
in the epistolary art. But, speaking generally, the contention holds 
good that women write the best letters, and thus we are not at all 
surprised to find that in our eyes that is, in the eyes of the letter 
writer's posterity the most attractive of the correspondence before 
us is that addressed by the ladies of the White household to the intel- 
lectual, poetical, and, therefore, interesting young curate whose worth 
they had learned to appreciate. Everything goes to show that Mr. 
Hodgson when he was a young man was not only an eager seeker 
after knowledge of all kinds for its own sake, but was also keenly 
sensitive to the impressions produced by the usually unregarded 
miracles of our every day existence. Like Beattie's Minstrel : 
' whate'er of beautiful or new, 

Sublime, or dreadful, in earth, air, or sky, 

By chance or search was offered to his view, 

He scanned with curious and romantic eye. 

Whate'er, of lore, tradition could supply, 

From Gothic tale, or song, or fable old, 

Roused him.' 

All who looked to the mental and spiritual for any portion of 
their enjoyment, and were not wholly dependent for gratification 
on the material things of life, who cared, in short, for culture in any 
of its aspects, must have relished to commune with a man of this 
type. Elizabeth White, who, as Mr. J. Crawford Hodgson has told 
us, ante p. 221, was Elizabeth Surtees when she became the wife of 
Thomas White, the younger, was, according to the testimony of her 
letters to the Rev. John Hodgson, a woman of cultivated tastes and 
attainments, and of a warm and friendly disposition. Several of her 
letters are included in the unpublished correspondence of Mr. Hodgson, 
the first of them dated from the Woodlands on October 30th, 1805, 
being a letter of thanks for a poem he had sent to her father-in-law 
Thomas White, the elder. Possibly the poem may have had some 
bearing on the death of one of Mr. White's daughters which had taken 
place about this time, perhaps may have been that portion of his 
poem, Woodlands, where he reminds Mr. White of the bright prospect 
that had been opened to the eye of Faith, and bids him remember 
that his 

much lamented daughter waits 
To hail her aged father to the shores 
Of immortality and ceaseless spring. 

This portion of the poem it may well have been as the letter, after 
the initial note of thanks, goes on to say that the writer is sure Mr. 
White will have infinite pleasure in perusing the poem on his return 
home, which was expected in the course of a few days, adding that, 
' The sudden death of his amiable daughter, who was so deservedly esteemed 

and beloved by all her friends, was a great shock to him in particular and I 

have found it rather a difficult task to support him under so trying an affliction. 

Fortunately he was engaged to go out upon business, and I trust the change of 

scene will have a good effect upon his spirits,' 


In a postscript Mrs. White continues 

' Since writing my note my father has sent us a letter to add to the parcel. I 
would advise you write him soon because I think you will understand each other 
better upon the subject of his letter when you meet. If you do not see George 
GreenweH's servant, the bearer of this, you can write to my father on Saturday, 
if you think proper.' 
A week later the following letter is sent by Mrs. White, with the 

words ' much pleased,' in the opening sentence, underscored for the 

purpose of giving emphasis to them. 

' Woodlands, 6th Nov'r, 1805. 

Sir, My father has read your poem and is much pleased with it as well as the 
motive which induced you to write it, and, as you delight in rural scenery, he 
wishes you would contrive to come over and spend some part of one of those fine 
days in viewing parts of Woodlands that he thinks you have not seen, before it 
looses its autumnal foliage, of which every frosty night threatens to strip it. He 
requests that you will take a family dinner, and a bed if convenient. I femain, 
Sir, Your sincere friend, Elizabeth White. 

Mr. Hodgson availed himself of this kindly worded invitation, 
and the absence of any further written communication from the 
Woodlands until after his removal to Gateshead in the summer of 
1806, is, doubtless, accounted for by the increased personal inter- 
course which followed. 

He had not been long settled in Gateshead, however, until the 
correspondence recommences. The first letter from the Woodlands, 
which has been preserved belonging to the Gateshead period of Mr. 
Hodgson's career, is addressed to the ' Rev. Mr. Hodgson, next door 
to- Mr. Unthank's, Gateshead/ It is from Thomas White, junior, 
and is short and very business-like. He begins by thanking Mr. 
Hodgson for the plan he had sent, and then without further preface 
requests him to ' enquire at the Northumberland Glass House if the 
glass is ready,' ' to call at Robertson, the jeweller's, and desire him 
to have the silver waiter ready by the time our cart comes in next 
week,' and ' please to order me also,' continues Mr. White ' a pair 
of fashionable, short-necked, plated spurs, from Mr. Bulman's shop 
in the Side, and let him send a notice of the price with them. 
Another brief note from him follows concerning the lettering on the 
plan alluded to in his previous communication, and ending by telling 
Mr. Hodgson that ' The ladies join in best regards. Tell Miss Green- 
well, if you please, that I believe they send on Friday for her, so 
that if she chooses to send her box by our cart she can do it.' 

Mr. White's letters, it will be sefen, have no superfluous sentiment 
about them. They are the epistles of a busy man, brief and to the 
point, but they prove, by the unhesitating way in which they ask 
a favour, how intimate were the relations which had grown up 
between the members of the Woodlands household and the former 
Lanchester schoolmaster and curate. 

The next letter is the bearer of bad news to Mr. Hodgson. It is 
from E. Greenwell, a lady who, we learn later, was a cousin of Mrs. 
Elizabeth White, and appears to have been settled at the Wood- 
lands, as a more or less permanent resident. Her letter is sufficiently 
interesting to merit reproduction in full. 

' Woodlands, Deer. 19th, 1806. 

Sir, I am requested by Mrs. White, who you will have heard has been very 
ill, since her confinement, of a nervous fever, to beg by way of a little amusement, 
you will send her any of your own compositions you may have by you. She is 
to be kept remarkably quiet at present, but hopes by the time they arrive she can 
bear to hear me read a little. I assure you we were much alarmed about her a. 


few days ago, and though she has now got a favourable turn, Mr. Clifton, who 
sleeps here every other night, desires she may be kept perfectly easy as a relapse 
might be of serious consequence. 

We were all much amused by your description of my Uncle's late fracas, which 
no doubt would astonish the Gateshead people though we were not at all sur- 
prised. Mrs. White joins me in best respects to you. I remain 

Your sincere friend, E. Greenwell. 
p.S. You must excuse it in a postscript, but I forgot to add Miss Ann's kind 


Who the Miss Ann was whose love was sent in a postscript, and 
what Miss Greenwell's uncle had done to surprise the Gateshead 
folks we have no present means of knowing, but another letter to 
Mr. Hodgson, dated 6th January, 1807, in the same handwriting, 
and signed ' your sincere friend Eliz. Greenwell,' lets us know that 
the request that he should send some of his ' little compositions ' 
had been duly complied with, that Mrs. White was highly amused 
with them, and, like Oliver Twist, asked for more. In the same 
letter Miss Greenwell goes on to say that her patient was better than 
she had been, ' though it must be some time before she can bear 
anything but the most perfect quiet, and long I fear before she 
regains her strength. She joins me in best respects to you.' 

Mrs. White's request for additional examples of Mr. Hodgson's 
literary skill, may not have produced the astonishment that little 
Oliver's pleading for another helping of workhouse fare did, but it 
was, on this occasion, at least, equally unsuccessful. Instead of his 
own productions Mr. Hodgson sent a couple of volumes of Marmontel's 
Moral Tales. His fair correspondents were grateful for Marmontel, 
but were daring enough and none of us, I imagine, will censure 
their taste-^-to ask for reading matter of a more robust and virile 
type than the French author's Tales supplied them 'with. ' My 
cousin,' says Miss Greenwell when returning Marmontel's two vol- 
umes, ' has taken it into her head to wish me to read Humphrey 
Clinker if you can be so good as procure it for her. She wishes me 
to see a character in it which bears a great similitude to one we 
know,' Doubtless Mr. Hodgson would be able to satisfy the desire 
expressed, but in the Woodlands correspondence which follows there 
are no more letters from Miss Greenwell, and no further mention of 
Humphrey Clinker.. This is regrettable, for it would be interesting 
to know what opinion was formed of Smollett's masterpiece in the 
rural quietude of this Lanchester household. 

But if we do not get the ladies' opinion of Smollett's novel, we 
obtain, in the next letter, Mr. White's opinion of Mr. Hodgson's poem 
Woodlands. This appears to have been an amended copy of the 
poem, and Mr. White's views are frankly expressed, though it is 
certain from the tenour of his remarks that no one would have been 
readier than himself to admit that he was more skilled in arboriculture 
than in literary criticism. At the same time it is safe to say that 
his very practical method of estimating the propriety of Mr. Hodgson's 
poetical allusions to the works of nature must have been of service 
to the poet. Mr. White says : 

'Dear Sir, Your letter containing specimens of your first essays in the liberal 
and instructive science of printing your ideas could not fail of being very agree- 
ably received by me, particularly as you have made choice of Woodlands as a 
theme to give utterance to many elegant ones, and such enconiums from men of 
genius, as they were unexpected when I began the work of clothing a few barren 
acres of land thirty years ago, come very opportunely to cheer the winter of 
my life. 


The first outline of your fancy pleased me so much that I was led to think it 
could not be improved upon, but must acknowledge the specimen you have sent 
of Spring, under your own correction is much improved in some parts. If I am 
become a critic in the science I can be other than one of your own making, and 
therefore whatever errors I commit must claim your forgiveness. 

The part on page 7, marked with a pencil line, I don't understand, and few 
I fear will find out its beauties, though I will allow you credit for them. But 
as your song is intended to praise a plain man, a simple student of nature from 
whom no feats of war would be expected, I have no doubt but your fertile genius 
will introduce something perhaps more congenial to the subject of your muse, 
which lead you, like other animated poets, into flights too high for common 
panegyric, and in your plenitude for verse and me, I could have wished, without 
being deprived of our friendly powers you could have lowered your poetical ones 
one peg, and still I might have been long remembered. The laurel seems properly 
subservient to war. The azure arch I'll try to gain through my Redeemer's love. 
The flight of the native birds, inhabitants of barrenness, I think is well described 
in the new work, but I think the degraded retreat of the heath more simple in 
first sketch, without the simile of the eagle's nest, 

' Midst clouds and naked rocks she sits 
Like exiled majesty ' etc. 
is excellent in the new work. 

'the fearful grouse 

Have fled to hills defying culture's aid.' 

is very good, and ' rudely pushed into inclement skies.' In the latter the word 
fearful don't harmonize with ' rudely pushing.' I am therefore sure you will 
adopt other words. 

You will see I have been impertinent enough to mark with pencil those words 
that are the least pleasing to my ear, and you will see upon the whole how strong 
my faith is in your good nature. 

The ladies join me in every good and faithful wish. 

I am Dr Sir, your most ob't Humble Serv't, T. White. 
Woodlands March 4 1807.' 

A month later Mr. White writes again suggesting the addition 
of explanatory notes to the poem : - 

' Dear Sir, I have read your poem on Woodlands more than once, and it occurs 
to me that some explanatory notes would make it more interesting to the reader, 
and better mark out the design of the author, and I hope you will pardon me 
making a few in pencil in some parts, and a few asterisks in others to be better 
filled up by yourself ; if the work has not as I fear it has gone too far. I am 
joined by the family in kind respects and good wishes from, D'r Sir, 

your most ob't servant, T. White. 
Woodlands, April 7, 1807.' 

The next letter in point of date is from Elizabeth White, and was 
written to Mr. Hodgson on the llth December, 1807. It adds 
further proof of the friendly intimacy that existed between him and 
the White family, and in referring to a recent visit of his to the 
Woodlands the writer expresses the hope that, as his last visit was 
so short, he might see his way to repeat his visit during the approach- 
ing Christmas holidays. Mrs. White was also anxious to have a 
few books for her children, to whose education and training she seems 
in good motherly fashion to have assiduously devoted herself. She 
begs of Mr. Hodgson that he would favour her by, as she says ' looking 
me out a few books at Mr. Akenhead's.' She describes her wants 
and adds, by way of a guide, that Annie likes poetry, though 

' Thomas, I am ashamed to say, cannot read yet, but is fond of having stories 
read to him. Mary is forwarder than he is. I expect we shall have a cart in N.C. 
in the course of next week, if not before next carrier day I must trouble you to 
order them to Mrs. Unthank's, who will please to send them by Toward.' 


Toward was the regular Lanchester carrier, and this direction to 
Mr. Hodgson how the small parcel of books was to be transported 
over the few miles that separate Gateshead and Lanchester is 
eloquent of the disadvantages that country residents laboured under, 
even as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century, if they 
desired to extend their range of interests by means of books. 

Mr. Hodgson performed his commission without loss of time, 
apparently, for, a fortnight afterwards, on Christmas Day, Mrs. White 
finds time to write and inform him of the arrival of the volumes, and 
to assure him that both she and the children were pleased with his 
selection. She adds, 

' So far from exceeding my commission you were under it by Is. 3d., which wijl 
afford us another little book, perhaps. I hope you will spend a more cheerful 
and happy Xmas than I am likely to do, unless the next account of my dear hus- 
band is more favorable than that I have received to-day. On Sunday week he 
had a sudden and violent attack of the lumbago at Wemyss Castle 2 , in Fife ; on 
Tuesday, the date of his last letter he was on his way to Edinbro', where he was 
going to consult Dr. Gregory, b and very little better. Until I hear from him again 
shall be very anxious about him, tho' I endeavour to hope for the best in the 
meantime. It is so long since I saw any of them from the Ford I have forgot 
when it was. With thanks for your kind remembrances of us all, I remain, 

Your sincere friend, Elizabeth White. 

p.S.. -When convenient I will thank you to pay Mr. Akenhead. 
Evidently Mr. Hodgson had been unable to accept the cordial 
invitation to revisit Lanchester, for, on the 12th February 1808, Mrs. 
White writes to tell him that every frosty day lately she had fancied 
he would walk over, 

' but now in vexation give you up. I was glad of your last letter as it enabled 
me in some measure to relieve my father's mind from no small uneasiness, 
thinking by your answer, his letter had offended you. ' 

Several other letters follow shewing that the friendship which 
began in the days of Mr. Hodgson's first curacy continued for many 
years, but with one other example a complimentary little note from 
the elder Thomas White addressed ' To the Rev. John Hodgson, 
Heworth Shore, near Gateshead,' and written shortly after Mr. 
Hodgson's marriage to Miss Kell we must conclude our budget. 
The handwriting of the note is very shaky, the work it is evident 
of a man no longer young, but there is a flavour of old world 
courtesy in its terms which renders it a fitting letter with which to 
take our farewell of the subject. 

' Mr. White's comp'ts to Mr. Hodgson, and begs he will accept his congratula- 
tions on his late marriage (also those of the rest of the family at Woodlands), 
which will prove a most happy one should it equal the extent of his good wishes. 
When Woodlands puts on its vernal roof, so as in any way to resemb'e Mr. 
Hodgson's pleasing poetical picture, Mr. W. will be happy to see Mr. H. and his 
good lady, as will his friend Mrs. White and the other ladies. 
Woodlands, February 26th, 1910. 
Tom is from home.' 
Mr. Oxberry was thanked. 

2 The Whites, both father and son, did a good deal of professional work in 
Scotland, and, as the letters quoted indicate, were frequently absent from home 
fulfilling engagements there. A letter from William Nicholson, a Newcastle artist 
settled in Edinburgh, to the Rev. John Hodgson, adds a little to our knowledge 
on this point. Writing in July 1814, Nicholson says : ' I have just returned 
from dining with Mr. Gillies [a nephew of Lord Gillies, a Scottish judge]. He is 
most pleased with your poem of Woodlands. Mr. White, to whom you dedicate 
it, laid out his father's grounds in Kincardineshire.' 

a Dr. James Gregory, the successor of Cullen, and Scotland's most eminent 
consulting physician at that period. 


The following letters (continued from p. 240) are from Dr. Burman s 

collection. The first is from C. Roach Smith to John Bell, the others 

from John Bell to Charles Roach Smith : 

London, February 5th, 1849. 

I thank you for the inscriptions. May not one be Deabus Mat, &c. ; the other would 
probably read Deo Sancto Maximo lovi, &c. ; but are you quite satisfied with the rubbings ? 
I think there is nothing like the eye and a pencil. I should much like to have your sketches 
compared with the originals if you have any friends to do it on whom you can depend . 
I am fearful founders of Societies are not much regarded and there are few who reflect 
on the troubles which have attended those who have achieved anything great or good, 
It is the present moment which the world looks at and how to profit by it. Were I you 
I should give myself but little concern for the result of Monday (to-day I presume) what- 
ever it may be, you stand the founder of the Society, and if there be some who forget 
what they owe to you, others will remember the many obligations you have laid them 
under, the more fervently. I suppose you know Mr. Parker and the Institute have separa- 
ted. Was it not a cruel piece of work to introduce discord among us for such an object ? 
But we must be ready to forgive, and I am sure we should be quite willing to hearken to 
any conciliatory measures and would do anything to reunite the two bodies. I have 
another Journal ready. Sincerely yours, C. Roach Smith. 

To John Bell, Esq., 

February 17th, 1849. 

I feel obliged at your Letter of the 5th Instant and that part relative to the tracings of 
the Rubbings I sent you, I will not forget ; and as to founders of societies, they go to pot 
as soon as any other of the members. It was one of the greatest oversights to admit a 
parcel of People who could not afford to pay an admission Fee of Two Guineas, for which 
they received Books the Cost price of which was about seven pounds, but it is done and 
the Whole concern is now under the Control of the None Admission Fee party, who are 
Wishful of turning it into a Reading Club at which Bruce wants to spout to the unwashed 
at two pence a head. I send you a Newspaper Extract which shews the Open part of 
their proceedings. I am completing my account of the Society's Roman Altars, &c., 
which is nearly finished, and will be a most Valuable Book so far as relates to Roman 
Inscriptions, it is a Royal Quarto above three inches thick and will serve me to turn over 
whilst I am at my own Fire side. 

September 4th , 1852. 

It's over like a Wedding, as we say in the North, for the Wise ones have $ome and gone, 
and of the whole, I only saw Mr. Jno. Gough Nichols and his Wife, who spent last Monday 
Evening with me. On the Thursday there was a public Dinner of the Wise Ones at the 
N'c. Assembly Rooms. On the Friday their Legs were under the Duke of Northumberl'd's 
Mahogany at Alnwick, on Saturday doing the same at the City of Durham with the 
Black Coats there. On the Monday it was fixed that they were to be at Hexham to 
Examine the Curious Church at that old place, and the Hexhamites got all ready for their 
amusement, but Mr. Bruce was all in the fidgets to hurry them off to the Homesteads 
Station, so that he might Spout his oft repeated sayings on that place. On the Tuesday 
Tynemouth took up their time and attention, after which they slipped off like a Notless 
thread. I expect that you would receive a last week's Newspaper which would give you 
an account of the Opening of the Concern. I have had the pleasure of receiving two 
Letters from you (August 9th and 26th) for which I feel much obliged. The last intimates 
that you have sent me a copy of your Report on the Excavations at Lymne, but as yet, 
I have not seen it, nor have I seen a Number of the Gentleman's Magazine since the early 
part of 1850, so I know Nothing of what is going on in the Antiquarian World, and as to 
the Society, parties there, got so disgusting that I retired from it in February last, quite 
sure that they will seek me, before I do so to them. A Gentleman of the Name of Thomas 
Hugo called upon me on the third of last Month saying that he was a friend of yours, on 
which account I was most glad to see him and shewed him some of my rattle traps. 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vnl 39 


The following are abstracts of the last of the deeds bought by Dr. 
Burman at the Halliwell- Phillips sale (continued from p. 228) : , 


1629, July 20. Common Pleas at Durham. Exemplification of a 
fine [in Latin] of 2 houses 60 acres of land, 250 acres of meadow, 
acres of pasture and 500 acres of moor in Harraton, between Sir John 
Conyers, bt., Sir Francis Brandling, William Langley and Charles 
Robson, and Sir John Hedworth and Dorothy, his wife. The palatinate 
seal is missing. 


1694, November 28- Indenture made between (1) Christopher 
Bickers of Gateside, co. Durham, grocer, and (2) John Spearman of 
the city and county of Durham, gent. After reciting that Nathaniel 
lord bishop of Durham, by his lease under his episcopal seal of 10th 
September, 4 James n, demised his tenement situate on the east side 
of the south end of Tyne bridge at Gateshead, adjoining a tenement 
thereon late of Robert Bewicke, of Newcastle, merchant, on So., and the 
tower upon the bridge on the N., together with houses, shops, &c. To 
hold the same for 21 years, paying therefor to the bishop 3s. a year, 
by equal quarterly payments on the feasts of St. Martin the bishop, 
the Purification of the Virgin, Pentecost and Lammas It was 
witnessed that Christopher Bickers, in consideration of 102/. paid by 
Spearman, granted to the latter the same tenements To hold the 
same unto Spearman for the residue of the term, paying the rent 
reserved by the lease. And it was provided that if Bickers re-paid 
Spearman the 102/. before 1st January then next, that the present 
grant should cease, but if default were made the same to remain in 
full force ; and Bickers covenanted to pay the said sum ; that the 
premises were free from incumbrances, &c. ; for quiet possession on 
default without interruption by Bickers or any person whatsoever 
other than the bishop of Durham, for rents, duties and services due to 

Signed and sealed by ' Christo. Bickers/ and receipt for consideration 
endorsed, both attested by ' G. Spearman, Rob* Smith, Rob* Byerly.' 
[Endorsed 'An assignment of a lease for secureing 102^.']. 

1695, November 28. Indenture made, with recital of lease, &c., of 
same premises as last, between (1) Robert Maddox, of the city of 
London, distiller, and (2) the said Christopher Bickers, but in con- 
sideration of \ 38 10s. 5d. 

Signed and sealed by ' Christo. Bickers ' in presence of ' Henry Shaw, 
Rob* Roper.' 


1719, June 2. Agreement, indented, between the Hon ble Sir 
Robert Eyre, kt., one of the judges of the Court of King's Bench, the 
only acting testamentary guardian of the Right Hon ble Anthony, 
earl of Shaftesbury, an infant, appointed by the last will and testa- 
ment of the Right Hon ble Anthony, late earl of Shaftesbury, his 
father, deceased ; (2) Anne Ewer, of Dartmouth St., Westminster ; 
and (3) Joseph Micklethwaite, of Downing Street, Westminster, esq. 
Reciting last will of Sir John Cropley, of 9th April 1713, whereby he 
devised to Westby Gill, of Carrhouse, co. York, esq., and Richard 
Wyatt, of the Middle Temple, London, gent., for a term of 500 years, 
the manor and township of East Brandon, &c. and the manor of 


Burnigill als Burnigall, &c., in the co. and bishoprick of Durham, and 
all houses, farms, &c., &c., in trust for Thomas Micklethwaite, of 
Devonshire Street, St. Andrew's, Holborn, Middlesex, esq., deceased, 
&c., during so much of the term of 500 years as he should live, and there- 
after in trust to sell or mortgage the said term and pay, after six calendar 
months of his death, 2000/. to such person c.r persons as he should by 
deed or will appoint In trust after payment of the said sum for his 
godson Anthony, then earl of Shaftesbury, and afterwards that it 
should attend upon the freehold and inheritance of the premises. And 
reciting that Thomas Micklethwaite, by deed of 22nd Sept. 1715, ap^ 
pointed that the 2000/. and interest should be due unto the said Arine 
Ewer, &c., for her own use absolutely, if he should not thereafter 
otherwise dispose of the same by express words in his will, &c. And 
reciting that Thomas Micklethwaite, by his will of 23rd September 
1715, confirmed the 2000/. to Anne Ewer, and he died in 28th March 
1718 And reciting that there was due to Anne Ewer 2300J. for 
principal and interest, and that Joseph Micklethwaite had under- 
taken to raise and pay the same to the said Anne Ewer And reciting 
that Westby Gill and Richard Wyatt at the request of Anne Ewer had 
let Joseph Micklethwaite into possession of the devised premises and 
permitted him to take the profits from the death of Thomas Mickle- 
thwaite in order to raise the 2000/. and interest Joseph Micklethwaite 
being willing to answer for the premises during the minority of the 
earl of Shaftesbury, the clear rent of 415/. a year towards the satisfaction 
of the said 2000/. and interest, the said Anne Ewer being willing, the 
said Sir Robert Eyre on behalf of the Earl of Shaftesbury consenting 

in manner following, viz, Imprimis 

[The document does not appear to have been executed. The second 
skin is missing. ] 

The following, kindly favoured by Mr. J. C. Hodgson, is from the 
* Survey Books of the Court of Wards ' (Misc. Books, vol, 129) : 


28 Hen. vm. Extent and yearly value of all the manors, lands, etc., 
of Rauff Carre, deceased, 20 Feb. 27 Hen. vm [A.D. 1536] and de- 
scended in possession and reversion to Wm. Carr, his son and next heir, 
aged 14, at the finding of the office in co. Northumb. 12 Oct., 28 Hen. 
vm [A.D. 1536]. 

Certain lands and tenements in the town of Gessemonde holden of 
the King by knight's service in chief, per arm. 365. 8d. 

And other lands in the same and other counties. 

The margin is headed " William Carre solde to Robert Bowes," but 
there are other marginal notes opposite various items such as ' de- 
scended jointer of Issabell, mother to the warde,' etc., etc. (p. 230). 

The following, also from Mr. J. C. Hodgson, is from the ' Court of 
Wards Feodaries Surveys.' (Bundle 31 : Northumberland).: 


The extent and clear yearly value of all the messuages, lands, 
tenements and hereditaments, la'te of Timothy Cooke, draper, deceased, 
10 July 1636, descended and come in possession and reversion to John 
Cooke his son and next heir, aged about 9 years at the death of his 
said father, as by the office thereof found at Morpeth, 11 Sept. 14 
Car. 1. 


Co. Northumb. One messuage with the appurtenances and one 
close to the same adjoining containing by estimation 

' A dyeinge 4 acres, commonly called Cookes close, in the tenure 

seised in fee ' or occupation of Anne Cooke, widow, the relict of the 

said Tymothy in the parish of Sainte Andrewes in 

the said county, late parcel of the Manor of Jesmond, are held of His 

Majesty in chief by knight s service and worth by the year above 

reprises 13s. 4d. 

27 Nov. 1638. Sold to Richard Gregson to his own use for the fine 
of 31. 

To be paid in hand. 

To proceed within one month or else to be void. 
Fra. Cottington, R. Wandesford. 

The value of the premises by the survey of the feodary of the said 
county is per annum, 30s. Ja : Tooke, ex* 

The following deed relates to 


1615, Nov. 26. Deed of partition between (1) William Grenewell 
of Pelton, co. Durham, yeoman, and (2) Richard Samson of Urpeth. 
co. Durham, yeoman, of a certain pasture close between Over peala 
house and the grounds of Owstone, Grenewell and Samson agreeing 
thereto, Greenwell parting and dividing the same, Richard having 
free choice upon division whether he would have the south or north 
part of the close, and reciting that Grenewell having made the 
division, Samson had chosen and taken the north part and Grenewell 
has to have the south part, ' as it is now dowled out and set forth 
between them, 5 they mutually covenant for quiet possession of their 
shares Grenewell covenanted to make and repair and plant yearly 
so much quantity of the new dyke to be made between them as it 
was then dowled out, containing by estimation 33 roods, in considera- 
tion that Samson should continually make all the dyke between him 
and Owstone, and all the residue of the new dyke they have equally 
divided between them, and that both shall make and yearly repair 
and uphold the several parts allotted to them (the said William the 
low end and the said Richard the middle part) : neither of them to 
have wayleave through grounds of other save only the footpath as 
formerly it hath been and is still to be used between Owstone and 
Chester in the Street. Signed and sealed by ' Will'm Greene well ' (seal 
gone) in presence of Jo: Hedworthe, Roger Hapvott (?), Will'm 
Cooke, Thomas Walton, Guy Baynbrigge. 



Abergavenny church, effigy in, 206 

Acton, repair of mills, etc. at, 160 ; 
monument at, 24 ; to memory of 
James, earl of Derwentwater, 123 ; 
countess of Derwentwater, letters 
to, at, 124, 127 ; church, effigy in, 

Acton, Maud, wife of Richard de, 214 

Adams, Mr., of Alnwick, attorney, 
171, 216 ; Tyne salmon fishery be- 
longing to, 232 

' Adamson, surgeon and man mid- 
wife,' appointed surgeon to Bam- 
burgh castle, 172 

Addey heugh hill, Rothbury, ancient 
trenches on, 44 

Addington, Great, Northants, effigy 
at, 224, 230 

Aesica, see Great Chesters. 

Afforestation in co. Durham in i8th 
century, 217 

Africa, Central, bars of iron used in, 
as currency, 27 

Ague, ' many people afflicted with,' 

Aiguilettes, 132 and n 

Aird, R. Anderson, on discoveries in 
chancel of Seaham church, 34 

Airey, George, of Gateshead, grant to, 
213 ; Joseph, of Newcastle, party 
to a deed, 208 

Aitchison, Walter de Lancey, elected, 

Alan, Richard fitz, earl of Arundel, 

and wife, 206 

Alayn, ' milner de Twedemouth,' re- 
quest for confirmation of lease of 
Berwick mills, 211 
Albanian stradiots, 140 and n ; 143 
Aldborough, Yorkshire, Roman mo- 
saics at, 85 ; church, brass in, 132 
Aldburgh, William de, brass of, 132 
Alderson, Thomas, of Barnardcastle, 

miller, will of, 29 
Alexander in, king of Scotland, grant 

by, 8 
Alfonso n, duke of Ferrara, armour 

of, 145 

' AH Baba and the Forty Thieves,' 236 

Allalee Roman milecastle, 51 

Allen, Mr., to report on Coll. Rad- 

clyffe's estate, 7 ; Sir John, bequest 

of collar of ' esses,' 207 ; Samuel, of 

Wooler, 99 ; Thomas, of Wooler, 99 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn.] 

Allenson, Abraham, of Gilesgate, 
Durham, skinner, admittance to 
property, 67 

Allgood, Guy Hunter, elected, 241 

Alman, William, of Durham, clerk, 

Almoner of Durham monastery, book 
of, 194 

Alnham parish, camp in, 40 ; cairns, 
etc. in, 45 

Alnwick, inq. p.m. held at, 170 ; a 
house in, to be sold, 172 ; Jonathan 
Harte in charge of Pottergate meet- 
ing at, 204n ; castle, 213 

Alston moor, 63, 64, 72, 128 ; matters 
relating to, 6 ; lead mines, 71 ; 
dues of lead of little value, 7 ; 
George Errington and his partners 
of, 8 ; bailiff of manor of, 6 ; stew- 
ard of court, 6 

Alwinton parish, pre- Roman camps 
in, 37 

Ambler, William, barrister, Durham, 

Amiens cathedral church, brass in, 
4 only one in France,' 173 

Ancroft Greens, estate at, to be sold, 

Ancrum, John Strother, monumental 
inscription of, 186 

Anderson, arms of, 120 ; John, 170 ; 
of Shotton, Northumberland, 18 ; 
William, of Horsley, Redesdale, 
232 ; of Shittleheugh, Bell-shield 
belonging to, for sale, 104 

Anderton, Basil, exhibited letter of 
Rev. J. Hodgson, the historian, 175 

Andrew, Sir Thomas, and his wives, 
effigies of, 207 

Angelo, Michael, made designs for 
enriched armour, 145 

Angerton South stead earthwork 
camp, 52 

Anne, queen, silver medal of, ex- 
hibited, 28 ; gift of, 33 

Annual meetings, i, 161 ; report for 
1915, i ; for 1916, 161 

Antiquary, The, cessation of publi- 
cation, 164 

Antwerp cathedral, north-west tower 
of, repaired by corporation, 116 

Appleby, Edward, of North Shields, 
bankruptcy procedings against, 
217 ; [Appylby], Henry, witness 
to livery of seisin, 86 

Arbois, in Burgundy, an armour 
smithy, established at, 138 




Archaeologia Aeliana, 162 ; change of, 

from 4to to ' iamo or 8vo,' 239 
Archer, Michael, estates of, to be 

sold, 172 
Arderne, Sir Thomas, and lady, 

effigies of, 207 
Armour; with an account of the 

tournament, R. C. Clephan on, 98 
Armour, at Vienna, etc., 129 ; 'gothic' 

129 ; Wallace collection of, 130 ; 

' Maxmilian,' 138; skirted, 139 5 

engraved suit of, of Henry vm, 

140 ; blackened, 144 ; ' penny- 

plate,' 144 ; enriched, 145 ; de- 

cline of, 146 
Armourers at Durham and Newcastle, 

Arms, of England and France, quar- 

terly, 174 ; of Anderson, 120 ; 

Bacon, 183 ; Richard Clervaux, 

224; Davison, 211; Dent, 120; 

Forster, 183 ; Lumley, 120 ; Rod- 

dam, 120 ; Nicholas Sabram, no ; 

Thornton, 120, 121 ; Tudor, 189 ; 

Wanton, 121 ; Williams, 210 ; im- 

paling Forster, 209 
Artemis, temple of, 237 
Arthur, marriage of prince, in 1507, 

Arundel church, Sussex, effigies in, 

206, 230 

Ash, Kent, effigy at, 223 
Ashbourne church, effigy in, 206 
Ashby de la Zouch church, effigy in, 

Ashwell Thorpe, Norfolk, effigy at, 

223, 230 

Askerton castle, country meeting at, 2 
Askew, Ann, widow of Anthony, 

monumental inscription of, 187 
Associations, local armed, formed in 

1798, etc., 14 
Athenry, Ireland, lieut. col. William 

Blakeney, M.P. for, 55n 
Athens, achievements of, 237 
Atkinson, Mrs., of Temple Sowerby, 

the solitary honorary member of 

the society, 200 ; Henry, of New- 

castle, 104 ; James, of Plessey new 

houses, 1 8 ; John, of Newcastle, 

cordiner, a juryman, 22 ; Joseph, 

alderman of Newcastle, 187; Leo- 

nard, elected, 161 
Autographs of Dorothy Forster and 

others, 211 

Avantage, bishop John, brass of, 173 
Axe, a pre-historic polished stone, 152 
Aylesford, skillet found in pre-his- 

toric grave at, 9 
Aynsley, Mr., the attorney, 64 ; John, 

31, 69 ; Sir John, attorney-at-law, 

Aysgarth parish, lands in, to be let, 



Babington, madam, wife of Philip, of 
Harnham, buried in garden, 167 r r 
Sir Henry, and Newcastle races, 
245 ; [Babyngton], William, son of 
Richard de, a juror, 214 ; son of 
William de, a juror, 214 

Bacon, family, seal and arms of, 183 ;. 
brass of a member of, 132 ; Mr., of 
Green gill, 24 ; Francis, A Confer* 
ence of Pleasure, 97 ; John, of Sta- 
ward, Northumberland, 215 ; and 
others, parties to marriage settle- 
ment, 183 ; William, of Staward, 
marriage settlement of, 183 

Bacons and Forsters, the, 183 

Bacon v. Lisle, chancery proceedings, 

Baggage cess, 80 

Baginton, Warwickshire, effigies at r 

Bagot, effigies of Sir William, and 
lady, 223 

Bagraw-burn, earthwork camp, 52 

Bainbridge, Joseph, of Newcastle, 200- 

Baird, Oswald, 99 

Baker, William, witness to a deed, 232 

Bakewell church, Derbyshire, effigy 
in, 230 

Baldwin, Christopher Edmund, elect- 
ed, 173 

Ball, T., on Escombe parish registers, 

Ballads printed by White & Saint, 238 

Balliol, Sir Alexander de, ' late lord of 
Barnard Castle,' grant by, 87 

Balthasin, Galiot de, combat a ow- 
trance between seigneurs de Ter- 
nant and, 140 

Bamburgh castle, 218 ; surgeon ap- 
pointed to infirmary at, 172 

Bamburgh, Thomas de, 211 

Banderman, Randolf, and others, 
request for lease of Berwick mills,. 


Bankruptcy, proceedings, 217 ; in 

1711, 52 ; a commission in, 200 
Banners in Newcastle castle, 118 
Barber, John, of Newcastle, 36 
Bardolph, lord and lady, effigies of,. 

Baret, John, of Bury, effigy of, 224 ; 

will of, 22 4n 

Barker, Samuel, of Berwick, ' a sol- 
dier in General Monk's own troop/ 
will of, 28 

Barlow, etc., farms at, to be sold, 171 
Barmston manor, three parts of, to- 
be sold, 103 

Barnardcastle, grants of burgages in 
' Galowgate,' 86 ; in Thornegate, 
86 ; in Market street, 87 ; grant 
of office of steward of, 14 ; the 



receiver of, 86 ; St. Margaret's 
church, a panel in, 126 

Barnes, Ambrose, steward of Barnard 
castle, 14 ; grandfather of alder- 
man Ambrose, 14 

Barres, William de, 131 

Barrington, bishop of Durham, 183 

' Baron Brown' the Durham poet,' 
note of, 240 

Barthomley church, Cheshire, effigy 
in, 206 

Barton, Andrew, Scottish naval com- 
mander, rock inscribed with name 
of, in Embleton bay, 217 

Basire, Mr., 164 

Basset, Richard, vicar of Stannington, 
1 80 

Batalha, Portugal, abbey church of, 
effigy of queen Philippa in, 206 

Bates, Cadwallader J., burial of, in 
Langley castle grounds, 168 ; 
Ralph, of Newcastle, married Miss 
Mitford, 32 

Bath abbey church, Northumberland 
and Durham monumental inscrip- 
tions in, 1 86, 225 ; quaint epitaph 
in, 212 

Bathampton church, local epitaph in, 

Bathwick St. John's church, local 
epitaph in, 225 

Battle church, effigy in, 206 

Baynbrigge, Guy, 213; witness to a 
deed, 260 ; [Baynbrige], Roger, the 
chaplain of, 86 

Beacons, firing of the, in 1804, 99 

Bearl, 170 

Beauchamp effigy at Warwick, 136 

Beaufort, John, earl of Somerset, 
effigy of, 230 ; first duke of Somer- 
set, and wife, effigies of, 207 (see 
also Somerset) 

Beaulieu, Walter de, land of, in 
Foxton, 86 

Beaumont, bishop, grant to New- 
minster, 1 80 ; Rev. Hamond, 244 ; 
and Ord, election medal of 1832, 
of, 5 

Bedale, Early History of, McCall's, 
presented, 163 

Bedlington, estate, collieries, etc. at, 
to be sold, 172 

Bedlingtonshire, lands in, to be sold, 

Beggar rig, near Rothbury, ancient 
entrenchments on, 44 

Bek, Anthony, bishop of Durham, 
Wark manor in hands of, 8 

Belford earthwork camp, 52 

' Belgium and Germany, journey to, 
100 years ago,' 66 

Bell, Jacob, of Low Lights, North 
Shields, bankruptcy proceedings 
against, 217 ; John, a founder of 
the society, letters of, relating to 

the society, 198, 199, 237, 257 ; 
' Matthew, and parliamentary elec- 
tion of 1832, 5 ; jun., sheriff of 
Newcastle, 231 ; Michael and his 
wife, 128 ; Sarah, daughter of Rob- 
ert, of Bellasis, 189 ; Thomas, death 
of, 4 ; of Shotton, Northumberland 
1 8 ; Thomas James, exhibited Ro- 
man coins found on Herd sand, 
South Shields, 6 ; coins from the 
beach at South Shields in posses- 
sion of, 33 ; William, 99 ; of Gate- 
side, milliner,' will of, 28 ; of Tick- 
hill, yeoman, will of, 28 

Bellasis, near Stockton, moated 
manor house of , i66n . ; [Bellasize], 
in south-east Yorkshire, 166 

Bellasis [Bellysys, Belasys, Belasyse,, 
Bellasys], a deed of, of 1408, etc., 
168 ; John, the younger, son of 
John and Alice, 166 ; Ann, wife of, 

1 66 ; Richard, 213 ; Robert de, 
steward for St. Helen's Auckland 
manor, 167 ; Sir Robert, kt., and 
wife Margery, 166 and n ; Rowland 
102 ; Thomas, and wife Margaret,. 
i66n ; William, of Henknoll, ing. 
p.m., i66n ; Thomas, son of, and 
wife Margery, i66n 

Bell's hill, Lanchester parish, farm- 
holds in, to be sold, 171, 172 

Bell Shields, Elsdon, estate at, for 
sale, 104, 232 ; crag, earthwork 
camp, 52 

Beltingham church, country meeting 
at, 2 

Belvas, John, a York clerk, notarial, 
mark of, 57 

Benwell, Roman fort, 48 ; bank, 
Roman mile castle, 48 

Benwel Village, Description of, author 
of, 182 

Berail, Robert de, a Durham clerk,, 
notarial mark of, 57 

Berrington, Robert de, prior of Dur- 
ham, 166 and n 

Bertram, Robert, escheator, inq. p.m. 
held before, 214 

Berwick, isolated burial in Magdalen 
fields' at, 167 ; mills, request for 
confirmation of lease of, 211 ; 
school, William Webb master of, 

167 ; Sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, M.P. 
for, 225 

Beryndon, William de, and others,, 
request for lease of Berwick mills, 

Besaquts, 135 

Bewcastle, country meeting at, 2 ; 
cross, W. G. Collingwood on, 2 ;. 
and Ruthwell cross, 66 

Bewclay, earthwork camp, 52 

Bewicke, Robert of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, tenement of, on Tyne bridge,. 
258 ; [Bewick], Thomas, a woodcut 



of Newcastle by, 12 ; engraved 
sword blades, 177 ; printer of in- 
voices, etc., 80 

Bickers, Christopher, of Gateshead, 
grocer, lease of house by, 258 

Bickerton camp, Rothbury, 38 

Biddick, North, estate of, to be sold, 

Biddleston, isolated burial in park at, 

Bigge, Thomas Charles, of Benton 
house, Northumberland, and wife 
Elizabeth, 226 ; and Charlotte 
Eleanor and Mary Anne, daughters 
of, epitaphs of, 226 ; William, 2ogn 

Billingham, country meeting at, 2 

Bill Quay glasshouse, 209 

Birdhope crag earthwork camp, 52 

Birtley. co. Durham, grant of messu- 
age in, 213 ; of Eure closes in, 213 

Bishop Middleham hall in 1800, 13 

Bishopwearmouth, Rev. Robert Gray, 
rector of, 89 

Black prince, effigy of the, 132 ; mot- 
to of, 225 

Black, William, 99 

Blackcarts, Roman Wall turret at, 49 

Blackett, Mrs., 55 ; Christopher, of 
Wylam, major commandant of 
Percy volunteers, 54n ; letters to, 
54 ; James, of the Cottages, News- 
ham, 19 ; Sir Walter, built vestry 
at St. Nicholas's church, in ; Sir 
William, 159 

Blackgate and museum, new guide- 
book to, 3 

Blair, C. H. H., on ancient notarial 
marks at Durham, 56 

Blake, Eleanor, daughter of Robert, 
of Twizell, 1 88 ; John, of Essex St., 
Strand, London, 171 

Blakehope earthwork camp, 52 

Blakemoor, estate at, leased, 104 

Blakeney, William, lieut. col., 55 ; 
M.P. for Athenry, 55n ; fought in 
America, 55n ; wounded at Bunk- 
er's hill, 55n ; death of, 55n : 
funeral achievement in St. An- 
drew's church, ssn 

Blakiston, William, justice itinerant, 

Blanchland manor, copper medal 
relating to perambulation of, in 
1839, 6 

Blenheim palace, the architect of, 2 

Blickling church, Norfolk, brass in, 

Blyth, minister of, 182 ; and Tyne 
railway, Dairy-house branch of, 77 

Bodiam castle, Sussex, the builder of, 

Bolam, Alan de Heppescote, inducted 

. into, 1 80 

BDlam, Col. Robert A., elected, 241 ; 
Thomas, of Netherton, 99 

Boldon East, estate of Murdles near, 
etc., to be sold, 172 ; West, iso- 
lated burial at, 179 

Boll and, A. P., presents rubbing of 
' Andra Barton Stone,' 217 

Bolton, sergeant John, Ewart, 99 

Bonner, Ann, of Callerton, 36 and n ; 
death of, s6n ; Sarah, of Flat house, 
Gateshead, daughter of Thomas, of 
High Callerton, 36 and n ; Thomas, 
puritan mayor of Newcastle, 36n ; 
burial of, 36n ' 

Books, presents of, 4, 9, 26, 33, 53, 65, 
85, 97, 125, 149, 164, 173, 185, 193, 
217, 229, 233, 244 

Booth, archdeacon, ' visited ' Es- 
combe, 244 

Boothby, Walter, of Tottenham, 
presentation by, to Easington 
rectory, 203 

Bottesford church, Lincolnshire, 
effigy in, 206 

Bourn, Thomas William, elected, 65 

Bourton on the Water, Glos., gift of 
a currency bar of iron found at, 27 

Boutflower, Rev. D. S., ' Bacons and 
Forsters,' 183, 184 ; Thomas, 
witness to a deed, 183 

Bowcer, Thomas, of Newcastle, yeo- 
man, a juryman, 22 

Bowes, Robert, 259 ; Thomas, of 
Streatlam castle, will of, 28 ; 
William, of Biddick, 184 

Bowman, John, of Stanhope, tailor, 
and others, demise by, 231 

Bouyer, Dr., archdeacon of North- 
umberland, 183 

Brancepeth castle, manor and park 
of, to be sold, 171 

Brand, Rev. John, 150 ; and his 
foster parents, 241 

Brandling, Sir Francis, and others, 
258 ; Grace, daughter of Robert, 
1 88 ; Ralph, of the Felling, grant 
by, 213 

Brannan, John, an Irish harvester, 
isolated burial of, 168 

Brass, seventeenth century, in Bath 
abbey church, 212 

4 brattish,' 81 

Bremenium, see High Rochester 

Brenton, Thomas, 160 

Breretpn, Sir Randal, and wife, 
effigies of, 207 

Brewis, W. Parker, F.S.A., on currency 
bars of iron, 27 ; on a Conference of 
Pleasure, 97 ; described Newcastle 
castle, etc., 116 ; his guide to the 
castle, 162 ; presented a knitting 
sheath, 194 ; and another, pre- 
Roman camps in Upper Coquet- 
dale, 37 

Bridge, Roman, across North Tyne, 49 

Brigandines, origin of, 133 

Brington, Northants, effigy at, 223 



Brinkburn, isolated burial at, 168 ; 
priory camp, 40 ; Mr. Maclauchlan 
on, 40 

Briscoe [Briscough, Bryscowgh, Brys- 
cowh]in Baldersdale, grant of land, 
tenements, etc. in, 86 ; fine relating 
to lands, etc. in, 87 

Briscoe, Emma, daughter of William, 

Bristol, Rev. R. Gray, bishop of, 89 

British Association, meeting of, in 
Newcastle, 163, 235 

Bromham, Wilts., effigy at, 223 

Bromsgrove church, effigies in, 206 

Brookbank, John, D.L., 36 ; vicar- 
general of bishop of Durham, 82 

Broomhope, 170 

Broomhouse, Holy Island parish, sale 
of freehold estate at, 103 

Broomry Close, etc., farms at, to be 
sold, 171 

Broomup, 69 

Broughton church, Oxon., effigy in, 

Browell, Elizabeth, daughter of Dr. 
Edward, rector of Romaldkirk, 
monumental inscription of, 187 

' Brown dikes,' Roman earthwork, 
etc., 50 

Brown [Browne], Alexander, 172 ; 
Cuthbert, widow of, 71 ; Jeremiah, 
of Nafferton farm, 19 ; John, a Rad- 
cliffe agent, letter of, 160 ; Robert, 
of Wooler, 99 ; Thomas, of Howtel, 
99 ; and others, commissioners in 
bankruptcy in 1711, 52 ; Sir Tho- 
mas, effigy of, 206 ; William, ab- 
stracts of old deeds, 85 ; extracts 
from records at Lambeth palace, 
by, 203 ; note on a Bellasis deed 
of 1408, 166 

Browning, Ralph, bishop of Exeter, 
ordination by, 203n 

' Bruce, Mr., a schoolmaster,' elected, 
240 ; the Rev. Dr. J. C., 257 

Brudenel, Sir Robert, chief justice, 
effigy of, 224 

Brunton, Roman Wall turret at, 49 ; 
Low, Roman milecastle, 49 ; house, 
considerable stretch of Roman Wall 
in grounds of, 49 

Bryan's leap colliery, co. Durham, 
parts of, to be sold, 172, 232 

Buckles, 230 

Buddie, John, and the safety lamp, 87 

Budle, near Belford, large granaries 
at, for sale, 104 

Budrum, 237 

Bulkley, Stephen, books printed by, 

Bulmer, Sir Bertram, kt., free rent 
from lands of, 231 ; Isabell, widow 
of, will of, 28 

Burdale, Yorks., lands at, to be let, 

Burdon, Nicholas, 215 ; Thomas, 

Elizabeth widow of, 225 ; of St. 

Nicholas's parish, 16 
Burdus, Mr., attorney, Newcastle. 171 
Burghley, William, baron, 14 
Burial mounds in Rothbury parish, 

etc., 47 
Burley, Sir Simon, K.C., portrait of, 


Burman, Dr., documents in his collec- 
tion, 32, 36, 52, 67, 82, 228, 237, 

257, 258 
Burnham church, Norfolk, effigy in, 


Burnhead, 126 

Burnigill, co. Durham, manor of, 259 
Burnopfield, mansion house of, for 

sale, 172 

Burrell, William, 170 
Burroe, Edward, kt., 170 
Burton, manor, etc., Westmorland, 

deed relating to, 228 ; Agnes 

church, East Yorks., effigy in, 207 
Burton, Sir Thomas, effigy of, 224 
Bury St. Edmunds, effigy at, 224 
Busby, Charles, a Radcliffe agent, 6, 

7, 30, 31, 67, 69, 72 ; rents not to 

be paid to, 7 ; letters of, 124, 127, 

Buteland, 170 ; farm, 70 ; lease of, 

31 ; farmed by William Charleton, 

Butsfield, township of, property in, 

218, et seq. 
Butt, Thomas Simon, son of Gary, 

of Lichfield, vicar of Stannington, 

Byerly, Robert, witness to a deed, 

Byers, Edward, of the demesne, etc., 

Newsham, 18 

Byker Roman milecastle, 48 
Bynck', Ninian, witness to a grant, 

etc., 86 
By well manor, 170 ; St. Andrew, 

vicar of, 36, 82, 182 ; St. Peter, 

presentation to, 215 

Cadogan, Arthur H., and others, 
burials of, in plantation at Brink- 
burn, 1 68 

Caervoran, a Roman inscribed mea- 
sure of bronze from, exhibited, 98 ; 
fort, 51 ; milecastle, 51 

Cairns in Upper Coquetdale, 45 

Caisley, James, 99 

Caistron, ancient mound at, 45 ; 
camp, Rothbury, 38 ; lands at, 38 

Caley, Arthur, stipendiary curate of 
Stannington, 182 ; John, anti- 
quary, letters of, 175 

Callaly camps, 40 

Callard, doctor, 160 



Calthorpe, Sir William, effigy of, 230 

Cambridge, Magdalen College, 20311 

Camoys, lord, 206 ; and Thomas and 
wife, effigies of, 206, 207 

Camp-hill earthwork camp, 52 

Camps, Roman, temporary, discovery 
of, per lineam valli, 125 ; pre- Ro- 
man, in Upper Coquetdale, etc., 
37, 52 

Campville camp, Alwinton, 37 

Cane, William, vicar of Stannington, 

Canterbury cathedral church, effigies 
in, 132, 224, 230 ; St. Stephen's 
church, effigy in, 230 

Capheaton, 124, 128 ; letters dated 
from, 63, 64, 67, et seq., 82 ; isolated 
burial in grounds at, 168 ; ruined 
chapel of, 168 

Carlisle, bishop and prior of, and St. 
Nicholas's church, Newcastle, no 

Carnaby, Mr., 128 

Carneath, Susanna, daughter of John, 
of Newcastle, and Mary his wife, 
buried in garden, 179 

Carr, George, and his wife, panel from 
tomb of, in St. Nicholas's church, 
Newcastle, in ; Rev. O. C., vicar 
of All Saints, Newcastle, 119 ; 
Ralph, deceased, land of, 259 ; 
William, lands of, 259 

Carraw Roman milecastle, 50 ; 
' Brown dikes ' earthwork near, 50 

Carrawburgh, fort, 50 ; east and west, 
Roman Wall turrets, 49 ; mile- 
castle, 49 

Cartington Cove, cup-and-ring marks 
at, 42 ; hill, ancient trenches on, 
44 ; cairns and mounds on, 46 ; 
moor, circle of standing stones on, 
46 ; excavated, 46 ; burial mounds 
on, 47 ; lough, 46 

Carville hall, Wallsend, sundial from, 

Casterton, Little, Rutland, effigy at, 
224, 230 

Castle, Newcastle, fire in, 162 ; new 
Guide to keep, 162 

Castle Donnington, Leicestershire, 
brass at, 136 

Castle hill camp, Alnham, 40 ; Whit- 
tingham, 41 

Castle Howard, Yorks., inscribed Ro- 
man bronze skillets found at, n 

Castlenick Roman milecastle, 50 

Catalogue of library prepared, 66 

Cattle or sheep, no sale for, 72 

Cawfields Roman milecastle, 50 

Ceasar, Mr., 31 

Cellini, Benvenuto, made designs for 
enriched armour, 145 

Celts, stone, found near Stanhope, 178 

Centenary of the safety lamp, the, 87 

Chain-mail, 130 ; to plate, change 
from, 129 ; horse, ' housed ' in, 139 

Chamberlen, doctor, assignment by, 
100 ; daughter of, marriage of, 100 

Chambers, Sir William, architect of 
Somerset house, 150 

Chancels, inclination of, 229 ; no 
symbolic signification, 22gn 

Chandler, Alexander, 99 

Chapel house Roman milecastle, 48, 

Chapels, etc. in Northumberland, 
about 1715, 23 

Chapman, see Chepman 

Charles i, in Newcastle, 121 ; sailed 
down river, 121 ; body armour 
discarded in time of, 147 ; n, char- 
ters to Trinity house, Newcastle, 

Charlton, South, see South Charlton 

' Charlton spur ' exhibited, 218 ; tra- 
dition of,' 218 

Charlton [Charleton], a doctor of 
physic, 70 ; Dr. elected, 240 ; Mr., 
of Reedsmouth, chief bailiff of 
Wark manor, 31 ; conveyance of 
land to, 31 ; Isabell, of St. John Lee, 
widow, will of, 28 ; Oswin J. ex- 
hibited the ' Charlton spur,' 218 ; 
Robert, of East Boldon, 172 ; 
William, of Lee hall, 208 ; son of 
Forster, 2o8n ; his wife, 208 and n ; 
deaths of, 208 ; of Reedsmouth, 69; 
killed Henry Widdrington, 69 

Charnley, William, assignees of, share 
of, in Warden paper mill, 171 

Charwelton church, Northants, effigy 
in, 207 

Cheadle church, Cheshire, effigy in, 

Cheney, Sir John, effigy of, 224 

Chepman, John, grant to, 86 

Chesterholm Roman fort, 5 1 ; Roman 
altars discovered at, u, 28 ; mile- 
stones on Bradley burn, near, and 
farther west, 51 

Chester-le-Street, moiety of Twizell, 
near, 230 ; etc. to be sold, 232 

Chesters Roman fort, 49 

Chew Green camps, 52 ; endangered 
by artillery camp near, 52 

Chichester cathedral church, effigies 
in, 206 

Chicken, John, of the ' great west 
farm,' Newsham, 18 

Chiddingly church, effigy in, 207 

Chirnells moor, cup-and-ring .mark- 
ings on, 42 

Chisholme, sergeant Robert, St. Mar- 
grets, 99 

1 Choprydinge,' way leave through 
the close, so called, for coal, 20, 21 

Chopwell wood, 178 

Christ Church hospital, committee of 
governors of, 102 

Christen Bank, isolated burial at, 168 

Chubb, a farmer, executors of, 160 



Church : bells of St. Nicholas's, New- 
castle, 116 ; fine for going out of, 
during service, 23 

Cilurnum, see Chesters and Walwick 

Circle of standing stones on Carting- 
ton moor, 46 

Cists in Upper Coquetdale, 41 

Civil war, the, 21 

Clanny, Dr., and the safety lamp, 93 ; 
first in field, 93 

Clarence, Thomas, duke of, effigy of, 

Clarington park, farm at, 160 

Clark, [Clerk, Clarke], Mr., 72 ; 
Charles, of Gray's Inn, 188 ; and 
others, commissioners in bank- 
ruptcy in 1711, 52 ; Gabriel, D.D., 
an archdeacon of Durham, 2O3n ; 
will of, 29 ; George, witness to a 
deed, 232 ; John, M.D., and infec- 
tious fevers, 54n ; of Blyth, 171 ; 
of Cuthbertson's farm, Newsham, 

Clavering, Elizabeth, wife of George, 
of Greencroft, monumental inscrip- 
tion of, 187 

Clayton, Mrs., exhibited a Roman 
inscribed measure of bronze, 98 ; 
Nathaniel, a boothman of New- 
castle, 189 

Clennell camp, Alwinton, 37 

Clephan, R. Coltman, F.S.A., on Ro- 
man Trier, 53 ; on armour, with 
an account of the tournament, 98, 

Clervaux, Richard, arms of, 224 

Clifton, Westmorland, collieries, etc. 
at, 208 

Clifton, Richard, deputy governor of 
Edinburgh castle, 184 

Clutterbuck, John, 232 

Coal : gin, description of a, 77 ; 
screens, 78 ; mines, explosions in, 
88 and n ; in Cockfield, 87 ; in 
Hartley district, names of, 73, 81 ; 
plan of, 74 ; horses, etc. for, 78 ; 
prices of, 78 ; bonds of pitmen, 
etc., 79 ; pay of hewers, 79 ; cesses 
paid by, 80 ; owners of, 82 ; in 
Pelton, etc., grant of, 213 ; at 
Twizell, near Chester-le-Street, 
171 ; sea, way-leave for, 20 

Coatsworth, Hannah, 187 (see also 

Cockayne, Right Hon. Charles, a 
daughter of, 13; Sir John, effigy 
of, 206 

Cockburne, Robert, of Shotton, 
Northumberland, 18 

Cockerton, a copyhold estate at, for 
sale, 104 

Cockfield, land, coal mines, etc. in, 87 

Codlaw hill, Roman milecastle, 49 

Coins, silver and copper, presented to 
museum, 98 ; found on beach at 
South Shields, 6, 33 

' Coldpig ' hall, co. Durham, an in- 
terest in, for sale, 232 (see also 

Cole, Mary, daughter of Sir William, 
184 ; Nicholas, name and arms on 
great mace of Newcastle, 21 ; of 
Gateshead, yeoman, action against, 
20 ; Sir Nicholas, 21 

Collars of ' Esses,' 223, 224, 229, 230 

Collier, Arthur J., D.L., 82 ; John, 84 ; 
William, and others, commissioners 
in bankruptcy in 1711, 52 

Colling, Hugh, of Barnardcastle, 
yeoman, will of, 29 

Collingwood, Robert, 213 ; Sarah, 
daughter of Alexander, of Un- 
thank, 188 ; Thomas, 188 

Collins, Mary, daughter of Rev. 
Emanuel, 225, 226 

Collinson, Henry King, son of John, 
of Sheen, vicar of Stannington, 183 

Colpighill, near Lanchester, sale of 
oak trees at, 171 (see also Coldpig 

Colpitts, George, Killingworth sold 
to, 210 

Colville, Jane, daughter of Edward, 
of Whitehouse, 188 ; Sir Robert 
de, of Arncliffe and Dale, kt., and 
wife Elizabeth, 107 

Commonwealth, ejections of ministers 
in time of, 181 

Communion plate of St. Nicholas's, 
Newcastle, 116 

Compton, William, of Lincoln's Inn, 
and his wife, buried in garden at 
Gainslaw, 167 

Condercum, see Benwell 

Coning, Thomas Walter, elected, 97 

Conference of Pleasure, A, presented, 
97 ; Parker Brewis on, 97 

Consett, Matthew, A Tour through 
Lapland, etc., 2ion 

Constable, Mr., 100 

Constance, council of, 174 ; cathedral 
church, brass in, 173, 174 

Conyers, Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Sir John, of Sockburn, 
167 ; Sir John, bt., and others, 258 

Cook, [Cooke], secretary, letter tOj 
204n ; prof. A. S., of Yale college, 
U.S.A., on Bewcastle cross, 2 ; 
Edward and John, his brother, 
agreement between, respecting 
Blakemoor, 104 ; George, 104 ; 
John, lands of, at Pelaw, 232 ; son 
of Timothy, 259 ; Timothy, of New- 
castle, draper, lands of, 259 ; Ann, 
relict of, 260 ; William, witness to 
a deed, 260 

Cookson, , sheriff of Newcastle, 17 ; 
and others, of Newcastle, iron- 



founders, 208 ; and partners, 
owners of South Shields glasshouse, 
209 ; Isaac, premises in occupation 
of, at South Shore, 36 ; John, of 
Newcastle, party to a deed, 208 
Copenhagen, taking of, 183 
Copland and Yeavering, farms of, to 

be sold, 104 

Copper, etc., armour of, 133 and n 
Coquetdale Rangers, the Rev. M. 
Culley on the, 98 ; uniform of 
the, 99 ; accoutrements of, 100 ; 
number of, 99 ; names in, 99 
Coquetdale, Upper, pre- Roman camps 
37 ; cists in, 41 ; cup-and-ring 
marked rocks, 41 ; standing stones, 
42 ; hut-circles, 42 ; various earth- 
works, 43 ; tumuli, cairns, etc., 

45 ; burial mounds, 47 
Corbridge, 64 ; new county history 

dealing with, 3 ; Roman altar from, 

118 ; town cross of, 118 ; (see also 

Corfe, Mrs., 96 
Corwith, 237 

Corn and cattle very cheap, 7, 30 
Corneto, Italy, effigy at, 139 
Cornsay, Lanchester parish, a farm 

at, to be sold, 171 
Coronation of the Virgin, on centre 

boss of font cover, St. Nicholas's, 

Newcastle, 116 

Coronations, hand on wand at, 169 
Corrie, Domenico, a musical album 

of, 58 
Corstopitum, excavations at, 51 (see 

also Corbridge) 
Cosin, bishop of Durham, marriage 

of daughter of, 2O3n 
Cotesworth, captain, 7, 31 (see also 

Cottington, Fra., 260 
Coucy, Mathieu de, 140 
Council, etc., election of, for 1915, i ; 

for 1916, 161 
Coupland, see Copland 
Courtrai, battle of, 143 
Coventins's well, 168 and n 
Cowey sike, Roman Wall turret, 50 
Cowshill, Weardale, large stone im- 
plement found at, 195, 196 
Coxlodge, freehold estate of, to be 

sold, 171 
Crackanthorpp, John, of Newbiggin, 

Westmorland, 228 
Cracow cathedral, brass of Cardinal 

Jagiellos in, 164 
Cradock, Mr., 164 
Craghead camp, Rothbury, 39 
Cragside hill, Rothbury, tumulus on, 

46 ; mounds on, 46, 47 

' Craster tables,' the, 210 and n 
Crawley, earthwork camp, 52 
' Creasing,' 77 
Creke, John de, brass of, 205 

Cressey, Sir John, effigy of, 207 
Cretan period of Greek civilization, 


Crete, the poet of the Odyssey on, 235 
Crewe, lord, bishop of Durham, ex- 
communication by, 36 ; perambu- 
lation of Blanchland manor by 
trustees of, 6 

Crigdon hill, Alwinton, curricks on, 45 
Crissop, George, of Newcastle, ad- 
ministration to goods of, 29 
Croft, Yorkshire, arms of Richard 
Clervaux, 224 ; Monkend farm at, 
for sale, 140 
Crofte, Edmund of Stowe, Suffolk, 

and others, grant to, 170 
Cromwell, Oliver, seal of, 204 
Croney, Mrs., letter addressed to, 7 
Cross Hill farm, Whittingham, 40 
Crowhurst, Surrey, brass at, 139 
Crucifixion, carved stone of, in St, 

Nicholas's church, Newcastle, in 
1 Crwth ' the, 62 
Cuirassier, armour of a, 148 
Cuir-bouilli armour, 131 
Cullen, W. H., on the collar of ' Esses/ 
204 ; exhibited and presented sil- 
ver medal of queen Anne, 28, 33 
presented coins, etc., 66, 98 
Culley, cap. Matthew, of Coupland 
castle, 99 ; date of commission, 99 
names of his troop of Coquetdale 
Rangers, 99 ; Rev. M., on the 
Coquetdale Rangers, 98 
Cup-and-ring markings on rocks in 
Upper Coquetdale, 41, 42, 43 ; 
known as ' cups and saucers,' 42 
Curators' report for 1915, 4; for 

1916, 163 

Currency bars of iron from Bourton 
on the Water, given to museum, 
27 ; P. Brewis on, 27 ; found at 
Glastonbury, 27 

Curwen, Sir Christopher, effigy of, 230 
Cushat law, Alwinton, a cairn on, 45 
Cusson, William, chaplain, 86 
Cuthbert, Sergeant, 158 ; Capt. James 
Harold, missing, 103 ; John, re- 
corder of Newcastle, 52 and n ; 
wife Dorothy, 52n ; buried, 52n ; 
mural monument in St. Nicholas's 
church, Newcastle, 5211 ; and 
others, commissioners in bank- 
ruptcy, 52 ; William, recorder of 
Newcastle, 52n 
Cuthbertson, George, Newcastle 

town clerk, signature of, 244 
Cutter, John, of Newcastle, glazier, 

grant to, 231 
Cyclopean masonry, 236 
Cymbals, the, 59 


Daedalus, 235 



Dagnia family, and glass manufac- 
ture, 2o8n ; Mrs. Margaret, 210 ; 
Margery, widow of Onesiphorus, 

Dagworth, Sir Nicholas, brass of; 134 

Dallingbridge, Sir Edward, effigy of, 

Dalston, John, of Accornbanke, 228 

Dalton, Margery, daughter of Rich- 
ard, of West Auckland, 166 

' Dampadores, old,' on pane of glass, 

Dampier, Thomas, dean of Durham, 
monumental inscription of, 187 ; 
bishop of Rochester and Ely, 187 

Darfield church, Yorkshire, effigy in, 

Dargues, earthwork camp, 52 

Darlington, effigy in St. Cuthbert's 
church at, 126 

Davies, Dr., 164 ; and Denis Gren- 
ville, dean of Durham, 226-228 ; 
John, of Hereford, 97 

Davison [Davidson], Patrick, of Hex- 
ham, merchant, 7, 24 ; Ralph, 
justice itinerant, 87 ; Theophila, 
second wife of Thomas, of Blak- 
iston, autograph of, 211 ; death of, 
2ii ; son of, 211 ; Thomas, of New- 
castle, 200 ; William, of Blakiston, 
book-plate of, 211 ; arms of, 211 ; 
of Plymouth, and wife Grace, 188 ; 
rector of Scruton, autograph of, 211 

Davy, Sir Humphrey, and the safety 
lamp, 87 ; an hon. member of the 
Newcastle Society of Antiquaries, 
88 ; at Hebburn hall, 90 

Daw's cairn, Al win ton, 45 

Dawson, Hester, daughter of Wil- 
liam, of Newcastle, roper, 208 

Deane, Northants, effigy at, 224 

Deaths of members, 3 et seq. 

Debdon moor, burial mounds on, 47 

Delamere, lady, effigy of, 230 

Delavals, collieries belonging to the, 
Mr. W. W. Tomlinson on, 67 

Delaval, admiral, 7, 30 ; ' very Bussye 
in Parliamentareing,' 24 ; killed by 
a fall from his horse, 72 ; lord, a 
mining report to, 77 ; death of, 82 ; 
Edward, 249 ; Sir John Hussey, 
built mausoleum at Seaton Delaval, 

Delphi, 237 ; the bronze charioteer 
from, 237 

Dendy, F. W., Visitations of the North, 

Denison, Elizabeth, widow of Thomas, 
of Leeds, epitaph of, 225 ; Robert, 
of Kilnwick Percy, 225 

Dennington church, Suffolk, effigies 
in, 207 

Dent, of Newcastle, arms of, 120 ; 
R. J., abstract of old deed belong- 
ing to, 85 

Denton burn, small part of Roman 
Wall east of, to be seen, 48 

Denton, Catherine, 211 ; Sir John de, 
rector of Romaldkirk, witness to a 
grant, 86 

Derwent, etc., great floods on the, 68 

Derwentwater estates, ' a particular 
or rental ' of, 14, 18 

Derwentwater, countess of, letters to, 
8, 23, 29-31, 63, 67 et seq., 82, 124, 
127, 157-159; jointure of, 94 ; not 
yet allowed, 31 ; money of, 72 ; 
rent charge of, 100, 101 ; counsel's 
opinion on, 101, 102 ; deed of sepa- 
ration, 101 ; devise to little lord, 
100 ; earl of, entry in church regis- 
ter of execution of, 24 ; monument 
at Acton to, 24 ; Francis, earl of, 
69 ; James, earl of, monument to, 

Dethicke, Thomas, of Greatham, will 
of, 29 

Devil's water, great floods on the, 68, 
159 ; rise of, 127 ; damage to dam, 
etc., 127 ; the Warren, 127 ; Wide- 
haugh, 127 

Dew's hill, Alwinton, cairn on, 45 
(see also Daw's cairn) 

Dickinson, Thomas, 99 

Dickson, John, of York, linen draper, 
-84 ; Thomas, of Wooler, 99 ; Wil- 
liam, of Spittle, 172 

Digswell, Herts, effigies at, 224 

Dilston, not well husbanded, 71 ; 
great floods took away part of soil, 
71 ; tenants not able to pay, 71 ; 
abatement of land tax for, 64 ; 
cottagers, 30 ; house, an invitation 
to, 70 ; mill dam destroyed by 
flood, 68 

Disford, John de, a York clerk, no- 
tarial mark of, 56, 57 

Dixon, Abraham, of Newcastle, bap- 
tism of, 187 ; wife Alice, 187 ; 
monumental inscription of, 187 ; 
master and mariner, and wife Bar- 
bara, 187 ; will of, 187 ; D.D., and 
another, on pre- Roman camps in 
Upper Coquetdale, 37 

Dobson, Margaret, of Newcastle, 
widow, 231 

Dodderidge, Alfred George, vicar of 
Stannington, 183 

Dodds, Miss M. Hope, on the butchers 
company of Newcastle, 150 ; and 
another, on the Pilgrimage of Grace, 
etc., 163 

Dodford church, Northants, effigy in, 

Donatello made designs for enriched 
armour, 145 

Donkin, general Robert, son of Ayns- 
ley, of Morpeth, epitaph of, 225 ; 
Mary, wife of, 225, 226 ; son of, 
225 ; Sir Rufane Shaw, K.C.B., M.P. 



for Berwick, etc., 225 ; Talavera 
medal of, 225 

Dorchester, Oxon., effigy at, 224 

Douglas, Charles Joseph, of Witton 
hall, 103 ; John, 31, 249 

Dour hill earthwork camp, 5^ 

Dover castle, 118 

Down hill Roman milecastle, 48 

Dowthwait, Thomas, witness to livery 
of seisin, 86 

Draulace, William, house of, in 
Barnardcastle, 87 

Drayton, Sir John, effigy of, 224 

Dresden, body-armour at, 129 ; har- 
nesses of brass at, nsn 

Dryburnside, co. Durham, devise of, 

Dudley church, Worcestershire, fe- 
male effigy in, 230 

Dudley, Robert, earl of, portrait of, 

Duff, prof. Wight, on Greek originals 
in monastic libraries, 186 ; on some 
sites of Greek civilization, 234 

Duffeld, John de, vicar of Stanning- 
ton, i 80 

Dunbar, battle of, 121 

Duncan, quartermaster Thomas, 
Humbleton, 99 

Dunk, Geo. Montague, earl of Halifax, 
property of, to be sold, 171 

Dunelmo, Lawrence de, burgess of 
Newcastle, grant to, 86 

Dunn, Rev. Alexander, elected, 201 ; 
George, of Pilgrim street, New- 
castle, 16 ; Matthias, viewer at 
Hebburn colliery, 90 ; Theophilus, 
of 'Scotch arms,' Morpeth, 216 

Dunstanburgh, inq. p.m. held at, 
214 ; castle, 213 ; projected meet- 
ing at, not held, 2 ; etc. held by 
Henry, duke of Lancaster, 214 

Dunster, Somerset, effigy at, 224 

Durant, William, buried in his garden 
in Pilgrim street, Newcastle, 179 ; 
tombstone of, 179 

Durer, Albrecht, made designs for 
enriched armour, 145 

Durham, a sixteenth century journey 
to. 149 ; armourers at, 178 ; 
characters at, 240 ; inscription on 
pane of glass at, 26 ; North Bailey, 
(Rev. Dr. Greenwell's), 32 ; burial 
in a garden at, 179 

Durham, bishop of, lease by, of Dur- 
ham tithes, 100 ; vicar- general of, 
82 ; free rent out of lands payable 
to, 23 ; bishops : Barrington, 183 ; 
Beaumont, 180 ; Bek, 8; Cosin, 
2osn ; lord Crewe, 36 ; Tunstall, 

Durham, dean of, : Denis Grenville, 

Durham, archdeacons of, Gabriel 

Clarke, D.D., 29, 184, 203n ; Denis 
Granville, 2oyn. 

Durham, spiritual chancellor of, 184 

Durham : monastery, grant of Mor- 
wick to, 1 80 ; almoner's book of, 
194 ; Robert, prior of, grant of 
land to, 166 ; cathedral, galilee of, 
117; treasury, ancient notarial 
marks in, 56 

Durham diocese, visitation of, 181 ; 
old records of presentations to 
benefices in, 203 

Durham co., introduction of steel 
making in, 177 ; eighteenth cen- 
tury afforestation in, 218 

Durham, Northumberland and, monu- 
mental inscriptions in Bath abbey 
church, 1 86, 225 ; Archaeological 
Society, joint meeting with, 105 

Durham field, Shotley parish, estate 
at, to be sold, 216 

Dycon, Thomas, house and land in 
Foxton of, 86 

Dykeham's Edge, Alwinton, a currick 
on, 45 

Eagle lectern of brass, ancient, in St. 
Nicholas's church, Newcastle, 116 

Earthwork camps, 52 

Easebourne church, West Sussex, 207, 

Easington, co. Durham, rectors of, 
presentation of William Pell, 203, 
204 ; Gabriel Clarke, 2O3n ; Denis 
Granville, 2O3n ; letter dated from, 

East Brandon, co. Durham, manor, 
etc. of, 258 

East Newton, see Newton, east, 170 

East Shaftoe, Northumberland, es- 
tate at, for sale, 232 

Eden, Sir Robert, bt., justice itine- 
rant, 87 

Edinburgh castle, Richard Clifton, 
deputy governor of, 184 

Edleston, R. H., brass rubbings ex- 
hibited by, 164, 173 ; notes on, 173 

Edmiston, Mr., of Mindrum, 103 

Edward iv (?), half groat of, found, 
213 ; vi, grant by, of office of 
steward of Barnardcastle, 14 

Effigies, 204 ; with collars of Esses, 
206, 207, 223, 224, 230 ; cross- 
legged, 229 ; St. Nicholas's church, 
Newcastle, in ; St. Cuthbert's 
church, Darlington, 126 ; in the 
Temple church, 131 ; Stoke d' 
Abernon church, 131 ; Trumping- 
ton church, 131 ; of Black prince, 
132 ; Hoveringham church, 135 ; 
Sir John Swinford, i35n ; Beau- 
champ, 136 ; at Corneto, 139 



Egglestone, W. Morley, notes on an 
election medal of 1832, and of a 
copper perambulation medal of 
1839 of Blanchland, 5, 6 ; on in- 
scribed skillets found in Upper 
Weardale, 9 ; on stone implements 
from Stanhope, 178; exhibited 
drawings of pre-historic stone ob- 
jects, etc., from Weardale, 194 

Egliston, abbot of, a burgage of, in 
Barnardcastle, 86 

Egyptian object presented, 66 

Eldon, lord chancellor, 122 ; fac- 
simile autograph of, 200 

Election of council and officers for 
1915, i ; for 1916, 161 

Election bill, old, for Northumber- 
land, 33 

Elford, grant of lease of, 21511 ; 
church, Staffordshire, effigies in, 

Elizabeth, queen, grant by, of stew- 
ardship of Barnard castle, 14, 18 ; 
coins of, found on South Shields 
beach, 34 

Ellin gham, vicars of, 100 

Elliott, Richard, of Wooler, 99 

Ellison, Cuthbert, son of Samuel, of 
the Side, Newcastle, vicar of Stan- 
nington, 182 ; wrote Benwel village, 
182 ; burial of, 182 ; a memoir of, 
182 ; of Hebburn hall, 90 ; Henry, 
of Hebburn, wife Henrietta, 187; 
monumental inscription of, 187 ; 
Isabel, daughter of Rev. Nathaniel, 
marriage of, 182 ; William, alder- 
man of Newcastle, 231 

Elmsall, Elizabeth, wife of Henry, 82 

Elsdori, properties near for sale, 104 ; 
rectory, Conyers Rutter presented 
to, 203 ; Thomas Pye, ' a preaching 
minister,' 203n ; Henderson, an 
intruder ejected, 2O3n ; Jerome 
Nelson, instituted to, 2O3n 

Elstob, of Foxton, pedigree of, 86n ; 
Mr., 94 ; John, of Foxton, 86 ; 
Robert, of Little Staynton, grant 
to, 86 ; William, 86 ; Emma, wife 
of, 86n 

Elswick, lands in manor of, to be 
sold, 171 

Elwick hall, Denis Granville, rector, 

Elworth, Cheshire, Ambrose Jones, 

perpetual curate of, 183 
Ely, Thomas Dampier, bishop of, 187 
Embleton, projected meeting at, not 

held, 2 ; bay, inscribed rock in, 217 
Emeldon, Christina, formerly wife 

of Richard de, inq. p.m., 214 ; held 

lands in dower, 214 ; Jacoba, 214 ; 

Richard de, inq. p.m., 214 ; daugh- 

ters of, 214 
Emerson, John, of Sunderland in 

Weardale, yeoman, conveyance to, 

84 ; Thomas, of Sunderland in 
Weardale, conveyance by, 84 ; 
William, of Hurworth, a notice of, 

Emley, Yorkshire, 189 

Empson, Charles, a bookseller of New- 
castle, window to memory of, 187 

Enlistment of a soldier, a certificate 
of, 250 

Ephesus, examples of art from, 237 ; 
temple of Artemis at, 237 

Epitaphs in Bath churches, 212, 225 

Errington, Mr., 95, 101, 124, 127 ; 
of ' Wallick Grange,' 70 ; George, 
6 ; ' but an odd sort of aman,' 63 ; 
cause of loss to Radcliffes, 71 ; 
oppression of tenants by, 71 ; ' no 
body will believe him,' 71 ; of 
Gray's Inn, son of Nicholas, of 
Ponteland, 3in; ' jockeyed Coll. 
Radcliffe out of Plessy colliery,' 
3 in ; burial of, 3 in ; of Hartford 
bridge, 172 ; and his partners, of 
Alston moor, 8 ; Thomas, agent for 
Radcliffes, letters of, 6, 23, 29 et 
seq., 63, 67 et seq., 82 ; of Sandhoe, 
3in ; admitted to Newcastle host- 
men's co., sin 

Eryholme, Yorkshire, parish registers 
of, 232 

Escombe, Mr. Longstaffe's account of 
church, 24211 ; parish registers, T. 
Ball on, 242 ; names in, 243 ; 
vicars of, R. E. Ragg, 242 ; J. E. 
Kemp, 243 ; sexton of, 243 ; be- 
quests to poor of, 244 ; officially 
' visited,' 244 

Esh, Rev. John Hodgson, curate of, 

' Esses,' collars of, 204, 223, 224, 229, 

Essex, Sir Walter, M.P., gift of an iron 
currency bar to museum, 27 

Etterick, William, son of Walter, of 
Sunderland, and others, demise by, 

Eure, lord, grant of possessions of 
Jarrow cell to, 176 ; Sir Robert, 
259 ; [Ewer], Ann, of Dartmouth 
street, Westminster, 258 

Evans, Sir Arthur, president of 
British Association, 235 ; his ex- 
cavations at Knossos, 235 

Ewesley camps, Netherwitton, 40 

Excellent, H.M.S., 221 

Exchequer, Walter Mildmay, kt., 
chancellor of the, 20 

Excommunication, letters of, against 
Lancelot Newton, 36 

Exeter, Ralph Brownrig, bishop of, 

Eyre, Mr., bond to, 95 ; Sir Robert, 


Eyton, John ap Ellis, and wife, 
effigies of, 230 . 


Fairer, William, of Warcopp, West- 
morland, 228 

Fairless, Matthew, of Monk in Allen- 
dale, yeoman, will of, 29 

Fairs at Stagshaw bank, 72 

Fallay, William, of Newcastle, chap- 
man, a bankrupt, 52 

Farelly, doctor, 94, 95 

Farkers, John, of the ' Great West 
farm,' Newsham, 18 

Farlom, Samuel, of Nether Bishop- 
side, Allendale, yeoman, will of, 29 

Farnington, William, of Wooler, 99 

Farquhar, Cap. George, of Holystone, 
etc., 207 ; death of, 2o7n ; Col. 
Robert, of Whitton, 207 ; burial 
of, 207n 

Faudon, John de, a juror, 214 

Fawsley, Northants, effigy at, 224 

' Fearnought,' a kind of woollen cloth 
for colliery use, 81 

Fearon, Mary, daughter of Thomas, 
of South Shields, buried in garden, 

Featherwood, Redesdale, Roman 
altar found at, 28 

Felbrigg, Sir George, brass of, 134 

Fell, William, witness to a deed, 228 

Fellin, 69 

Felling colliery, explosion at, 88 ; 
many deaths, 88 ; Rev. J. Hodg- 
son's pamphlet on, 89 

Felton, manor of, 170 

Felton, John de, a juror, 214; Rob- 
ert, 170 

Fenwick, Mr., of Lemington, near 
Am wick, 172 ; alderman, 31 ; dr., 
89 ; Dorothy, daughter of Nicho- 
las, of Lemington, 189, 190 ; Eliza- 
beth, 190 ; daughter of Robert, of 
Lemington, 189 ; Col. George, of 
Brinkburn, 184 ; the widow of, 167 ; 
Jane, wife of Robert, of Newcastle, 
monumental inscription of, 188 ; 
will of, 1 88 ; Mary, daughter of 
Sir William, of Wallington, 184; 
Nicholas, mayor of Newcastle, 231 ; 
wine merchant, retired from busi- 
ness, 172 ; Robert, of Lemington, 
232 ; Roger and William, witnesses 
to a deed, 183 ; William, 172 

Fenwick and Waters, 30, 64, 68, 69, 
71, 82 

Ferny Chesters earthwork camp, 52 

Fetherstonhaugh, Ralph, v. William 
Surtees, claim of houses, etc., 32 

Fiddler, carved capital, representing 
a, 108 

Field names, 231 

Fifth Foot, uniform of the, 216 

Finchale priory, visit to, 2 ; thir- 
teenth century work at, 108 

Fire damp, request for bottles filled 
with, 90 

Fishwecke, Thomas, Eadsforth, 
Crook, husbandman, will of, 29 

Fitz-Osbert, William, horse of, 
' housed in chain-mail, 139 

Fitzwilliam, Edmund, and wife Maud, 
effigies of, 230 

' Five kings, the,' standing stones on 
Woodhouses beacon, 42 

Flemish brass in All Saints church, 
Newcastle, 120 

Fletcher, Sir George, bt., of Hutton 
hall, Cumberland, 228 ; William, 
of Hartford bridge-house, 18 

Floods, great, on the Tyne, etc., 68, 71 

Florentine civil dress, 136 

Flowerdew, John, 84 

Follingsby, estate at, for sale, 104 

Fonts : All Saints, 120 ; and St. 
Nicholas's churches, 116, 117 

' Foot ball cairn,' Rothbury, 46 

' Foot- gangs ' on waggon ways, 77 

Forester, John, of Corbrigg,'a juror, 

Forfeited estates, commissioners of 
the, 7 

Forrest, Edward, steward of Barnard 
castle, 20 

Forster, pedigree, 184 ; Mrs., 95 ; 
Charles D., elected, 185 ; Colling 
wood, of Alnwick, 104, 232 ; 
Dorothy, 210, 211; autograph of, 
211 ; Elizabeth, daughterof Thomas, 
of Cleadon, 225 ; dame Elizabeth, 
of Blanchland, administration to 
goods of, 29 ; Francis, witness to 
a will, 2isn ; George, 210 ; Henry, 
alderman of Durham, 189 ; daugh- 
ter Jane, 189 ; John, witness to a 
will, 215 ; Margery, daughter of 
George, of North Shields, master 
and mariner, 208 ; Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Thomas, marriage settlement 
of, 183 ; Thomas, of Etherston, and 
others, parties to marriage settle- 
ment, 183 ; seal of, 183 (see also 

Forsters and Bacons, 183 

Forthe, John, of Newcastle, merchant, 
will of, 29 

Forts, Roman, per lineam valli, 48 

Foster, Giles, clerk, curate of Witton 
le Wear, administration to goods of, 
29 ; Thomas, of Ryhope, property 
of, to be sold, 171 (see also Forster) 

Foul play, east and west, earthwork 
camps, 52 

Founders of Societies, 257 

Fourlaws earthwork camp, 52 

Fourstones, Radcliffe tenants at, 68 

Fowler, Rev. J. T., on early painted 
glass in Lan Chester church, 194 

Foxton [Foxden], co. Durham, grant 
of land in, 86 



Francis, William, death of, 4 
Franklin, the late Rev. R. J., of 

Newcastle, 201 
Freere, James, of Barnardcastle, 

cordiner, grant to, 86 ; [Frear], 

Roger, of Newcastle, cordiner, a 

juryman, 22 
Freman, Henry, witness to a grant, 


Freshfield, dr., on notarial marks, 56 
Friarside, co. Durham, a farm at, to 

be sold, 171 
Friedrich n., duke of Leignitz and 

Brug, armour forged for, 139 
Frogenhall, John, effigy of, 224 
Frosterley and Rogerly, manors of, 

to be sold, 171 
Fryston, Yorkshire, tree- plan ting at, 


Fryzzell, Robert, of Newcastle, tailor, 
a juryman, 22 

FVI.GVR DIVOM, Roman inscription, 
added to society's collection, 240 

Fulleshurst, Sir Robert, effigy of, 206 

Fulthorpe, [Fulthrope], of Thirkleby, 
167 ; Thomas, receiver of Barnard- 
castle, witness to a grant, 86 

Gage, Sir John, effigy of, 207 
Gainslaw, near Berwick, burial-vault 

in garden at, 167 
Gallowlaw camp, Alwinton, 37 
Gardner, Robert, of Wooler, 99 
Gardner's England's Grievance dis- 
covered, 245 
Garesfield, etc., farms at, to be sold, 


Garforth, Mr., of York, wine mer- 
chant, 68 

Garley moor, Rothbury forest, burial 
mounds on, 47 ; cup-and-ring 
marked rocks on, 41, 42 
Garlington, Mr., 128, 158, 159 
Gascoigne, Sir William, effigy of, 230 ; 

lady, 95 

Gateshead, jurisdiction of Newcastle 
courts extended over borough of, 
23 ; iron foundries at, 208 ; deed 
relating to glass factory at, 36 ; 
early books printed at, 181 ; St. 
Mary's church, arcade of, 109 ; 
rector of, annual payment to, for 
parson's flatt, 21 

Gaunt, John of, collar of ' esses,' 
supposed to have been introduced 
by, 205 ; extract from will of, 205 ; 
queen Philippa, daughter of, 206 ; 
Blanche, wife of, 214 
Gawsworth, Cheshire, 189 
Gaynsford, John, brass of, 139 
Gee, Rev. H., D.D., F.S.A., on date of 
issue of two proclamations during 
French wars, 14 ; on early North- 

umbrian libraries, 186 ; on a six- 
teenth century journey to Durham, 

' Geig,' the, a musical instrument, 61 

Genealogists Society, local parish 
registers presented to the, 232 

German : origin, armour of, 136 ; men 
at arms, 'barded' horses of, 139; 
Reiters, 143; armour-smith, 144; 
societies struck off list of exchang- 
ing societies, 2 

Germans, wanton injury to Louvain, 
Rheims and Ypres, 2 

Giants, battle of the, 237 

Gibson, Henry, witness to a deed, 
209 ; Jasper, of Hexham, 104 ; 
John, castle attendant, an assistant 
to, appointed, 3 ; death of, 25, 162 ; 
and obituary notice, 25 ; and 
David, Murray's farm let to, 232 ; 
Philip, of Newcastle, attorney, 26 ; 
S. A., (Miss), elected, 34 ; acknow- 
ledgment of society's letter of sym- 
pathy from, 33 ; William, of New- 
castle, distiller, 231 ; W. W., on 
tree planting at Woodlands, 223 

Giggleswick church, Yorkshire, male 
effigy in, 230 

Gilbertson, Andrew, of St. Nicholas's, 
Newcastle, administration to goods 
of, 29 

Gilesgate, Durham, admittance to 
property in borough of, 67 

Gill, Westby, 259 

Gregson, Richard, lands in Newcastle 
sold to, 260 

Gillespy, William, of Shotten, North- 
umberland, 1 8 

Gilpin, Richard, of Closegate meeting 
house, Newcastle, 204n ; letter of, 
204n ; Simon, jun., clerk, and land 
in Cockfield, 87 

Gimbel, Karl, of Baden Baden, 147 

Glaister, John, of Wooler, 99 

Glass, inscriptions on panes of, 32 ; 
thirteenth century painted, in Lan- 
chester church, 194 

Gloucester, charter given to, 207 

Gloves given by the sheriff of New- 
castle, 248 

Goetenburgh, captain Wolff von, 
agreement between Henry viu 
and, 144 

Goodrich court collection of armour, 

Gordon, lady Betty, daughter of 
Alexander, second duke of, 168 

Gorleston church, brass formerly in, 

Gosforth, south, 170 

Goshall, Sir John, effigy of, 222 

'Gothic' armour, 129, 134 

Gough, Mrs., a son of, 96 

Gowans, Andrew, of Wooler, 99 

Gower, John, the poet, effigy of, 207 



Graper, Agnes, wife of Adam, 214 
Graston, John, chaplain, grant to, 86 
' Grathing,' 81 
Gray, George, 213 ; John, vicar of 

Kirknewton, exchange by, 181 ; 

Rev. Robert, rector of Bishopwear- 

mouth, and the safety lamp, 89 

(see also Grey) 
Great Addington, see Addington, 

Greatchesters, Roman fort, 51 ; bath 

building at, 51 ; aqueduct, 51 
Great Tew church, Oxon., brass in, 


Greek civilization, some sites of, 234 ; 
lantern slides illustrating, 234; 
periods of, 235 

Green, [Greene! , of Gateshead, agent 
for Sarah Bonner, 36 ; John, of 
Allhallowes, Newcastle, merchant, 
will of, 29 ; Sir Thomas and Phil- 
ippa, effigies of, 224 

Greenchesters, earthwork camp, 52 

Green's Norton, effigies at, 224 

Green well, [Grenewell], Anne, daugh- 
ter of William, of Ford, 221 ; Eliza- 
beth, letters of, 253 ; uncle of, 254 ; 
John, of Broomshields, 221 ; of St. 
Sepulchre's, London, and others, 
demise by, 231 ; Joshua, suspended 
from practice in sheriff's court, 23 ; 
Peter, of Wolsingham, yeoman, ; 
William, lands of, at Pelaw, 232 ; 
William Thomas, of Ford, 220 ; 
W. T., 251 ; father of Rev. W., 251 ; 
William, of Pelton, yeoman, lands 
of, 260 

Greenwich, German armour smiths 
installed at, 144 

Gregory, Dr. James, an eminent Scot- 
tish physician, 256 and n 

Gregory, R. W., elected, 185 

Grendal, John de, rector of Stanning- 
ton, i 80 

Grenville, Denis, archdeacon of Dur- 
ham, etc., aosn ; wife of, 2O3n ; 
dean of Durham, letters of, 164, 
226 ; and Dr. Davies, 226-228 

Grey, Catherine Maria, wife of Charles, 
of Morwick, buried in garden, 168 ; 
Dorothy, daughter of John, of Ho- 
wick, 189 ; Edward, witness to a 
deed, 168 ; George, of Milfield, iso- 
lated burial of, 168 ; James, 103 ; 
John, of Wooler, 99 ; John, jun., 
17* ; of Alnwick, 103 ; stock in 
trade of, for sale, 104 ; Mary, of 
the Cottages, Newsham, 19 (see 
also Gray) 

Greystoke church, Cumberland, male 
effigy in, 230 

Greystoke, John, i6th baron, sup- 
posed effigy of, 230 

Grieve, Davidson Richard, of Swar- 
land, 208 ; death of, 2o8n ; Eliza- 

beth, wife of Richard, of Alnwick,. 

attorney, monumental inscription 

of, 1 88 ; George, an ' actor in the 

French revolution,' 188 
Grindon Roman earthwork, 50 
Grunewalts of Nuremberg, armourers,. 

Grushill, Sir Robert, effigy ascribed 

to, 135, 207 
Guitar, the, 62 

Gunby, Lincolnshire, effigy at, 224 
Gyles, Mr., the proctor, 102 


Habitancum, bronze vase from, 239; 
gift of Roman inscription, etc. from,. 
238 (see also Risingham) 

Hackington St. Stephen's, Kent, 
effigy at, 224 

Hackwell, parish of Stamfordham, 
houses and lands in, to be sold, 103 

Haggitt, dr., rector of Washington, 

Hails, [Hales], Phillip, witness to a 
deed, 232 ; William Anthony, bal- 
lotted for militia in 1810, 212 ; 'best 
hebrew scholar in England,' 212 
(see also Hale) 

Hakthorp, John, clerk of Thomas de, 

Hale, Edward de la, effigy of, 230- 
(see also Hails) 

Halicarnassus, examples of art from, 

Halifax, earl of, see Dunk 

Hall, monument in St. Nicholas's 
church, Newcastle, in ; Charles, 
of Overacres, 104 ; George, of Pel- 
ton, yeoman, demise to, 231 ;. 
James, of Fenham, 99 ; of Wooler, 
99 ; John, of Wooler, 99 ; Joseph, 
of Wooler, 99 ; Mark, stipendiary 
curate of Stannington, 182 ; Roger, 
of Catcleugh, 208 ; burial of, 2o8n 

Halliwell-Phillipps sale, manuscript 
letters from the, 198, 237, 257, 258 

Hallum, bishop Robert, of Salisbury, 
brass of, 173, 174 

Hallyday, Anthony, lands of, at 
Pelaw, 232 ; Stephen, vicar of 
Stannington, 181 ; bequest to, 180- 

Haltoa Roman fort, 49 ; Shields, 
Roman milecastle, 48 

Haltwhistle burn, Roman water-mill 
on east side of, 51 ; Roman fort, 
52 ; Stanegate near, 52 ; Roman 
temporary camps discovered near r 
126, 196 

Hammond, Henry, of London, glass- 
cutter, party to a deed, 36 

Handasyd, Clifford, estate of, near" 
Rothbury, 104 

Hansard, Alice, daughter of Sir 
Robert, of Walworth, kt.. 166 



Hapvott (?), Roger, witness to a deed, 

Harbottle, manor of, 170 ; castle, 213 

Harcourt, Sir Robert, effigy of, 207 ; 
Simon lord, lord high chancellor, 

Hardcastle, William, exhibited auto- 
graph letters, 54 ; presented knit- 
ting sheath, 194 

Hardman, Humphrey, vicar of Stan- 
nington, 181 ; his son apprenticed, 

Harecleugh camp, Alwinton, 37 

Harehaugh, near Rothbury, for sale, 

Harewood, Yorkshire : church, effigies 
in, 230 ; choir screen of, 207, 23on ; 
house, letter dated from, 90 

Harle, Jonathan, 2O3n ; pastor at 
Morpeth, etc., 204n (see also Herle) 

Harlow hill Roman milecastle, 48 

' Harnesses', boys,' 145 

Harnham, private burial at, 167 

Harper, Eleanor, wife of Robert, of 
Sunderland, buried in orchard, 179 ; 
[Harpur], Richard, judge of court 
of common pleas, effigy of, 230 

Harpsichord, the, 63 

Harington, of Aldingham, John, 4th 
baron, effigy of, 224 

Harraton, co. Durham, deed relating 
to land at, 258 

Harris, Renatus, organ of St. Nichol- 
as's church, Newcastle, made by, 

Harrison, Jasper, of Newcastle, 172 ; 
John, of Chester le Street, yeoman, 
and. others, grant by, 213 ; Philip, 
and Catherine his wife, and another, 
grant by, 213 ; Thomas, of Dry- 
burnside, co. Durham, yeoman, and 
Elizabeth his wife, and others, 
demise by, 231 ; of London, coal 
factor, a bankrupt, 171 (see also 

Hart, co. Durham, manor of, 171 ; 
lands and rectory of, to be sold, 103, 

Hartburn, John Snape, vicar, ejected, 

Hartford church, Huntingdonshire, 
Derwentwater entry in register, 24 

Hartlepool, pre-conquest ' pillow- 
stones ' found at, 53, 193 

Hartley, loss of fishermen at, 249 ; 
petition to justices for help to 
widows, etc. of, 249 ; bottle works, 
books, and papers found in, 73 ; 
' box,' 80 ; colliery, old, extracts 
from books and papers of, 73 ; pay- 
bills of, 73 ; district, list of pits 
sunk in the, 73, 75 ; waggon-ways, 
77 ; pitmen, 79 ; pay of, 79 

Hartley, L., of Middleton, near Rich- 
mond, 172 

Hartshorne, on collar of Esses, 224 

Harvy, Anthony, of Swarland, and 
others, grant to, 170 

Harwod, [Herwod], Robert, witness 
to grants, 86 (see also Herwod) 

Hastings, battle of, 139 

Hastings, lord, beheaded in 1383,. 
supposed effigy of, 206 

Hatfield, Robert de, and wife Ada, 
brasses of, 230 

Hatherope, 100 

Haulsey, Edward, of Staple Inn, 85 

Haverfield, prof. F., on newly dis- 
covered Roman altars at Chester- 
holm, 28 ; on a Roman inscribed 
measure of bronze exhibited, 98 

Hawdon, George, vicar of Stanning- 
ton, 181 ; children of, 182 

Hawks, Sir Robert, son of William, 
letter to, 175 ; Robert Shafto, 175 

Hawks, Crawshay & Sons, firm of, 175 

Hawkesworth, Robert, witness to a 
deed, 232 

Hawkwell, Thornton, 170 

Hawlee, John, 203 

Hazon, sale of manor of, 215 ; lands 
at, 215 ; mill, 2i5n 

Head, John, of New Road, Newcastle,. 
1 6 ; Thomas, of Pandon bank, 
Newcastle, 16 

Heaviside, Richard, of Rainton, 
monumental inscription of, 188 

Hebburn, colliery, Davy's safety lamp 
tried in, 92 ; Mathias Dunn, viewer 
at, 90 ; hall, Sir Humphrey Davy 
at, 90 

Heddon on the Wall Roman mile- 
castle, 48 

Hedewyn, see Hidewyn, Hydewyn 

Hedley, John, of Thockrington, yeo- 
man, will of, 29 

Hedwin, see Hydewyn, Hidewyn 

Hedworth, Jo., witness to a deed, 260; 
Sir John, and Dorothy his wife, 
and others, 258 

Heighington, Samuel Viner, vicar of, 

Helsingborg, Sweden, siege of, 174 

Hellenism, zenith of typical, 235 

Hellenistic period of Greek civiliza- 
. tion, 235 

Henderson, Mr., Dyer's Court, Alder- 
manbury, 36 ; 'an intruder' ejected 
from Elsdon rectory, 2O3n ; Thom- 
as, of Chatton, 99 

Henknowle, grant of land at, in 
exchange, 106 and n 

Henry, Sir, son of Hugh, witness to 
a grant, 86 ; the tailor, witness to 
a grant, 87 

Henry n, built Newcastle castle, 117 ; 
his son in rebellion, 117 ; of France, 
death of, 141 ; iv, portrait of, 207 ; 
and v, effigies of, 207 ; viu, en- 
graved suit of armour of, 140 ; an. 


order of, for armour, 143 ; agree- 
ment between, and Wolff von 
Goetenburgh, 144 ; present to, by 
Maximilian i, of armour, 145 

Henzell, Haddon T., secretary to 
Trinity house, 121 

Heppescote, Alan de, inducted into 
Bolam church, 180 ; grant to, 180 

Hepple, pre- Roman camps near, 38 

Hepple, R. B., on early Northum- 
brian libraries, 186 ; on collar of 
Esses, 224 

Herbert, parson of Stannington, wit- 
ness to a charter, 180 

Herbert, Sir Ralph, of Ewyes, effigy 
of, 206 

Herbertson, Ralph, of Bamborough, 
99 ; William, of Bamborough, 99 

Herculaneum, firm of Roman bronze 
workers at, ion 

Hercules and the Nemaean lion, on 
armour, 146 

Hereford cathedral church, female 
effigy in, 230 

Herle, Robert de, ' chivaler,' 214 ; 
William de, held Edreston, etc., 
214 ; death of, 214 (see also Harle) 

Hermes of Praxiteles, the, 237 

' Heron pit/ the, Newcastle castle, 
ii 8; Roman altars and centurial 
stones in, 118 

Heron, Walter, of Newcastle, 200 ; 
William, of Ford, sheriff of North- 
umberland, 118 

Herryson, William, of Newcastle, 
tailor, a juryman, 22 (see also 

Herwod, Robert, witness to a grant, 
86 (see also Harwood) 

Hesilrigg, William, of Swarland, 
buried near his house, 167 

Heslop, R. Oliver, on death of John 
Gibson, castle attendant, 25 ; death 
and obituary notice of, 186 ; letter 
of condolence to widow, 193 

Hetchester camp, Hepple, 38 ; querns 
found in, 38 

He worth, history of parish of, 176 ; 
Rev. John Hodgson, vicar of, 88, 

Hexham, Roman inscription at, 191 ; 
commissioners of forfeited estates 
met at, 31 ; estate of Nubbuck, 
near, to be sold, 171 ; church, 257 

Hickson[Hykeson], John[or William,] 
vicar of Stannington, 181 

Hidewyn, Est, Robert, son of Robert 
de, 214 (see also Hydewyn) 

Higher Peover church, Cheshire, 
effigies in, 207 

High Rochester Roman fort, 52 

High seat Roman milecastle, 48 

High Shield crag, east and west, 
Roman Wall turrets, 50 

Hilton, so. Durham, chantry chapel 
at, 126 

Hilton Bacon, Westmorland, manor 
of, etc., deed relating to, 228 

Hilton, effigies at Swine, east Yorks., 
204 ; Abraham, and lands, etc. in 
Cockfield, 87 ; Christopher, of Bur- 
ton, Westmorland, grant by, 228 ; 
Cuthbert, and lands, etc. in Cock- 
field, 87 ; Lancelot, and lands, etc. 
in Cockfield, 87 ; Maud, wife of 
Alexander de, 214; Robert, 84; 
witness to a deed, 228 ; Sir Robert 
de, lord of Swine, and Constance his 
wife, effigies of, 204 ; and Maud, 
his wife, 204 ; effigy of, 207, 230 

Hinde, John Hodgson, and Newcastle 
races, 245 

Hindhaugh, 69 

Hindmarsh, Edward, of Nafferton 
farm, 19 

Hissarlik, excavations at, 235 

H.M. ships Excellent, 221 ; Mars, 183 

Hodgson, Aibiah, daughter of George, 
buried in field at Whickham, 179 ; 
George, of Staindrop, father of Rev. 
J. F., autograph of, 211 ; John, 
estate of, at Els wick, to be sold, 
171 ; Rev. John, marriage of, 256 ; 
and the safety lamp, 87 ; letters of, 
relating to the safety lamp, 88 ; 
letters to, 253 et seq ; and the origin 
of the society, 198 ; poems by, 220, 
251 ; letter of, 175 ; curate of Esh 
and Satley, and Thomas White, 
220 ; and the Whites of Wood- 
lands, 251 ; J. Crawford, on chapels 
etc. in Northumberland about 1715, 
23 ; North Country Diaries, 163 ; 
on isolated burial places in North- 
umberland, 167 ; on William Hut- 
chinson, the historian, 179 ; on 
Northumberland and Durham 
inscriptions in Bath abbey, 186 ; 
in churches near Bath, 223 ; notes 
on presentations to benefices in old 
diocese of Durham, 203 ; on the 
Williams family of Newcastle, 207 ; 
advertisements from Newcastle 
Journal and. Courant, 103, 216, 232 ; 
on John Brand, the historian of 
Newcastle ; and the South Charlton 
pre-historic burials, 241 ; Rev. J. 
F. on relics in the Tees valley, 126 ; 
[Hodson], John, a bell made by, 116 

Hodylston, John, witness to a grant, 

Hogg, J. R., on threatened invasion 
during Napoleonic war, 14 

Holehouse, or Holbeck farm, Wol- 
singham, for sale, 104 

Hollar, portrait engraved by, 2 son 

Holy Island, pre-conquest inscribed 
'pillow-stones' found at, 53, 193 



Holystone common, burial mounds 
on, 47 

* Homeric ' period of Greek civiliza- 
tion, 235 

Hone's Every Day Book, 240 

Hoo, lord, and Sir Thomas, effigies 
of, 207 

Hope, John, witness to a will, 215 

Hopkins, Mr., of Warwickshire, mar- 
riage of, 100 

Hopper, John, of Black Hedley, lands 
of, to be let, 232 ; and Pearsons, of 
Durham, attorneys, 172 

Horkesley, Essex, effigy at, 224, 230 

Home, William, exhibits knitting 
sheaths, 202 

Horsley, [Horslye], George, of Mil- 
burn grange, isolated burial of, in 
orchard, 167 ; tombstone of, 167 ; 
John, 213 ; Reynold, vicar of Stan- 
nington, 182 ; baptism of children 
of, 182 

Horseleye, South, Thomas de, a juror, 

Horton, Northants, effigy at, 224 

Hotbank Roman milecastle, 50 ; crag, 
Wall turret, 50 

Houeden, William de, witness to a 
grant, 87 

Houghton le Spring grammar school, 
free rent out of lands for, 231 

Houghton, William, 84 

Housesteads Roman fort, 50 ; gate- 
way through Wall east of, 50 ; bath- 
building near, 50 ; lime-kiln near, 
50 ; milecastle, 50 

Hoveringham church, Notts., effigy 
in, 135, 207 

Howard, Sir Charles, of Alnwick 
abbey, kt., presentation by, to 
Elsdon rectory, 203 ; of Croglin, 
acquired Redesdale liberty, etc., 
203n ; John, the philanthropist, 
and Newcastle castle, 117; Phil., 
marriage of, 95 

Huddleston, see Hodylston 

Hudson, Henry, of Whitley, monu- 
mental inscription of, 188 

Hugo, Thomas, 257 

Hughes, Robert, rear-admiral, monu- 
mental inscription, 188 ; Sarah, 
wife of, 1 88 

Humble, George, of Sunderland, 
buried in his own grounds, 179 

Hungerford, Robert and Thomas, 
lords, effigies of, 224 

Hunnum, see Halton 

Hunter, Captain George Edward, 
killed in Northern France, 53, 65, 
163 ; John, of Newcastle, musician, 
a juryman, 22 

Hunting knife, a, made at Shotley 
.bridge, 192 

Hurley knowes, mounds known as, 
Rothbury, 46 : .: 

[Proc. 3 Ser. vn.] 

Huntley, Thomas, 170 
Hurstmonceux church, Sussex, effigies 

in, 207 

Hurworth, co. Durham, parish regis- 
ters of, 232 

Huss, John, condemnation of, 174 
Hutchinson, Christopher, witness to 

a deed, 232 ; William, the historian, 

memoir of, 179 
Hut circles in Upper Coquetdale, 42, 

Hydewyn, Robert de, a juror, 214 ; 

William de, a juror, 214 (see also 



Ingram, John Thompson, rector of, 
etc., 182 

Inoculation, 172 

Ing. p.m., 86 n., 169, 170, 213, 214 

Inscriptions on panes of glass, 32 

Insula, John de, of Wodeburn, inq. 
p.m., 169 ; Robert de, son and 
heir, 169 (see also Lisle, Isle, Lesley) 

Invasion of England, threatened, pro- 
clamations, 13 ; in 1804, signals to 
be used in case of, 15 

Irving, J. A., presents knitting 
sheaths, 202 

Isle of Man, ' articles ' relating to 
horse races at, 245n 

Isle, Robert del, inq. p.m. of, 169 ; 
Robert, son of Robert, son of, heir, 
169 ; Robert del, junr. inq. p.m., 
169 (see also Insula) 

Italian campaign of emperor Maxi- 
milian of 1498, 138 


Jackson, [Jacksone], Rev. Archibald 
W. elected, 125 ; C. F., of Pilgrim 
street, Newcastle, 16 ; Donaldson 
Bell, elected, 161 ; Francis, New- 
castle Serjeant at mace, 212 ; Henry, 
witness to a grant, 86 ; John, vicar 
of Stannington, 182 

' Jacobe,' master armourer at Green- 
wich, 144 

Jagiellos, cardinal prince Frederick, 
large brass of, 164 

James i and n, granted charters to 
Newcastle Trinity house, 121 

Jamieson, Margaret, broadsheet re- 
lating to murder of, 53 ; Robert, 
.of Newmoore house, 99 

Jarrow cell, grant of possessions of, 
176 ; Heworth, etc., history of, 176 

Jeffery, Sir John, effigy of, 207 

Jenkinson, Jesse, witness to a deed, 

Jerusalem, knights of St. John of, 237 

Jesmond, lands and tenements in, 259 

Joachim u, Kurfurst of Brandenburg, 


2 7 8 


Jobson, John, of Alnwick, 99 

Jones, Ambrose, vicar of Stannington, 
183 ; church rebuilt by, 183 ; death 
of, 183 ; obit, notice of, 183 

Johnson, Christopher, of Durham, 
attorney at law, 104 ; Francis, 
St. John's parish, Newcastle, 16 ; 
[Jonson], William, of Carlton, hus- 
bandman, will of, 29 

Jousts of peace and war, 140 ; vari- 
ants in, 141 

Jubb, Philip, of Newsham, 18 

Judges, effigies of, with collars of 
esses, 223, 224 and n, 230 

Jump, Ellen, daughter of Captain 
Robert, 225 

Jupiter, altars dedicated to, n, 257 


Keels and boats, oath of a ' metter ' 
for, 247 and n 

Kell, Miss, Rev. John Hodgson mar- 
ried, 256n 

Kemble, Stephen, manager of New- 
castle theatre, 55n ; afraid of the- 
atre being taken from him, 55 ; 
died at Durham, and buried in 
cathedral, 55n ; John, 55 

Kemp, Rev. J. E., vicar of Escombe, 

Kendal, Edward, 208 

Kennel crag Roman Wall turret, 50 

Kent, Thomas, of Ipswich, glass 
cutter, party to a deed, 36 

Kerr, captain, 99 

Keswick, Radcliffe manor courts held 
at, 29 ; tenants at, giving up 
farms, 29 

Kettle drum, the, 59 

Kielder castle, selection of site for, 

Killingworth sold to George Colpitts, 
210 ; property of John Williams at, 
209 ; moor, races held on, 245 ; 
'articles' relating to, 245. 

King, James, of Newcastle, party to 
a deed, 208 

King's Peace, The, Inderwick's, 
quoted, 224 

Kinghorn, George, of Wooler, 99 

King's hill, Roman milecastle, 50 

Kingswood, parish of Haltwhistle, 
estate at, to be sold, 216 

Kirkharle, 170 ; church, marble font 
of old All Saints church, Newcastle, 
at, 120 

Kirknewton, vicars of, 181 

Kirsop, see Crissop 

Knight, collar of 'esses,' ornament 
of a, 23on 

Knightley, Sir Richard, and Jane, 
effigies of, 224 

Knitting sheaths, presented, 194, 202 ; 
Mrs. Willans on, 202 ; exhibited, 

233 ; inscription on a, 228 ; needle 

holders, 229, 233 
Knossos, Sir Arthur Evans's exca^ 

vations at, 235 
Knowles, William Henry, F.S.A., on 

Newburn hall, etc., 23 
Kolmans of Augsburg, armourers, 137 

Labyrinth, the, 236 

Laing, [Laying], John, lands at Pelaw r 
232 ; assignees of, sale of property 
of, 172 

Lamb, Captain Everard J., killed in 
Flanders, 4, 53, 65 ; Joseph, of 
Newcastle, and Jonathan Ormston r 
linen drapers, dissolution of part- 
nership, 172 ; Richard, of the Cot- 
tages, Newsham, 19 

Lambeth palace, extracts from reC' 
ords at, 203 

Lambespring, Bartholomeus, 136 

Lamesley, William de, vicar of Stan- 
nington, 1 80 

Lamplugh, Ann, daughter of Robert r 
of Lamplugh, 166 

Lancaster, Henry, earl of, lands held 
of, 214 ; inq. p.m., 214 ; daughters- 
of, 214 

Lanchester, Roman station of, 251 ~ r 
a poem on, 220 ; unlawful deten- 
tion of a horse at, n ; farms near, 
to be sold, 171 ; church, early 
painted glass in, 194 ; Rev. John 
Hodgson at, 251 

Langley, William, and others, 258 

Langley castle, a bell from St. Nichol- 
as's church, Newcastle, at, 116 ; 
isolated burial in grounds of, 168 

Langford, Sir William, effigy of, 207 

Langton, Eufemia, will of, 224n ; 
bequest of collar of SS, 224n 

Lapland, visit of Sir Henry George 
Liddell's party to, 2ion 

Latimer, Edith, effigy of, 270 

Lawes, George, vicar of Stannington, 
etc., 181 

Lawson, Mr., of Morpeth, attorney, 
104 ; John, of Longhirst, 172 

Layton, co. Durham, manor of, to 
be sold, 172 

Lead mines, 24 ; devise of shares in, 
100 ; ore, 24 ; dues of, of little 
value, 7 

Ledgard, Mr., 101 ; George, 31 

Lee, Right Hon. Sir George, kt, of 
Canterbury prerogative court, 82 

LEG. viu, inscription recording, 238 

Legard, William, 83 

Leighton, Robert, witness to a deed, 

Lesly, Robert, of Felton, inq. p.m* 
of, 170 

Letch, etc., farms at, to be sold, ijt 



Leventhorpe, John, brass of, 136 ; 

effigy of, 224 

Lewes castle museum, effigy in, 207 
Lewis, Nicholas, witness to a deed, 


Libraries, early Northumbrian, 186 
Librarian's report for 1915, 4 ; for 

1916, 163 
LICINIANI punched on Roman bronze 

skillet, 10 
Liddell, Ann and Charlotte Amelia, 

daughters of Sir H.G., of Ravens- 

worth castle, epitaphs of, 225 ; Sir 

Henry George, party of, at Lap- 

land, 2ion ; Joseph, of Moorhouse, 

Lilburn, Elizabeth, daughter of 

George, of Sunderland, married, 

Lilly, John, 99 

Limestone bank Roman Wall turret, 
49 ; milecastle, 49 

Liridertis, in Angus, tree planting at, 

Linton, Robert, of South Shields, 
burials in his garden, 179 

Lisle, [Lile, Lisley, Lysle, Lysley], of 
Woodhouse and Felton, ing. p.m., 
169 ; ' domina ' Anna, late wife of 
Humfrey, 170 ; Hannah, widow of 
Ralph, and daughter Rosamond, 
215 ; Humphrey, kt., inq. p.m., 170; 
owner of Felton manor, etc., 170 ; 
Wm., kt., son and heir, 170 ; John, 
inq. p.m., 169 ; of Elyhaugh, 215 ; 
Lancelot, 170 ; Ralph, devise to, 
2i5n ; will of, 2i5n ; death of, 
2isn ; Robert, seised of Hazon 
manor, 215; will of, 2i5n ; Robert, 
son of Robert, 169 ; Thomas, 170 ; 
claimed Hazon manor, 215 ; de- 
vises to, 2isn ; and others, 215 ; 
of Saltclyf, inq. p.m., 169 ; Wil- 
liam, kt., 170 (see also Insula, Isle, 

Lisle, Bacon v., chancery proceedings, 

Local wills in York registry, notes of, 

London, 207, 23on ; collar of SS. be- 
queathed to, 207 ; a camp at Hyde 
Park, 31 ; National Portrait Gal- 
lery, portraits in, 207 ; scriveners 
company of, 56 ; tower of, skirted 
armour in, 139 

Longbenton church, arms of Williams 
formerly in, 209 ; inscription on 
walls of, 209 ; faculty to erect 
gallery in, 2ogn 

Longford church, Derbyshire, effigy 
in, 207 

Longframlington earthwork camp, 52 

Loraine, [' Lorance '], Mr., 6, 67, 72, 
127, 158 ; complaints of, 63 ; 
' chiefe tallant is smoakeing and 

drinkeing,' 63 ; Grace, daughter of 
Sir William, of Kirkharle, 2o8n 

Lordenshaws camp, Rothbury, 38 ; 
hut-circles, 42 ; alignment of stand- 
ing stones, 42 

Lords seat, Alwinton, terrace culti- 
vation, 43 

Losh, James, of Newcastle, 200 ; 
letter of, 5 

Loudside, parish of Heddon-on-the- 
Wall, farm of, to be sold, 103 

Louvain, the destruction of, by 
Germans, 2 

Louis x of France, inventory of 
armour of, 139 ; xiv of France, 
armour presented to, 147 

Lowick church, Northants, effigy in,. 

Low-side windows, 229 

Lowther, Sir John, bt., of Sockbridge, 
Westmorland, 228 

Low Trewhitt, tumulus at, 46 ; exca- 
vated, 46 ; cists and urn found in, 

Low Walworth, see Walworth, Low 

Lowes, Mr., of Hexham, 103 

Lucan, co. Dublin, Woodlands, a 
property at, 219 

Liibeck, brass in Marienkirche at, 173 

Lumley, arms of, 120 

Lumsdon, John, of Alnwick, 99 

Lute, the, 61 

Lutina, the, 61 

Lutzen, battle of, 148 

Lymne, excavations at, 257 

Lyre, the, 60 

Lyster, Sir Richard, chief justice,, 
effigy of, 224 


Macclesfield church, effigy in, 207 
Maces, great, and Serjeants', of New- 
castle, 23 

Machell, Lancelot, of Crackenthorpe r 
Westmorland, and others, grant 
to, 228 

Maddison, Henry, of Newcastle, mer- 
chant, action by, 20 ; wife Eliza- 
beth and children, 16 ; monument 
in St. Nicholas's church, Newcastle,. 
20, in ; Ralph, of Birtley, co. 
Durham, yeoman, and Thomas, 
his son, grant to, 213 
Maddox, Robert, of London, dis- 
tiller, demise by, 258 
Madrid, body-armour at, 129 
McLarin, Peter, of Wooler, 99 
Magdalen fields, Berwick, owned by 

Watsons, 167 

Magdeburg, church of, 22 gn 
Magna, see Caervoran 
' Maide$ knowe, the,' Rothbury, 46 
Main waring, Sir John, and wife, Sir 
. Philip, and wife, and Sir Ranulph, 



effigies of, 207 ; Sir William, effigy 

of, 206 

Makendon camps, 52 
Maling, John, of Sunderland, 104 
Mallet, Rebecca, daughter of Colonel, 


Malpas church, Cheshire, effigy in, 207 
Malteby, William de, vicar of Stan- 

nington, 180 

Man-at-arms, equipment of a, 139 
Mandeville, Geoffrey de, effigy of, 131 
Manner, Jane, and Elizabeth, of 

Newmoor house, 232 
Manningham, Col. Cook, and Rifle 

Brigade, 54 and n 
Manston, Nicholas, effigy of, 224 
Manwood, Sir Roger, chief baron of 

exchequer, effigy of, 224, 230 
Mareschal, William, the younger, earl 

of Pembroke, effigy of, 131 (see 

also Marshal) 

Marholm, Northants, effigy at, 224 
Markham, Alice Harriet, daughter of 

William, archbishop of York, 189 
Marley, Ralph, of Picktree, adminis- 
tration to goods of, 29 ; Robert, 

lands of, at Pelaw, 232 
Marmion, Sir John de, and Sir Robert 

de, effigies of, 207 
Mars, figure of, on armour, 145 
Mars, H.M.S., 183 
Marshal, Peter le, effigy of, in St. 

Nicholas's church, Newcastle, in 

(see also Mareschal) 
Martin, R. W., elected, 97 
Mason, Hugo, 20, 21 
Massingberde, Sir Thomas, effigy of, 

Matfen piers, 170; Roman milecastle, 

48 ; west, a farm at, to be sold, 172 
Maughen, Jonathan, 7 
Mauleverers of Arncliffe, the, 167 
Mausolus, king, tomb of, 237 
' Maximilian ' armour introduced by 

emperor Maximilian, 138 
Maxwell, Edward, of Whitburn, 103 
May, George, death of, 163 
Mead [Meade], Samuel, case and 

opinion of, concerning lady Der- 

wentwater's rent charge, 102 ; 

Sarah, wife of Henry, an Irishman, 

Mease, Thomas, of Stokesley, bal- 

lotted for militia, 212 
Measure, of bronze, a Roman in- 
scribed, exhibited, 98 ; F. Haver- 
field on, 98 

Medals, election, etc., 5 
Medieval grave covers, no, in 
Meeting, outdoor, in Newcastle, 162 
Meggison, Mr., of Whalton, 104 
Meldon, tenants of, 23 ; and Meldon 

park, advance of rents of, 7 
Members, deaths of, 3, 53, 163, 

186, 193, 241 ; elected, 9, 34, 65, 

97, 126, 149, 161, 173, 185, 201, 
233, 241 

Merate, of Milan, Francisco and Gab- 
rielle, armourers, 138 

Merchant's mark, a, on All Saints 
font, 120 

Merley, Juliana, wife of Ranulph de, 
lord of Morpeth, witness to mar- 
riage settlement of, 180 ; Roger de, 
a charter granted by, 180 ; Will- 
iam de, his grant of Morwick, 180 

Messager, Alexander, son of, Robert 
le, of Barnardcastle, grant by, 87 

Methley church, Yorkshire, effigies 
in, 224, 230 

Mewburn, James, farm of, for sale, 104 

Meyrick collection of armour, 145 

Micklethwaite, Joseph, of Downing 
street, Westminster, 258 ; Thomas, 

Mickleton, see Mikkylton 

Middlebank Roman Wall turret, 51 

Middleton hall, 64 

Middleton, Jonathan, of Norham 
Mains, 232 ; [Midleton], Sir Will- 
iam, abatement of tenants' rents 
by, 21 

Midford, Miss, daughter of James, 
name on pane of glass, 32 ; her 
marriage, 32 ; death, 32 (see also 

Mikkylton, Henry, chaplain, son John 
de, grant by, 86 ; Thomas, of 
Barnardcastle, grant to, 86 

Milbanke, Sir R., 89 

Milburn grange, isolated burial at, 

Milburn, Gawin, of Newcastle, mercer, 
an apprentice of, 181 

Mildmay, Walter, kt., chancellor of 
the exchequer, 20 

Milecastles, Roman, on the line of 
the Wall, 48 et seq. 

Milestones, Roman, by side of Stane- 
gate, 51 

Milfield hall, burial in grounds of, 168 

Militia, ballotting for the, 212 ; and 
their wives, cesses for, 80 

Millart, John, of London, 83 

Mills, Henry, of Durham, 189 ; Henry 
Forster, M.A., chancellor of York, 
monumental inscription of, 189 ; 
wife Elizabeth, 189 ; Jane, wife of 
Robert, of Sunderland, 189 ; Sam- 
uel, 99 

Milnes, Richard Slater, trees planted 
by, 220 

' Minagnghinim,' the, a musical in- 
strument, 6 1 

Minoan period of Greek civilization, 

Minotaur, the, 236 

Missaglia, Antonio da, armour made 
by, 1 36 ; Tomaso da, armour made 
by, 137' 



Misson, Notts., John de Sculthorp, 
rector of, 216 and n 

Mitchell, John, founder of Tyne 
Mercury, buried in his own garden, 

Mitford, manor of, 170 

Mitford, Gilbert de, a juror, 214; 
John de, of Durham diocese, letter 
of, 225 ; Mary Russell, letter of, 
225 ; Robert, of Mitford, etc., 
monumental inscription of, 189 ; 
(see also Midford) 

Moffatt, William, of Whittingham, 99 

Mohun, Sir John de, effigy of, 224 

Monk, general, will of a soldier in 
own troop of horse, 28 

Monkhouse. Miles, All Saints parish, 

Montague, Charles, spiritual chan- 
cellor of Durham, 184 

Montgomery, and death of Henri n 
of France, 141 

Moore, [Moor], John, of London, 
haberdasher, 52, 84 ; John, of 
Whalton, buried in his own grounds 
167 ; tombstone of, 167 ; Sir 
Thomas, portrait of, 207 

Mordaunt, Sir John, effigy of, 207 

Morgan, Arthur, burgage of, in 
Barnardcasile, 86 

Morpeth, a house in, for sale, 172 ; 
Jonathan Harle, pastor at, 2O4n ; 
gaol, 158 ; common farm, remains 
of camp at, 126 

Morwick, grant of, to St. Cuthbert, 
1 80 ; isolated burial in garden at, 

Mosaics, Roman, at Aldborough, 
Yorkshire, 85 

:' Mothergate,' 81 

Mother goddesses, Roman altar to, 

Mottram church, Cheshire, effigy in, 

Mountany, Edward, 211 

Mowdy, George, at Hampt worth, 160 

Mowson, Edward, witness to a deed, 

Mucklebank Roman Wall turret, 51 

Munro, Dr. Robert, on unskilled 
excavations, 63 

Murray's hall farm to be sold, 172 

Musical instruments, some old, Mrs. 
Willans on, 58 

Mycenaean period of Greek civiliza- 
tion, 235 

Myers, Timothy, vicar of Stanning- 
ton, etc., 183 ; chaplain in navy, 
183 ; mural monument of, 183 

Mylne, John, 170 ; William, 170 


Nafferton, rentals of, 19, 100 ; devise 
of, 100 

Napoleonic war, threatened invasion 
during, 14 

Navarre, effigy of queen Joan of, 224 

Navy, cess for raising men for the, 80 

Negroli, Petrolo, 137 

Neilson, George, the author, presents 
books, 193 

Nelson, Jerome, instituted to Elsdon 
rectory, 203n 

Nesfield, Rev. Mr., 89 

Netherwitton parish, camps in, 40 

Neville, Sir John, effigy of, 230 ; 
Ralph, earl of Westmorland, and 
his two wives, effigies of, 207 

Nevins, John, of Marledown, 99 

Nevinson, Edward, witness to a deed, 

Newbold, P., and another, on Roman 
monuments, etc. in Northumber- 
land, 47 

Newburn, hall, etc., W. H. Knowles 
on, 23 ; Wylam, etc., in case of 
invasion in 1804, to be used as 
depdts, 16 

Newby, Anthony, and Jane, his wife, 
a fine relating to premises in 
Briscoe, 87 


A view of, by Thomas Bewick, 12 ; 
meetings in, outdoor, 105, 162 ; of 
British Association, 163, 235, 257 ; 
fort, Roman, 48 ; bridge, Roman, 
stick made from pile of, 201 ; inq. 
p.m. held at, 214 ; attacked by the 
Scots, 117 ; Charles i in, 121 \ 
taken by Scottish army, 121 ; ex- 

: hibition of pictures, etc. illustrative 
of, in Laing art gallery, 163 ; 
isolated burials in, 168, 179 ; 
' dangerous and contagious fever 
at,' in 1803, 54 ; fever hospital 
erected, 5411 ; orders and regula- 
tions issued in 1804, 15 ; armourers 
at, 178 ; assembly rooms, 210 ; 
M.C. for, 210 ; ballad printers, 238 ; 
bottlehouses, the Salt meadow, 209; 
St. Lawrence's and Close-gate, 209 ; 
collector of customs, Langdale Sun- 
derland, 225 ; fairs, a proclamation 
to call, 247 and n ; oaths of ' met- 
tors ' of, 247 and n ; of tronor or 
poisor of the weighhouse, etc., 248 ; 
iron foundries in, 208 ; Loyal Vol- 
unteers, 55 


Discoveries in, 25, 26 ; described 
by Mr. Parker Brewis, 116 ; founded 
by Robert, son of William the 
Conqueror, 116 ; probably mound- 
and-bailey type, 117 ; present 
castle built by Henry u, 117 ; des- 

cription of, 117 ; used as a gaol, 
117; prisoners exhibited, 117; 
chapel in, 117 ; horse-shoe table 
and president's chair in castle, 118 ; 



banners of great families in, 118 ; 
carved overmantel in, 118 ; well in, 

118 ; sundial on top, 118 ; William 
Heron, governor of, 118 ; workmen 
restoring, 239 ; removal of Roman 
inscriptions to, ' without the least 
regard to the locality where found,' 
240 ; antiquarian meetings in, 233 ; 
banquet in, 239 ; fire in, 102 ; New 
Guide to, 162 


Mr. P. Brewis on, 122 ; guard 
rooms, 122 ; the library, 122 ; care- 
takers, etc. of, 233 

Officials appointed in 1804 for, in 
case of invasion, 16 


All Saints, 107 ; visit to, 119 ; Rev. 
O. C. Carr, vicar, 119 ; John Wool- 
fall, curate, 181 ; communion plate, 
bells, etc., 119 ; Mr. W. H. Wood, 
on church, 119 ; built by D. Ste- 
phenson, 119 ; description of, 119 ; 
Thornton brass, 119 ; ancient 
church, 119 ; picture by R. Waters 
of, 119, 120; description of, 119; 
portions rebuilt by R. Thornton, 

119 ; additions by Robt. Rhodes, 
119; centre boss of tower, 120; 
inscription round, 120 ; arms of 
Rhodes on, 120 ; seven chantries 
in, 120 ; rood screen, monuments, 
etc., 120 ; marble font now at Kirk- 
harle, 120 ; arms on, 120 ; St. 
Andrew's : parish, lands, etc. in, 
259 ; churoh, 55n ; St. John's : 
tower of, built by Robert 
Rhodes, 119; arcade of, 109; 
Thomas Wolf all, curate, 181 ; St. 
Nicholas's, W. H. Wood's account 
of, 105 ; spaciousness of, 105 ; 
dimensions, 105 ; late Norman 
church, 105 ; founded, 105 ; carved 
and moulded stones, 105, 108 ; plan 
of N.W. pier of crossing, 107 ; cap. 
of S.E. respond representing a 
fiddler, 108 ; enlargement of nave, 
108 ; John Wilson's painting of, 
irom north, 109; St. George's porch, 
no ; south window of south tran- 
sept inserted by Roger Thornton, 
no; Sabram arms in, no; large 
Roman stone in, no ; old coffin 
lids in, 1 10, in ; vestry built, in ; 
misericords in, in ; St. Margaret's 
chantry in, in ; effigy of Peter le 
Marshal, in ; tomb of Geo. Carr 
and his wife, in ; Maddison and 
Hall monuments, 20, in ; the rood 
screen, in ; tower built by Robert 
Rhodes, in ; lierne vault of, in ; 
arms of Rhodes, in ; angle pin- 
nacles, TII ; figures on, in ; ele- 
vation, plans, etc. of tower, 112- 

115 ; repair of tower borne by 
corporation, 116 ; marble font and 
font cover, 116 ; coronation of 
Virgin on centre boss of cover, 116 
ancient brass eagle lectern, 116 
organ, 116 ; church plate, registers 
' Hexham bible,' bells, etc., 116 
Rev. Nathaniel Ellison, vicar of, 
182 ; Close gate meeting house, 
pastors of, 20411 ; Virgin Mary 
hospital, demolition of, 238 


Books, etc. of barber surgeons, 
goldsmiths and saddlers, 3 ; the 
butchers, 150 ; merchant adven- 
turers, silver gilt cups of, 122 ; 
Mr. C. F. Jackson, secretary of, 122 


W. H. Wood, on, 121 ; foundation 
of, unknown, 121 ; charters to, 121 ; 
chapel, 121 ; supported altar in 
Allhallows church, 121 ; Scotch 
prisoners confined in, 121 : plun- 
dered by Scots, 121 


Unreformed, precedent or oath 
book of, 244 ; signature in, 244 ; 
Geo. Cuthbertson, town clerk, 244 
and n, 245 ; Guild-hall, visit to, 
122 ; iown court, 231 ; mansion 
house, sale of ' fine old carvings 
from,' 238 ; great mace, name and 
arms of Nicholas Cole on, 21 


Thomas Bonner, 36n ; Nicholas 
Fen wick, 231 ; Thomas Smith, 17 ; 
Ralph Sowerby, 189 


Matthew Bell, jun., 231 ; I. Cook- 
son, 17 ; Ralph Sowerby, 189 ; 
gloves, given by the, 248 


sheriff's, earliest record of, 22 ; 
mayor's, 22 ; extended over Gates- 
head, 23 ; piepowder 22 ; fine for 
coming into, 'with a Night Gown 
on,' 23 ; proceedings at, between 
Henry Maddison and Nicholas 
Cole, 20 


John Cuthbert, 52n ; William Cuth- 
bert, 52n 


Francis Jackson, 212 ; silver maces 
of, 23 


Lawrence de Dunelmo, 86 


Robert 'Rhodes, 120; Nicholas 
Sabram, 110 

Held at Killingworth, 245; 'articles' 
relating to, 245 ; town plate, 245 


Deed relating to property, All 



Hallows bank, 231 ; the ' Dog Lope,' 

231 ; houses in Broad chare to be 
sold, 171, 172 ; ' Cooke's close,' 
260 ; shops, etc. in Groat market 
and dissenting meeting house in 
Pudding chare to be sold, 172 ; 
advertisement for sale of a house 
in Hanover square, 12 ; oak pan- 
elled room, 38 Sandhill, visit to, 


Stephen Kemble, manager of, 55n 

Newcastle Courant and Journal, ex- 
tracts from the, 103, 171, 216, 232 

Newminster abbey, visit to, 2 ; clois- 
ter arcade, 117 

Newmoor-house, Northumberland, to 
be sold, 232 

Newsham, rental of, 18 ; a coney- 
warren at, 19 ; manor, sale of, 101 ; 
value of, 101 

Newton, hedge at, 72 ; East, 170 ; 
-on-the-moor, Northumberland, 
lands at, 214 ; inq. p.m. relating 
to, 214 ; -Cap, sale of estate at, 216 

Newton, Mr., of Morpeth, attorney, 
103 ; John, of Plessey new-houses, 
1 8 ; Lancelot, of Stocksfield hall, 
excommunication of, 36 ; arrested 
for non-payment of tithes, 82 ; Sir 
Richard, a judge, effigy of, 224 ; 
Robert, deceased, estate of, 103 ; 
Samuel, and Mr. Stoney, dispute 
between, 171 ; and Matthew, bank- 
rupts, estates of, to be sold, 172, 

232 ; William, a bankrupt, sale of 
property of, 171 

Newtown camp, Rothbury, 30 

Nicholl, Anthony, wharfinger, 216 

Nichols, John Gough, 257 

Nicholson, Richard, of the fishery, 
Newsham, 19 ; William, a New- 
castle artist, letter of, 256n 

Nigel, son of Alan, witness to a grant, 

Norham, devise of tithes, of 100 ; 
value of, 100 ; demesnes, etc. of, 
to be sold, 172 ; manor, to be sold, 

North, ' view' of castles in the, 213 

Northallerton, a Roman fort near (?), 

190 ; Roman coins found at, 190, 

191 ; inscription found at, 191 
North Biddick, see Biddick, North 
Northern Stage, note on the, 93 
North Eastern Railway, its Rise and 

Development, Tomlinson's, pub- 
lished, 3 ; present of, 4 

Northleigh church, Oxon., effigies in, 

Northumberland, new county history 
of, volume x, published, 3 ; Roman 
monuments in, 47 ; ' a particular 
or rental ' of part of Derwentwater 
estates in, 14, 18 ; chapels, etc. in, 

about 1715, 23 ; isolated and pri 
vate burial places in, 167, 179 ; 
parliamentary elections, 182 ; white 
medal relating to election of 1832 
for south, 5 ; polling days, 5 ; 
sheriffs : Thomas Charles Bigge 
226 ; William Heron, of Ford, 118 ; 
archdeacons of, 216 ; Dr. Bowyer, 

Northumberland, duke of, manuscript 
of A Conference of Pleasure belong- 
ing* 97 ; Hugh Percy, second duke, 
letters of, relating to ' Percy Rifle- 
men,' 54 ; Hugh, third duke, 55 
Northumberland and Durham, monu- 
mental inscriptions in Bath 
churches, 186, 225 
Northumbrian libraries, early, 186 
Norton, country meeting at, 2 
Notarial marks, ancient, in Durham 

treasury, 56 
Nouns, Book of, a miniature book 

exhibited, 33 

Nubbuck, estate of, to be sold, 171 
Nuremberg, armourers' gild stamp, 
143 ;' counter,' presented, 66 

Officers and council elected for 1915, 
i ; for 1916, 161 

Ogle, doctor, abatement of tenants' 
rents by, 71 ; James, witness to a 
deed, 182 ; John, 249 ; of Drog- 
heda, will of, 189 ; of Eglingham, 
monumental inscription of, 189 ; 
wife, Sarah, 189 ; of Kirkley, 184 ; 
Ralph, 170 ; of Saltwick, and an- 
other, charge against, for brawling 
etc. in church, 181 ; Robert, of 
Eglingham, 189 ; wife Dorothy, 
189 ; William Meade, monumental 
inscription of, 189 

Oley, Nicholas and William, sword- 
makers, 177 ; William, carving 
knife made by, exhibited, 186 

Oliver, A. M., town clerk of Newcastle 
on sheriff's court, 22 ; Robert, of 
Alnwick, 99 

Olympia, 237 

Ord, Mr., of Hexham, surgeon, 104 ; 
Alice, daughter of John, of New- 
castle, 187 ; Jemima, daughter of 
William, of Fenham, 226 

Orders and regulations issued in 1804, 

Organ, the, 62 

Orme, Humphrey, steward of Bar- 
nardcastle, 14 

Ormside, Westmorland, etc., deed 
relating to, 228 

Ormston, Jonathan, and Joseph 
Lamb, of Newcastle, linen drapers, 
dissolution of partnership, 172 ; 
Robert, of Wooler, 99 

28 4 


Osborn Emma, 86n ; William, inq. 

p.m. of, 86n 

OSGYTH on a Holy Island ' pillow- 
stone, 53, 193 
Osmunderlaw, William, of Langrigge, 

Northumberland, will of, 29 
Osmund, bishop of Salisbury, founded 

St. Nicholas's church, Newcastle, 

Oswald, Joseph, on the origin of the 

society, 199 ; note of discoveries 

at Seaham church, 223 
Ouseburn Roman milecastle, 48 
Ouston, co. Durham, deed relating 

to lands at, 260 
Outchester, Budle bay, earthwork 

camp, 52 

' Over peala house,' co. Durham, 260 
Ovingham, ' riding the fair' at, 240 
Ovington manor, sale of salmon 

fishery belonging to, 232 
Ovyngton, Gilbert de, a juror, 214 
Owen, Sir David, effigy of, 207 
Owston church, Yorkshire, effigies in, 

Oxberry, John, on the centenary of 

the safety lamp, 87 ; on the origin 

of the society, 197 ; on the Whites 

of Woodlands and the Rev. John 

Hodgson, 251 
Oxhill, earthwork camp, 52 

Palmer, Hugh, of Corbridge and Dur- 
ham, clerk, notarial mark of, 57 

Palmer's lands in manor of Wark, 
3i, 70 

Pan pipes, 59 

Panes of glass, inscriptions on, 32 

Papists, tax upon, 72 

Pappenheim, count, killed at battle 
of Lutzen, 148 

' Pappenheimer,' basin-like head- 
piece termed a, 148 

Parke, Charles, jun. and others, 
commissioners in bankruptcy in 

I7H, 52 

Parker, Samuel, of London, art glass 
manufacturer, party to a deed, 36 ; 
late of South Lambeth, under- 
writer, 36 

Parkin, Thomas, of Barnardcastle, 
yeoman, grant by, 86 ; William, 
witness to a grant, 86 
Parr, William, lord, effigy of, 224 
Parson's flatt, Gateshead, coal-mine 
belonging to Nicholas Cole at, 20 ; 
payment to rector of Gateshead 
for, 21 

Parthenon, Doric columns of the, 237 
Patrick, David P., elected, 185 
P . CIPI . POLI on Roman bronze skil- 
lets, 10, II 
Peace, jousts of, 140 

Peaps, Matthew, elected, 149 

Peareth, Barbara, 187 

Pears, C. R., on pre-conquest pillow- 
stones, 193 

Pearson : family, the seat of the, 13 ; 
Gerard, Roger and Robert, 13 - T 
Bryan, bequest to the poor of 
Escombe, 244 ; William, witness 
to a deed, 213 

Pedigree of Forster, 184 

Peel crag Roman Wall turret, 50 

Peile, Rev. Mr., of Hexham, 104 

Pelaw, co. Durham, demise of lands 
at, 231 

Pell, William, son of William, of 
Sheffield, ordained, 20 3n ; marriage 
of, 20 3n ; wife and daughters of, 
203n ; presented to Easington 
rectory, 2O3n, 204 ; to Stainton 
le Street, 2osn ; ejected, 2O3n ; put 
in prison, 2O4n ; set at liberty, 
2O4n ; pastor at Newcastle, 2O4n \ 
death and burial of, 2O4n ; burial 
of widow, 204n 

Pelton, grant of coal mines in, 213 

Pemberton, Ellen, wife of Richard, 
of the Barnes, epitaph of, 225 

Percy Riflemen, letters relating to 
the, 54 

Percy, lord, 207 ; Hugh, second duke 
of Northumberland, 54 ; third 
duke, 55 ; James, of Flodden Edge, 

Pergamum, examples of art from, 
237 ;' Satan's throne,' at, 237 

Perkin, see Parkin 

Persia, defeat of, 237 

Peryent, Sir Thomas, and lady, 
effigies of, 224 

Peter, son of John, witness to a 
grant, 87 

Peters, William, attorney, 172 

Petre, Mr., 102 

Phidias and his school, the works of, 

Philippa, queen, daughter of John of 
Gaunt, effigy of, 206 

Phillips, Maberly, a list of isolated 
burials, 179 ; George, of Lowick, 99 

Philipson, William, presents two old 
atlases, 186 

Piccininos, of Milan, armourers, 137 

Picktree and Rickleton, part of free- 
hold estate between, to be sold, 171 

Piepowder, court of, 247 and n 

Piercebridge, pink marble for mo- 
saics found at, 85 

Pigott, Nathaniel, 7 ; opinion of, 94 
case and opinion of, concerning lady 
Derwentwater's rent charge, 101 

Pike house camp, Rothbury, 39 

Pikemen and Musketeers, 147 

Pilgrimage of Grace, etc., by Misses 
Dodds, 163 



' Pilgrims tomb,' the, at Ashby de la 

Zouch, 206 
' Pillow-stones,' Saxon, found at Holy 

Island, 53 ; at Hartlepool, 53 
Pilsbury, Sarah, wife of Jonathan, 189 
Pitmen and other workmen, bonds 

of, 79 
Pittington, Samuel Viner, vicar of, 


Planetrees Roman milecastle, 49 
Plashetts, earthwork camp, 52 
Plawsworth, an estate at, for sale, 104 
Playford church, Suffolk, brass in, 134 
Plessey, rental of, 18 ; manor, sale of, 
101 "; value of, 101 ; colliery, 18 ; 
' Coll.' Radclyffe ' jockeyed out of,' 

Plessey, John de, a charter of, 180 ; 
Sybilla, wife of Robert de, charter 
of, 1 80 
Plumpton, Christina, wife of William 

de, kt., ing. p.m., 214 
Poictou, Richard i, earl of, 132 
Pompeii, votive hands from, 169 
Pons Aelii, see Newcastle 
Ponshon, Robert, of Pelton, yeoman, 
and Thomas, his son, demise by, 

Ponteland, manor of, for sale, 216 
Poole, Francis, of Oxenden street, 
Leicester fields, and wife Arine, 211 
Porlock, Somerset, effigy at, 224 
Port Carlisle, footing of Roman Wall 

at, 118 
Porteus, Thomas, old documents, etc. 

presented by, 217 
Portgate Roman milecastle, 49 
Portraits of Henry iv, 207 ; Sir 

Thomas Moore, 207 
Poseidon holding trident at Athens, 


Potts, [Pottes], Eleanor, of the Cot- 
tages, Newsham, 19 ; John, of New- 
castle, cordiner, a juryman, 22 ; 
Robert, of Hudspeth, near Mor- 
peth, 104 ; Thomas, stipendiary 
curate of Stannington, 182 
Praxiteles, the Hermes of, 237 
Pre-conquest ' pillow-stones,' 193 
Pre-historic currency bar of iron 
presented, 27 ; grave at Aylesford, 
9 ; implements discovered, 152 ; 
geological interest of, 153 ; des- 
cription of, 152 ; stone, presented, 
122 ; found in Weardale, 178, 194 ; 
burials discovered at South Charl- 
ton, 241 

Pre- Roman camps, 38, 39 
Presents, etc. of books, etc., 4, 5, 9, 
26, 33, 65, 85, 125, 149, 164, 173, 
185, 193, 217, 229, 233, 241 
Preston, battle of, 123 ; Dorset, 

Timothy Myers, vicar of, 183 
Pringle, Edward Selby, of Newcastle, 

malster, a commission in bank- 

ruptcy, 200 ; John, of Alnwick, 100 
Proceedings, the, 126, 149, 162 ; re- 

print of first volume of (1855-7), 

3, 162 
Proclamations issued during the 

threatened invasion about end of 

eighteenth century, 13 
Protestant, conveyance of lands to 

a, 31 
Pryour, Richard, witness to a grant, 


Psaltery, the, 60 
Pumshon, see Ponshon 
Pye, Mr., stipendiary curate of Stan- 

nington, 182 ; John, of Shotton 

Edge, 1 8 ; Thomas, ' a preaching 

minister,' presented to Elsdon 



Quakers' burial ground at Sunder- 

land, 28 
Querns, hand, found in Whitefield 

camp, 37 

Rabbit hall camp, Whittingham, 40 

Races, horse, ' articles ' relating to, 
245 and n 

Radcliffe papers, 6, 23, 29, 63, 67, 
72, 82, 94, 100, 157 

Radcliffe, [Radclyffe], estate of, in 
Yorkshire, 64 ; manor courts in 
Cumberland, 29 ; lady Ann, 94,. 
95 ; Arthur, 70 ; of Capheaton, 30 - f 
Charles, 100 ; receipt of, for an- 
nuity, 8 ; Col., 31 ; ' jockyed out 
of Plessey colliery,' 6 ; had lease 
of Woodhall lead mills, 63 ; will of, 
101 ; his executrix, 63 ; his estate 
viewed, 7 ; to be put up for sale, 
24, 72 ; Sir Edward, of Dilston, 
and Newcastle races, 245 ; Francis, 
31 ; devise of half of Redheugh, 
100 ; Sir Francis, bt., 70 ; Hum- 
frey, kt., of Elstow, Beds., and 
others, grant to, 170 ; James, monu- 
ment to memory of, 122 ; papers 
of, 124, 127; lady Mary, 24, 31, 63, 
94 ; Durham interest paid to, 8 ; a 
papist, 19 ; Derwentwater estates 
to be sold expectant on death of, 
19 ; probate of will of, 100 ; estates 
of, 157 ; affairs of, 158, 159 ; sale 
of reversion of estates of, 82 ; of 
lord Derwentwater's, 82 ; Charles, 
sale of annuity, 82 ; Col. Thomas, 
devise of estate by, 19 

Ragg, Rev. R. E., vicar of Escombe, 

Rainton, West, see West Rainton 

Rapishaw gap Roman Wall turret, 50 



Rawdon, lieut. col., 99 

Raydale, Yorkshire, lands at, to be 

let, 232 

Raylees, earthwork camp, 52 
Rayner, Giles, a fine relating to land, 

etc. in Briscoe, 87 ; John, witness 

to a grant, 86 
Reay Gerard, of Newcastle, yeoman, 

a juryman, 22 

Recruiting posters, etc. presented, 85 
Recruits, warrant for raising, 249 
Redburn, South, co. Durham, share 

in Rainsfield in township of, 171 
Redesdale, liberty of, 170, 2osn 
Radheugh, devise of moiety of, 100 ; 

annual rent of, 100 
Redman, Sir Richard, effigies of, 230 ; 

of wife Elizabeth, 230 
Redpeth, Samuel, of Alnwick, 100 
Redwell, John de, vicar of Stanning- 

ton, exchanged living, 180 
Reed, Rev George, death of, 3 ; 

Joseph elected, 125 ; (see also Reid) 
Reedsmouth, i/o 

Reeve, Mary, wife of George, gold- 
smith of Bath, epitaphs of, and of 

four sons, 212 
Reid, Andrew, and river- god Tyne, 


Reports, of council, etc. for 1915, i ; 
for 1916, 161, 163 

Rheims, injured seriously by Ger- 
mans, 2 

Rhodes, Robert, built towers of St. 
Nicholas's church, Newcastle, in ; 
arms of, on vaulting, in ; inscrip- 
tions recording, in ; of All Saints, 
Saint John's, and Sedgefield, 119 

Richardson, buried in his garden, 179 ; 
G. B., 151 ; elected, 240 ; Jona- 
than, owned Woodlands, 222 ; 
Moses Aaron, 151 ; sign of, 151 ; 
elected, 240 ; Robert, of Alnwick, 
attorney, 104 ; William, of New- 
castle, joiner, and Hannah his wife, 
conveyance by, 231 

Richmond, John, witness to a deed, 

Ridell, Edward, of Swinburne castle, 
death of, 24 ; his estate 'in a 
dangerous way,' 24 

Ridlees' cairn, Alwinton, 45 

Ridley, alderman, 24 ; and Plessey 
colliery, 6 ; bought dues of Alston 
moor lead ore, 6 ; John Philipson, 
death of, 163 ; Matthew, of Heaton, 
party to a deed, 208 ; Nicholas, 24 ; 
Richard, of Plessey colliery, 18 

Ridley, Jobling & Co., owned Hartley 
pits, 82 

* Right, Eliz., Tow Law,' inscription 
on a knitting sheath, 228 

Riplington, Northumberland, to be 
sold, 171 

Rippon, Nicholas, of East Boldon, 172 

Risingham Roman fort, 52 (see also 

Ritschel, Rev. John, vicar of Bywell 
St. Andrew, 82 ; a refusal to pay 
tithes to, 36 ; action of, relating 
to tithes, 82 

Rivers, masks representing, 150 

Robertsbridge abbey, effigy formerly 
in, 207 

Roberts law camp, Alwinton, 37 ; 
querns found in, 37 

Robinson, Mrs. Barbara, 211 ; Rev. 
F. G. J., death of, 163 ; John, sen., 
of Shotton West houses, 18 ; jun., 
of Plessey new- ho uses, 18 ; of New- 
castle, agent, 36 ; John David, 
death of, 84 ; Matthew, son of 
Robert, of East Rainton, vicar of 
Stannington, etc., 182 ; marriage 
of, 182 ; rebuilt vicarage, 182 

Robson, Charles, and others, 258 

Rochester, Thomas Dampier, bishop 
of, 187 

Rodburne, Henry, a Radcliffe agent, 
7, 30, 31, 68-72, 82, 127, 157, 159 ; 
letters of, 94, 100 et seq. 

Roddam, arms of, 120 

Rogerly, manors of Frosterley and, 
to be sold, 171 ; quarry, Weardale, 
stone implements found at, 19*4 

Rogers, corporal Charles, of Wooler, 
100 ; John, of Charlton, 100 

Rolandson, Thomas, grant to, of 
stewardship of Barnardcastle, 14, 

Roll of Honour, 53 

Ronaldkirk, rectors of, Dr. Edward 
Browell, 187 ; Sir John de Denton, 

Roman Trier, 53 

Roman altars, 257 ; discovered at 
Chesterholm, n, 28 ; in Redesdale, 
28 ; and centurial stones in ' Heron 
pit ' annexe, Newcastle, 118 ; 
bridges over North Tyne, 49 ; 
across Tyne at Newcastle, pile from, 
201 ; brooches, 230 ; coins found 
on beach at South Shields, 6, 33, 
213 ; of gold from Corstopitum, 
present of case of electrotypes of, 
3 ; forts : near Northallerton, was 
there a, ? 190 ; coins found at Nor- 
thallerton, 190 ; and milecastles, 
etc. in Northumberland, 47 ; in- 
scriptions, etc. from Habitancum, 
gift of, 238 ; on Caervoran measure 
of bronze exhibited, 98 ; on bronze 
skillets from Upper Weardale, 9 ; 
monuments, etc. in Northumber- 
land, 47 ; road in Whittingham 
parish, 41 ; stone, a large in St. 
Nicholas's church, Newcastle, no ; 
temporary camps, discovered near 
Haltwhistle, 196 



Roman Wall: 'pilgrimage,' 163; 

parts of, under Wade's road, 48 ; 

discovery of temporary camps on 

line of, 125 
Rooke, Mr., 96, 101, 102 ; rent charge 

of, 94 

JRookhope, farm at, to be let, 232 
Roos, John, lord, and Sir William de, 

effigies of, 206 

Roper, Robert, witness to a deed, 258 
Ros, Adam de, vicar of Stannington, 

1 80 
Ross, John, of Shotton, and another, 

charge against, for brawling in 

church, 181 

Rose, James Dudfield, elected, 161 
Rothbury, inq. p.m. at, 170 ; houses, 

malt kilns, etc. at, to be sold, 171 ; 

hill, cairn on, 46 ; parish, pre- 

Roman camps in, 38, 39 ; old, 

camp of, 39 ; hut circles, 43 
.Rotherforthe, Barbara, of Birtley, 

widow, 213 

Rotherham grammar school, 2O3n 
Roundabout earthwork camp, 52 
Rous, William, 6 ; witness to a grant, 

;Routh church, Yorkshire, effigies in, 

Routh, Sir John, and lady Agnes, 

effigies of, 230 

Rowell, R. Stanley, death of, 163 
Ruabon, Denbighshire, St. Mary's 

church, effigies in, 230 
Rudchester burn, Roman fort and 

milecastle, 48 
Rudd, Anthony George, death of, 4 ; 

John, 84 
Runic inscription found at Holy 

Island, 53 
"* Russell's cairn ' on Windy Gyle, 

where lord Russell was slain, 45 
Russell, lord, slain by Scots, 45 
Rutherford, arms of, 120 ; (see also 


Ruthwell.and Bewcastle crosses, 66 
Rutt, John Towell, party to a deed, 36 
Rutters, Conyers, presented to Elsdon 

rectory, 203 

Ryal, land at. for sale, 104 
Ryan, Mrs., appointed caretaker, etc. 

of Blackgate, 233 
Ryhope, houses, etc. at, to be sold, 

Rysley, George, of Newcastle, cor- 

diner, a juryman, 22 
Ryther, Sir William, and Sybil his 

wife, effigies of, 230 

Sabram, Nicholas, M.P. for Newcastle, 
shield of arms of, in St. Nicholas's 
church, no 

Saddlers Company, Newcastle, docu- 
ments of, deposited, 3 

Safety lamp, the centenary of the, 87 ; 
Sir Humphrey Davy's description 
of his, 91 ; long controversy as to 
inventor, 93 ; Davy's, tried in 
Hebburn colliery, 92 

Saint, T., a printer of ballads, 238 

St. Barbara, St. George and, legends 
on armour of, 145 

St. Eloy, Peter, 83 

St. George and St. Barbara, legends 
of, on armour, 145 

St. Helen's Auckland, rent roll of, 
167 ; steward of, 167 ; owners of, 

Salisbury, Osmund, bishop of, 105 ; 
cathedral, effigies in, 224 

Salkeld, Rev. Mr., deceased, estate 
of, to be sold, 171 ; Sir Richard, 
effigy of, 224 

Salmon fishery on Tyne for sale, 232 

Salmon, Thomas, and wife, effigies of, 

Salt making, 81 ; permit for, 81 ; 
shipped from Seaton Sluice, 73 

Samson [Sampson], Richard, lands . 
of, at Pelaw, 232 ; of Urpeth, yeo- 
man, lands of, 260 

Sanderson, Thomas, of Hanover 
Square, Newcastle, 16 

Sandhoe, Roman inscription found 
at, 240 ; Kells Leazoes, claim of 
houses, etc. at, 32 

San Pietro, castle of, built by knights 
of St. John, 237 

' Satan's throne ' at Pergamum, 237 

Satley, Rev. John Hodgson, curate 
of, 251 

Saughy Rigg pool, water from, con- 
veyed to Aesica, 51 

Savage, Sir John, effigy of, 207 

Sawbridgeworth church, Herts., brass 
in, 136 ; effigy at, 224 

Saxon pillow stone from Holy Island, 


Scargill, William de, witness to a 
grant, 87 

Scharfrennen, 142 

Sclater, James, death of, 4 

Scotland, inscribed Roman skillets of 
bronze found in, n 

Scots, great losses by incursions of, 
1 80 ; took Newcastle, 121 ; expe- 
dition against the, 116 ; Newcastle 
attacked by the, 117; slew lord 
Russell at Windy Gyle, 45 

Scottish : naval commander, Andrew 
Barton, 217 ; prisoners confined in 
Newcastle Trinity house, 121 

Scott, David, 100 ; Joseph, 100 ; 
Mary Bethiah, 82 

Scrogges, Alice, of Middleton-one- 
row, widow, will of, 29 



Sculthorp, John de, rector of Misson, 
Notts., 216 and n 

Scurfield, Sarah, wife of Ralph, of 
Eachwick, 189 

Seaham church, discoveries in chancel 
of, 34, 223 

Seaton burn, a timber bridge made 
across, 77 

Seaton Delaval, opening of private 
theatre at, 210 ; ' hospitable tra- 
ditions of/ 80 ; mausoleum at, 168; 
Sluice, harbour of, coals and salt 
shipped from, 73 

Sedgefield, Denis Granville, rector, 

Sedgwick, John, of Dryburnside, 
demise of lands of, 231 

Segedunum, see Wallsend 

Seigreichen, Friedrich der, pfalz- 
grafen am Rhin, armour made for, 

Selby, Yorkshire, male effigy at, 230 

Selby, Mr., of Am wick, 104 ; George, 
of Hunting hall, 104 ; cap. Thomas, 
of Biddleston, 99 ; Walter Charles, 
of Biddleston, isolated burial of, 
in his own park, 168 

Settlingstones, Warden parish, for 
sale, 104 

Seiisenhofers, of Innsbruck, armour- 
ers, 137; Jorg, 144; Konrad, 
armour made by, 139, 145 

Seward, Ann, of Kensington, 83 ; 
marriage settlement of, 82 

Sewingshields, East, Roman mile- 
castle, 50 ; earthworks near, 50 ; 
crag, milecastle, 50 

Sbaftesbury, Anthony, earl of, 258 ; 
an infant, 258 

Shaftoe, East, see East Shaftoe 

Shanks, R., present of Roman in- 
scriptions, etc. to society, 238 

Sharp, Sir Cuthbert, elected, 240 

Shaw, Henry, witness to a deed, 258 

Sheill, Matthew, of Newcastle, cor- 
diner, a juryman, 22 

Shene church, Surrey, effigy in Oak- 
wood chapel at, 230 

Sherburn, hospital, Thomas Dampier, 
master of, 187 ; in Elmet, bequest 
to altar in church of, 22 4n 

Sherraton grange, co. Durham, free- 
hold estate at, for sale, 104 

Shield-on-the-Wall, Roman mile- 
castle, 50 

Shields, South, a history of, 176 ; iso- 
lated burial in garden at, 179 ; a 
bottlehouse at, 209 ; coins, Roman, 
and others, found on beach at, 6, 
33, 213 (see also South Shields) 

Shilbottle, Rev. John Skelly, vicar 
of, 168 ; the moor farm at, for 
sale, 104 

Ships : H.M. Excellent, 221 ; and 
Mars, 183 

Shoe-buckle of steel from Weardale, 

Shotley bridge, a hunting knife made 
at, 176, 192 ; engravings on blade, 
177 ; Oleys, swordmakers at, 178 ; 
a knife made by, 185 ; works at, 
closed, 178 

Shottingley, 170 

Shotton, Kirknewton parish, tenants' 
of, 1 8 ; tithes of township of, to be 
sold, 171 ; Edge, tenant of, 18 

Shrewsbury, earl of, inventory of 
effects of, 144 

Sibbet, Adam, of Shoreswood, 216 j 
Edward, of Ancroft Greens, 216 

Siddons, Mrs., 55n 

Signals to be used in 1804 in case of 
invasion, 15 

Silvertop, William, of Bridge house 
farm, Plessey, 18 

Simonburn, George Lawes, rector of r 

Simonside beacon, a massive cairn 
on, 45 ; struck by lightning, 45 ; 
hill, ancient entrenchments, etc. 
on, 44, 46 

Simpson, Mr., in Morpeth gaol, 67, 
69 ; steward of Radcliffe manor 
courts in Cumberland, 6, 29 ; Frank 
158 ; F. Gerald, discovery of tem- 
porary camps on the Roman Wall 
by, 125 ; on Roman temporary 
camps discovered by him, 196 et 
seq. ; and another, Roman monu- 
ments, etc. in Northumberland, 
47 ; George, 170 

Singleton, Humfrey, 170 

Sisterson, Roger, of Nafferton farm, 


Sistrum, the, 58 

Skellet, Richard, n 

Skelly, James, of Alnwick, 100 ; Rev. 
John, vicar of Shilbottle, etc., 168 ; 
wife, lady Betty Gordon, and daugh- 
ter of, 1 68 

Skillets found in Upper Weardale, 9 ; 
and at Castle Howard in Yorkshire,, 

Skippon, General, house of, at Acton, 

Skirted armour, 139 ; of Italian 

- origin, 139 

Skypton, Richard de, a York clerk, 
notarial mark of, 57 

Skyrlagh, Walter de, a York clerk, 
notarial mark of, 57 

Slaley, minister of, 182 

Smart, James, of Alnwick, 100 ; John, 
of Trewhitt hall, 37 

Smith, [Smyth, Smythe, Smythes], 
Charles Roach, letters to and from, 
238, 257 ; Cuthbert, 213 ; sergeant 
John, of Low Haughhead, 100 j 
Leonard, witness to a deed, 228 
Robert, 67 ; Robert, witness to a 



deed, 257 ; of Newcastle, cordiner, 
a juryman, 22 ; Thomas, mayor of 
Newcastle, 17 ; witness to a deed, 
213 ; W., witness to a deed, 232 ; 
William, of Newcastle, butcher, 
216 ; Sir William, and his two 
wives, effigies of, 207 

Smitheton, de, witness to a grant, 87 

Snape, John, vicar of Stannington, 
etc., 181 

Snelling, widow, 160 

Sneyd of Biston, Staffordshire, 13 

Snou, Richard, notarial mark of, 56 

Snoweshull, Richard de, a Worcester 
clerk, notarial mark of, 57 

Society, the origin of the, 197 ; first 
meeting, 198 ; oldest members of 
the, 201 

Sockburn falchion, the, 240 

' Soldiers ' fauld ' camp, 37 

Somerset, duke of, effigy of, 206 

Somerset house, designed by Sir W. 
Chambers, 150 ; masks on, 150 ; 
societies which met in, 150 ; old, 
demolition of, 150 

Somerville, Robert de, buried at 
Burton Agnes, 180; commemorated 
at Newminster as a benefactor, 
1 80 ; Roger de, licence to, to grant 
Stannington advowson, 180 

Sorsbie, Robert, alderman of New- 
castle, 231 

Souldier's Accidence, 147 

' Soulsby shield,' a craggy hill near 
Rothbury, 43 

Southampton St. Nicholas, effigy at, 

South Charlton, prehistoric burials at, 

South Gosforth, see Gosforth, South 

South Kelsey church, Lincolnshire, 
brass in, 135 

South Sea Stock, etc., 71 ; settlement 
of, 82 ; rise and fall of, 70 

Southwark church, effigy in, 207 

Sowerby, Lawrence, of Fishburn, 
189 ; Ralph, alderman, sheriff and 
mayor of Newcastle, monumental 
inscription of, 189 

Sparke, George, witness to a deed, 232 

Spearman, George, son of Gilbert, 13 ; 
Gilbert, of Thornley hall, 13 ; John, 
of Durham, lease to, 258 ; of News- 
ham, 19 ; G., witness to a deed, 257 

Special constable's staff, presented, 
a, 66 

Spence, Nicholas, witness to a grant, 

Spencer, Penelope, lady, effigy of, 223 

Speyer, Peter von, of Annaberg, 
armour made by, 143 ; 

Spindleston, 64 ; tenant of, 127 

Spindle whorls, 238 

Spital hill near Tosson, burial mounds 

on, 47 ; a cist on, 41 ; excavated, 
41 ; ancient trenches on, 44 

Spittle, estate of, to be sold, 172 

' Split the deil,' a standing stone so 
named, 42 

Spro, William, witness to a grant, 87 

Spratton church, Northants, effigy in, 

Spy law beacon, Rothbury, ancient 
trenches on, 44 ; cairns on, 46 

SS, the collar of, 204, 223, 229 ; ; sup- 
posed origin, 9, 205 ; list of effigies 
with, 205, 206 ; bequest of, 224n 
and 23on ; Mr. Hartshorne and 
Mr. R. B. Hepple on, 224 (see also 
1 Esses ') 

Staff, a special constable's, presented, 

Stafford, Edmund, effigy of, 201 ; Sir 
Humphrey, effigy of, 206 

Stage, northern, note on the, 93 

Stagshaw bank fairs, 72 ; never worse 
fairs, 72 ; Common, earthwork 
camp on, 52 

Staindrop church, effigies in, 207 

Staines, Thomas, of Sockburn, will 
of, 29 

Stanegate, Roman milestones by side 
of the, 51 ; temporary camps near 
the, 126 

Stanhope, prehistoric stone imple- 
ments found near, 178, 195, 196 ; 
grant of farmhold known as Stew- 
art Shields meadows in parish of, 

Stanley plantation, Roman milecastle 

Stannington appropriated to New- 
minster, 1 80 ; devise of purparty 
of rectory of, 188 ; rectors and 
vicars of, 179 et seq. 

Stanton Harcourt church, Oxon., 
effigy in, 207 

Stanton, Richard de, a York clerk, 
notarial mark of, 57 

1 Stanwix, Roman station of,' 240 

Stanys, William, witness to a grant, 

Staunton, Sir Robert, brass of, 136 

Stead, Benjamin, mansion house, etc. 
belonging to, for sale, 104 

Steadman, Reginald, of Warcop, 
Westmorland, 228 

Steavenson, Dr., owner of a house in 
Hanover Square, Newcastle, 12 

Steele, Elizabeth, daughterof Thomas, 
of Chichester, 225 ; Isaac, of Bran- 
keston hill, 100 

Steell, 69 

Steelrig Roman Wall turret, 50 

Steinghen, madame, 102 

Stephen, rector of Stannington, wit- 
, ness to charter, 180 ; party to a 
suit, 1 80 


Stephens, Rev. Thomas, Radcliffe 
papers belonging to, 6, 14, 23, 29, 
63, 67, 82, 94, ioo, 124, 127 et seq., 
157 ; on Roman altar found in, 
Redesdale, 28 (see also Stevens) 

Stephenson, David, built All Saints 
church, Newcastle, 119; George, 
and his safety lamp, 93 ; (see also 

' Sterling castle ' on Seaton burn, 
80 and n 

Stevens, Henry, 83 (see also Stephens) 

Stevenson, Jacob, of Evenwood, 
administration to goods of, 29 (see 
also Stephenson) 

Steward, Sarah, widow of James, of 
North Shields, 190 

Stidley hill, 69 

Stockton, country meeting at, 2 ; 
Rev. John Skelly, vicar of, 168 

Stoke d' Abernon church, brass in, 131 

Stoney, Mr., Samuel Newton and, 
dispute between, 171 

Stonor, Mr., eldest daughter of, to 
be married, 95 

Story, Thomas, of Sleekburn New 
Key, cornfactor, meeting of credi- 
tors of, 104 

Strangeways, W. N., death of, 4; 
Mrs. W. N., books, etc. presented 
by, 5 

Stretford, Sir Robert de, chaplain, 
grant to, 87 

Strivelyn, Jacoba, wife of John de, 
kt., 214 

Strutt, Richard, of London, glass 
cutter, party to a deed, 36 

Suffolk, James, earl of, 203n 

Sunderland, burial in Quakers' burial 
ground at. 28 ; isolated burial at ; 
179 ; lands at Blue house to be 
sold, 171 ; near Stanhope, transfer 
of house at, 84 

Sunderland, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Langdale, collector of custom?, 
Newcastle, 225 

Sundial, inscribed, on Newcastle 
castle top, 118 

Sunnyri gg farm, discovery of Roman 
temporary camp near, 126 

Surtees, Mr., of Newbiggin near Hex- 
ham, 216 ; Ann, wife of Robert, 
of Crony well, 221 ; bequests to, 
221 ; ' Bessy,' house of, on Sand- 
hill, Newcastle, 132 ; Elizabeth, 
252 ; daughter of Robert, marriage 
of, 221 ; William, Ralph Fether- 
stonhaugh v., claim of cottages, 
etc., 32 

Sutherland, A. M., panelled room on 
Quayside, belonging to, 122 

Sutton, Mr., 70 

Swale, Mr., of 5 Lincolns Inn, London, 

Swarkeston church, Derbyshire, effigy 
in, 230 

Swarland, private burial at, 167 

Swinburne, the tailor, of Dilston, 30; 
lady, 69; Henry, of Hamsterley r 
210 ; John, of Coxhow, estate of, 
to be sold, 171 ; John de, petition of, 
relating to Wark manor in Tyne- 
dale, 8 ; Sir John, 55, 56 ; seventh 
baronet, death of, 3 ; buried in 
grounds at Capheaton, 168 ; ' old 
Sir John,' steward to, 23 (see also 

Swine church in Holderness, altar 
tombs in Hilton chantry, 204 ; 
effigies in, 207, 230 

Swinford, Sir John de, tomb of, 205 ; 
earliest representation of collar of 
SS on effigy of, i35n, 207 

Swynborne, Sir Thomas, effigy of, 224 

Symphony, the, 61 

Tabus, -John, kt., 170 

Tagg, Peter, witness to a grant, 87 

Talavera medal, sale of a, 225 

Talbot, Sir John, lord of Grafton,. 
effigy of, 206 

Tarleton, Cap. John CoJlingwood, of 
Collingwood house, 99 

Tattershall, Lincolnshire, 20411 

Taylor, Arthur E., elected, 233 ; 
Jeremy, Holy Living, 211 John, 
of Wooler, ioo 

Teasdale, John, vicar of Stannington, 
182 (see also Tesdall) 

Tees valley, Rev. J. F. Hodgson on 
relics in the, 126 

Telford, Mrs., resigned her custodian- 
ship of Blackgate, 233 

Temperley, Nicholas, on tree-plant- 
ing, 222 

Tempest, John, ar', 67 ; Nicholas,, 
witness to a deed, 213 ; Sir Rich- 
ard, supposed effigy of, 230 

Temple church, London, effigies in 
the, 131 

Ternant, de, and Galiot de Balthasin, 
seigneurs, combat d entrance be- 
tween, 140 

Tesdall, Geof,"rey de, grant by, 87 ;: 
Hugh de, 216 

Teynham, effigy at, 224 

Thanet St. Lawrence, effigy at, 224 

Theddlethorpe church, Lincolnshire, 
brass in, 135 

Thirlmoor, cairns on, 45 

Thompson, Francis, of London, coal 
factor, a bankrupt, estate of, to be 
sold, 171 ; notice to persons in- 
debted to, 171 ; John, vicar of 
Stannington, etc., 182 ; Matthew, 
of Dilston, a Radcliffe tenant, 68 



Thompson's Walls, Kirknewton par- 
ish, sale of, 103 

Thorabye, Christopher, vicar of 
Stannington, 181 ; deposition of, 

Thqresby, John de, archbishop of 
York, 57 

Thorleshope, Castleton in Liddesdale, 
stock farm at, for sale, 104 

Thornbrough, hedge at, 72 

Thornham-hill, Stamfordham parish, 
to be sold, 171 

Thornton, arms of, 120 ; Mr., tenant 
of, 71 ; Roger, portions of All 
Saints church, Newcastle, built by, 
119 ; brass of, and wife Agnes, 119 ; 
inscription on, 120 ; arms on, 121 ; 
J. G. Waller's description, i2on ; 
inserted windows in St. Nicholas's 
church, Newcastle, no, in 

Thorold, Mr., 101 

Thorp, Sir Edward, effigy of, 223 ; 
Elizabeth Jane, wife of Thomas, of 
Alnwick, 190 ; [Thorpe], William, 
vicar of Ellingham, exchanged for 
Stannington, 180 

Threlkeld, Lancelot, Margaret, daugh- 
ter of, i66n 

Throckley, Roman milecastle, 48 

Thurlaston church, Leicestershire, 
effigies in, 230 

Thurlow, lord chancellor, documents 
signed by, 217 

Thurswall, Ann, of Hexham, will of, 

Thwaites, John, sen. and jun., wit- 
nesses to a deed, 228 

Tibiae Pares, the, 60 

Titian made designs for enriched 
armour, 145 

Tittory, Benjamin, son of John, of 
Glasshouses, glass maker, and Mary 
his wife, buried in garden, 179 

lizack, Abagail, daughter of John, 
of Glasshouses, glass maker, and 
Sarah, his wife, burial of, 179 ; 
tombstone of, 179 ; Peregrin, son 
of Peregrin, of Glasshouses, and 
Debora, his wife, buried, 179 

Tobhall, Christopher, and lands, etc. 
in Cockfield, 87 

Todd, [Todde], Richard, of Briscoe, 
grant by, 86 ; seal of, 86n ; Robert, 
sued, n 

Toller, Hugh, witness to a grant, 86 

Tomlinson, W. W., his Rise and De- 
velopment of the North Eastern Rail- 
way Company, published, 3 ; pres- 
sent of, 4 ; death of, 241 ; letter 
of condolence to his widow, 241 ; 
an obituary notice of, 24in 

Tong church, Salop, effigies in, 207 

Tooke, Ja:, 260 

Topf, Jacob, of Innsbruck, armourer, 

Tosson burgh camp, Rothbury, 43 ; 
hollow ways near, 43 

Totherick, Ralph, butcher, of New- 
castle, a juryman, 22 

Touchet, Sir Roger, effigy of, 223 

Tourhament, the, 140 ; an account 
of the, by R. C. Clephan, 98, 129 ; 
introduced into England from 
France, 140 ; tourney, forms of the, 
142, 143 

Tower Tye, Roman milecastle at, 49 ; 
earthwork, near, 49 

Trafalgar, medal struck on centenary 
of, presented, 66 

Trajan, denarii of, found on South 
Shields beach, 34 

Treasurer's report and balance sheet 
summary of, for 1915, 4 ; for 1916, 

Trewhitt, Christopher, of West Bol- 
don, burials in his orchard, 179 

Trier, Roman, 53 

Trigono, Greek, 60 

Tronage, 248n 

Trotter, Mary, of Escombe, widow, 
will of, 29 ; William, and his wife, 
bequests to Escombe poor, 244 

Trotton church, Sussex, effigies in, 
207, 230 

Troughend, earthwork camp, 52 

Trout, Miss A. M., elected, 9 

Trumpington church, brass in, 131 

Trumpington, Sir Roger de, brass of, 

Tuck, Mr., 31 

Tudor, lady Mary, going to be mar- 
ried, 24 ; William, F.R.C.S. Eng., 
etc., monumental inscription of, 
189 ; arms and crest of, 189 ; wife 
Dorothy, monumental inscription 
of, 189 ; daughters of, 190 

Tughale, Robert de, 211 

Tunstal, Cuthbert, bishop of Durham, 
181 ; document endorsed by, 213 ; 
Ralph, of Darlington, 104 

Turnbull, John, of Wooler, 100 

Turner, Theophila, daughter of Char- 
les, of Kirkleatham, 211 

Turrets on Roman Wall, 49-51 

Turvey church, Beds., effigies in, 270 

Tweedmouth, Alayn, ' Milner' of, 211 

Twisle, Robert, Meldon let to, 7 ; 
steward to ' old Sir John Swin- 
burne,' 23 

Twizell, Chester-le-Street parish, 
moiety of manor of, etc. to be 
sold, 172 ; coal mines near, 171 

Tyldeslegh, Christopher, a London 
goldsmith, and collar of Esses, 22411 

Tyndell, John, witness to a grant, 86 

Tyne, piles of Roman bridge across, 
at Newcastle, 201 ; ' great floods ' 
on the, 68, 71 ; salmon fishery on, 
for sale, 232 ; William Boyd on the 
river- god. 150 ; glass house on, 36 ; 



bridge, lease of house on, 258 ; 

north, Roman bridge over, 49 
Tyne Mercury, the founder of the, 168 
Tynemouth, action at, on threatened 

invasion during Napoleonic wars, 

14 ; R. C. Clephan's collection of 

armour at, 147 
Tyzack, Peregrine, glass maker, 209 

(see also Tizack) 


United States, protest to, against 

German destruction, 2 
Unthank, near Berwick, estate of, to 

be sold, 171 

Upton, Northants, effigies at, 224 
Usworth, modus in lieu of tithes, in, 

Uttchester, 64 ; tenant of, 127 (see 

also Outchester) 

Vanburgh, Sir John, appeal of, to 
save Woodstock manor house, 2 

Van Haansbergen, W. B., Woodlands 
owned by, 222 

Vaughan, Shafto, estate of, for sale, 

Vaux, Gilbert de, a juror, 214 ; Sir 
Nicholas, and collar of ' esses,' 2 son 

Vazie, Robert, of Hexham, 104, 216 
(see also Wasey) 

Vere, Sir Henry, effigy of, 224 

Vernon, Sir Henry, and wife Anne, 
Sir Richard, and wife Benedicta, 
and wife Margaret, effigies of, 207 

Ververs, Joseph, at Brussels, 96 

Vesta Tannenberg, a robber fortress 
in Hesse, 132, 133 

Victory, newly discovered Roman 
altar to, 28 

Victory, medal struck from copper 
from the, 66 

Vienna, body-armour at, 129 

Vinci, Leonardo da, made designs for 
enriched armour, 145 

Vindobala, see Rudchester 

Vindolande, name of Chesterholm on 
Roman altar, 28 (see also Chester- 

Viner, Samuel, son of William, of 
Gloucester, vicar of Stannington, 
etc., 182 ; death and burial of, 183 

Violin, the, 62 

Vipont, Robert, of Newcastle, 231 

Von Worms, of Nuremberg, arm- 
ourers, 137 

Votive hands, 169 

Vulcan, Roman altar to, discovered, 


Wade's road, portions of Roman Wall 

under, 48 
Wadworth church, Yorkshire, effigies 

in, 230 

Wailes, Thomas, of Tynemouth, be- 
quest by, 181 
Wakefield, Alexander, land at Pelaw, 

Wakinshaw, John, of Stockton, linen 

draper, bankruptcy decree, 84 
Walbottle dene Roman milecastle, 48 
Walcot church, local epitaphs in, 225 
Walker Roman milecastle, 47 
Walker, Michael, witness to a deed, 

86 ; Robert, witness to livery of 

seisin, 86 ; William, witness to a 

grant, 86 ; of Leeds, 104 
Wallace collection, armour in the, 

130, 138, 144, 145 
Wallas, Richard, of Lowbyer, Alston 

moor, 6 

Wall fell Roman milecastle, 49 
Wall houses, a farm at, to be sold, 

172 ; East, Roman milecastle, 48 
Wallsend, a history of, 176 ; Roman 

fort at, 47 ; pit, steel-mills at, 78 
Walltown Roman milecastle, 51 ; 

turret, 51 
Walton, Rev. J. M., abstracts of old 

deeds belonging to, 85 ; Thomas, 

witness, to a deed, 260 
Walwick, Roman milecastle, 49 ; 

Chesters, inscriptions found at, 

240 ; fell, Roman earthworks on, 

49 ; grange, lease of, 70 
Walworth, Low, mansion house of, 

for sale, 172 
Wandesford, of Kirklington, 167 ; 

R., 260 
Wanton, arms of, 121 ; Agnes, wife 

of Roger Thornton, brass of, 121 
War, jousts of, 140 ; the great, i, 

161 ; projected meeting at Emble- 

ton, e